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Ecologist Handbook


Millions of species of living creatures live on Earth, and they all have some connection between them. Some species of animals are eaten by others and are themselves food for stronger representatives of the fauna. But there is another relationship - a symbiosis, examples of which are found everywhere. Translated from the Greek, this term means "to live together." Surprisingly, some plants are inclined to the "cooperation" of this kind.

One type of symbiosis is mutualism, which means "reciprocity." With this type of cohabitation, both participants are vital to each other.

An example of coexistence is also parasitism, with one representative doing harm to another, thus surviving.

Symbiosis, examples

Let's start with ourselves - people. It would seem that bacteria are the enemies of man, but without some of their species, we cannot live and exist normally. In our intestines live bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which by their numbers displace disease-causing organisms that fall from the outside. And they feed on the contents of the digestive tract, and this is how mutual cooperation turns out.

There are animals that are "friends" for a long time. Thus, in Africa, birds trail fly from back to back large animals (buffaloes, giraffes, rhinos), there they find and eat ticks and other insects sticking to the giants, thus clearing them of parasites and getting a lot of food for themselves.

There are also species in the sea world that help each other out. For example, a goby fish, having caught sight of a major enemy, is hiding in a burrow dug by clickfish. But the arthropods are only happy about this, since the escape of the fish serves as a signal that they also need to hide (the cancer itself does not see well). When the hippopotamus is in the water, the “black labo” fish clears it of algae and parasites, and not only the skin, but also the teeth and even the gums.

Sinegale avdotka (bird) was able to forge a friendship with a crocodile! She breeds a nest and lays eggs near the place with alligator eggs. In case of danger, the bird calls the giant with its cry, and the bird immediately rushes to protect its masonry and avdotka nest.

There is also a vegetable symbiosis, examples of which are mushrooms with trees, as well as insects with flowering plants. Aspen mushrooms, boletins receive nutrients from trees, giving in return minerals and water. And birds, feeding on the nectar of flowers, carry pollen on their beaks and thus help the plants to multiply.

Mutualism, examples

Flagellated protozoa live in the intestines of termites, which digest cellulose into sugar. Termites have no enzymes for this function, and without their partners, they can die of starvation. And flagellates in the intestines live and multiply in favorable conditions for themselves.

Examples of parasitism

But in nature there are organisms that live at the expense of others, they cannot do otherwise. Eating and releasing toxins, the parasite gradually poisons the host. Some opportunists settle in someone for a while, and some live so permanently. Parasites are gradually degrading, they are no longer able to digest food, see, hear, but they have hooks and suckers. In such species, the breeding function is increased (millions of individuals), this is due to the high mortality of the offspring.

Worms are a large class of parasites. Mostly they live in the intestines of humans or animals. Also, these creatures are able to infect the liver, bladder, brain and muscles. Nutrients, vitamins and microelements that come from food are absorbed by worms, while the human body “steals off”, is depleted and constantly suffers from toxins.

Parasites can live outside, for example, fleas and ticks. They are also considered unstable pests, i.e. they are on the host for a short time, feeding on blood through the skin.

An amazing form of existence is a symbiosis, examples of which can be seen by looking closely at the world around us. And you can start with yourself.

Examples of symbiosis

2. A variety of small animal species are sheltered in the hollows of the sea cucumber holothurians. 3. Plants - epiphytes (from the Greek. "Epi" - on, above, "fitom" - plant) settle on trees. For example, algae, lichens, mosses, and orchids settle in the trees - they feed on the photosynthesis and the host’s dying tissues, but not on their juices. 4. the settlement of green algae in the grooves of the sloth's hair, which thus disguises itself as a green background.

5. distribution of seeds in plants (fruits and burdock seeds on dog fur) 6. freshwater fish, the bitter fish deposits eggs in the mantle cavity of the toothless (bivalve mollusk) 7. among the tentacles of the jellyfish cyanide and hornfish fry hide 8.

fish-stuck on the shark 9. draguli (birds) on the body of buffaloes

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Biology grade 9

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"Carbohydrates Grade 9" - Starch. Like fats, starch in the body undergoes hydrolysis.

Fructose also determines the medicinal properties of honey. Under the action of special enzymes lactose is fermented. Fructose (s6n12o6). Lactose (s12n22-11). STARCH (с5н10о5) n. Cellulose. Blood contains approximately 0.1% glucose. Glucose.

"Visual defects" - Observation of changes in pupil diameter and accommodation. TO CONDUCT EXERCISE FOR EYE WORKOUT. Defects of view. Author: Semenova Lyubov Grade 9 MOU Secondary School in the village of Big Bora. The eye is the organ of vision of animals and humans.

A beam of rays converges behind the retina. study of the available literature on the subject “Eye and Sight. Useful recommendations. The change with age of the optical power of the eye. Do not sit for a long time at the computer. Purpose of the study. Study the quality of vision.

"Core Biology" - Animals. Diploid set - 46 chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14. And energy. Nuclear shell Chromosomes. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46.

Outer membrane Haploid set. Cannonball. Regulates. The core of the sun. Karyotype (Deprived of the core). BACTERIA (ancient unicellular creatures). Chromosome functions. The role of the nucleus in the cell. Fission (formation of new cells).

What is a flat? And give examples

Nut kernel. Transfer of information from the parent cell to the child. Core. Diploid set of chromosomes.

“Biotic Ties” - Types of biotic bonds 300 (answer). Predatory and parasitic 100 (answer). Explain the examples given. Predatory and parasitic 300 (answer). Win-win relationship 100 (answer). What is the biotic relationship between hermit crab and actinia called? Mutually beneficial relationship 100. "Own game" in biology for students in grade 9. Predatory and parasitic 200 (answer).

Competition. Types of biotic bonds 200. Do not contain chlorophyll and develop plant suckers -.

"Subject Cage" - test "Squirrels".

Activity 4: Cell Organic Substances Lecture. Session 1: History of cell studies. Introduction Session 10: Self Control. Training Lesson plan. Remote course. Session 8: Energy Exchange.

Additional material. Nucleic acids. Lesson 6: Prokaryotic cell. Sources Protein biosynthesis.

"Home first aid kit" - Solid - powders, granules, tablets, pills, pills. From time to time look through your home first aid kit. Drops and pills should not have cracks, scratches, stains, crumble. So why do we need a first-aid kit? The next big block is cold and flu.

Means wound healing, antiseptic: A separate unit - episodic symptomatic medications. Tips. Are necessary medications always available?

A total of 77 presentations in the theme “Biology 9 class”

5klass.net>Biology grade 9>Relationship between organisms> Slide 10

Drug-eating is the consumption of the host’s food debris (lions and hyenas, sharks and fish sticking).

Poljelnik - a pale yellow flower feeds on plant residues, but does not decompose itself, but uses mushrooms.

It receives nutrients from thin fungal filaments, and the fungus receives nourishment from the roots of forest trees.

Animal symbiosis

Those. mushrooms are parasites, and the porch is a parasite.

Ceremony - the consumption of different parts of the same resource. For example, zebras eat the upper most succulent parts of the grass in the savannah, antelope eat lower parts rich in proteins and fiber. Elephants eat the toughest, lowest parts.

Bacteria saproftiy decompose plant residues, and higher plants consume salt during decomposition.

Housing - the use of some species of the body or the dwelling of others.

For example, lichens and mosses occur in trees. Insects live in bird nests, fish hide under jellyfish umbrellas. The gorchak fish lays caviar in the mantle of a double-clam mollusk, without harming it.

Amenalism (- 0) for one of the common species, the influence of the other is negative (it is oppressed, while the oppressor receives neither harm nor good). Light-loving grasses growing under the spruce tree suffer from shading, and they ate the most indifferently.

Neutralism(00) if two populations do not affect each other.

This is very rare in nature, because relationships are possible between species, the effect of which we do not see due to incomplete knowledge (elk and protein).

Relationships of animals living in a particular environment are characterized by direct, direct, or indirect interaction. The cohabitation of organisms of different species is called symbiosis.

The form of symbiosis in its essence has a very different biological significance for cohabiting animals: cohabitation of a hostile character, mutual cohabitation with mutual benefit - mutualism (from lat.

tnuiuus - mutual), compassion (sharing feed) - commensalism (from lat. com- together mensa- meal). But commensalism also refers to those cases in which the visible benefit is not gained by both organisms, but by one of them when staying on or near the other organism.

The latter suggests that certain circumstances (first of all, the lack of food for a smaller and weak commensal-parasitist) can cause a change in the nature of cohabitation with the transition of commensalism into temporary or permanent parasitism.

Countless variety of shades in the forms of symbiosis makes it difficult to clearly delineate the boundaries of each of them.

This also applies to the definition of the concept of parasitism (Greek parusiios-parasite).

Examples and descriptions of symbiosis in wildlife

A sign of harm gives a particularly clear idea of ​​parasitic cohabitation. Unlike a predator, the parasite, feeding at the expense of another - the host, as a rule, does not kill it. However, undermining health can contribute to his death. The parasite, with few exceptions, is smaller than the host and, in its organization, has in comparison with free-living relatives the pronounced features of regressive metamorphosis - simplifications in structure, especially noticeable in the nervous system, organs of movement.

In the process of evolution, along with the transition to parasitism, new acquisitions of adaptive significance also appear.

In the fauna of our planet, animals leading a parasitic way of life, described more than 80 thousand, half of which are hymenoptera — horsemen, nematodes and flatworms are second in number, and third are irotozoa.

In the mud of chord parasites are rare. Parasites have a great influence on the existence of free-fighters, sometimes causing epizootics.

These or other types of parasites are localized in all organ systems of animals, prevailing in the digestive organs.

So, in the stomach and intestines live: a number of flagellated species, ciliates, several dozen species of amoebae, among them dysenteric amoeba, sporozoids (coccidia), microsporidia (nozems), from flatworms - a series of trematodes, chains, wide tapeworms, and from nematodes ascarids , pinworms, trichina (in the period of growth to water transport), from insects — faces of a gastric gadfly, coccidia in the liver, fasciolae, lanceolate roach, Finnish echinococcus, etc., in the circulatory system - malarial plasmodiums, pyroplasms, trypanosomes, migrant lymphocytes, migrant lymphocytes, pyroplasms, migrant pyramids, pyroplasms, trypanosomes, migrants, pyroplasms, etc. Trichinell et al ort nematodes, in muscles - sporozoans, trichinas larvae, Finns chains, etc., in the tendons of nematodes Ophthorus (in horses and cattle); ., in the respiratory organs - fiche!

Echinococcus, migrating through the light larvae of a number of nematodes (ascarid, etc.), adult nematodes, in the kidneys - a very long nematode (up to a meter), dioctophyma, flagellates in the reproductive system, trematodes, etc., in the brain - Finns ovine marrow, in organs feelings - trematodes (in the lens of the eye of fish), nematode Singamus (in the middle ear of cats), gadfly larvae (in the nasal cavity).

And in plants, animal parasites (in most nematodes) are also localized in all organ systems, dominating in the root system.

The circumstances of the life of ecto - and endoparasites in different parts of the host organism in animals and plants of different systematic categories, of different ages, living in different geographic latitudes, are extremely peculiar, and adaptations in morphology and life messages in parasites are just as different.

The host organism for the parasite is the living environment. The external environment is perceived by the parasite, sometimes very subtly, through changes in the internal environment of the host organism, which is confirmed experimentally. So, for example, a person's change, a carrier of a bovine tapeworm, and a work schedule during the day or at night is reflected in the exit from the intestines of mature proglottids. When awake during the day, they go out in the evening, and with the transition to night work in the morning. Ectoparasites also show a similar sensitivity to the state of the host organism.

The monogenetic trematode polivka develops on the gills of a frog tadpole simultaneously with the maturation of the host. Together with the metamorphosis of the tadpole, the parasite also matures, then going into the frog bladder.

The artificial delay in the development of a tadpole causes a delay in the development of the larvae of the polydust.

The ability of survival in parasites is not the same in different habitats.

Some are adapted to life in a particular organ of a narrow circle of hosts, others can parasitize in a certain organ, but in many animal species, such as, for example, hepatic fasciola or trichinella.

There are among the parasites and able to exist in various organs of the host. Thus, larvae of the wide tapeworm plerocercoids are found in pikes in muscles, in the wall of the stomach, intestines, in the kidneys, spleen, in the abdominal cavity (Gnezdilov).

Parasites like free-living organisms, dwelling in the same environment, show different adaptive features in the structure, reflecting the uneven nature of food, methods of obtaining and processing food, respiration, etc.

For example, parasitic cestodes in the host intestine feed osmotically and lack intestines. Their body is flat (large suction surface). Nematodes parasitizing in the intestinal tract have intestines.

Their body is rounded. In some parasites, the mouth is armed with dentary appendages, in others, it is sucking, and in the third, the esophagus performs the function of sucking. The phyto-nematodes have their own characteristics and diversity in adaptations while living in the host in the same environment.

Many facts indicate a deep connection of endoparasites with ectoparasites and free-living organisms.

Larvae of the nematode of the gorge in the tropics of elephant disease living in human blood, appear in the peripheral vessels of the patient in the evening and night, when mosquitoes are particularly active, spreading the parasite in space. The development of a similar method of distribution of the gorge, it must be assumed, took a very long time, like other methods of distribution of endoparasites.

Against the general background of the establishment of parasitic forms of symbiosis, nematodes stand out, showing examples of a temporary transition from free existence to endoparasitism.

In general, nematodes are exceptionally highly adaptable. The originality of their morphology, as well as physiology, still has not received an explanation.

The establishment of the relationship of the parasite and the host is particularly influenced by spatial contacts.

Fasciola - a parasite of herbivores undergoes larval development in the intermediate host in one of the airborne gastropods living in the zones of coastal plants, water bodies and flood plains, i.e. in places visited by herbivores. The larval development of fasciol is completed by encystation in water and on grass, which facilitates the entry of a young worm into the host along with the food.

Infection of the host occurs through the food chain - the most common way in the spread of parasites. In trematodes, parasites of carnivores, this is ensured by the inclusion of a second (additional) host, fish, crustacean, and others, which are definitive food. Intermediate owners, if there are several of them, are also connected both spatially and nutritionally.

О роли контактов в образовании взаимосвязи паразита и хозяина свидетельствует и тот факт, что у человека и собаки (первой по давности одомашнивания) общих гельминтов 36 видов (Петров).

The total number of worms found in veterinary practice, more than 1 thousand

species (Scriabin), and in the medical - about 150. The spread of parasites is facilitated by reservoir hosts, getting into which the parasites do not develop, but accumulate, while maintaining viability. Such reservoir owners are known for many parasites from different classes.

The fight against parasites is carried out in two directions: in the prevention of infection, in the adoption of preventive measures and the complete destruction of the parasites, in the complete improvement of the territory.

The first, defensive method Scriabin calls the reserve c and e and, and the second - devastatyu - In our domestic practice, the de-nomination is set mainly and.

purpose of scientific Noah and practical parasitology. Among the achievements in this difficult matter is the elimination of the foci of malaria plasmodia, rishta and some others.

Definition of cheating (commensalism)

Relationships formed between organisms that interact in nature can be symbiotic in nature.

One type of symbiosis is called parasitic, where one organism benefits from relationships, while other species gain neither advantage nor harm. In total, there are four areas of benefit:

  1. Nutrition.
  2. Housing.
  3. Transportation.
  4. Seed dispersal.

Definition of cheating (commensalism)

Relationships formed between organisms that interact in nature can be symbiotic in nature.

One type of symbiosis is called parasitic, where one organism benefits from relationships, while other species gain neither advantage nor harm. In total, there are four areas of benefit:

  1. Nutrition.
  2. Housing.
  3. Transportation.
  4. Seed dispersal.

Related videos

Types of commensalism

Most experts in the field of ecology group commensal relations in the following types:

  • Chemical commensalism is most often observed between two types of bacteria, one of which feeds on chemicals or waste from the other.
  • Inquinism - one animal uses the body or body cavity of another organism as a refuge or living space.
  • Entokyia is a form of commensalism that occurs when one species inadvertently creates a house inside the cavity of another, but has access to the external environment.
  • Foresia occurs when one organism is attached to another organism for the purpose of transportation.
  • A sinoikia (lodging) occurs when one living being uses another being or its dwelling as its home.

Definition of cheating (commensalism)

Relationships formed between organisms that interact in nature can be symbiotic in nature.

One type of symbiosis is called parasitic, where one organism benefits from relationships, while other species gain neither advantage nor harm. In total, there are four areas of benefit:

  1. Nutrition.
  2. Housing.
  3. Transportation.
  4. Seed dispersal.

Related videos

Types of commensalism

Most experts in the field of ecology group commensal relations in the following types:

  • Chemical commensalism is most often observed between two types of bacteria, one of which feeds on chemicals or waste from the other.
  • Inquinism - one animal uses the body or body cavity of another organism as a refuge or living space.
  • Entokyia is a form of commensalism that occurs when one species inadvertently creates a house inside the cavity of another, but has access to the external environment.
  • Foresia occurs when one organism is attached to another organism for the purpose of transportation.
  • A sinoikia (lodging) occurs when one living being uses another being or its dwelling as its home.

Examples of swindling

Commensalism is a scientific term that characterizes the relationship between two living creatures from different species, in which one of the organisms gains for itself, while the other, as they say, is neither hot nor cold.

Often, commensalism occurs between a large animal and a smaller one. Here are some examples of cheating:

  • Some shells cannot move independently and are attached to certain inhabitants of the sea, such as whales. The former benefit from being able to transport across the ocean. The second from this communication do not receive neither benefit, nor harm.
  • The white heron follows the herds of cattle and feeds on insects that chase those.
  • A monarch butterfly extracts a toxic chemical from the plant of an euphorbia and stores it in its body for protection against predators.
  • The remour fish and shark are a good example of commensalism.

The term "commensalism"

Commensalism is a scientific term for the concept of scam.

In time, this type of relationship can be quite short, and you can have the appearance of a lifelong symbiosis. This term was coined in 1876 by the Belgian palaeontologist and zoologist Pierre-Joseph van Beneden, who originally used this word to describe the activities of accompanying animals that followed predators to finish their prey. The word "commensalism" comes from the Latin word commensalis, which means "separation, at the same table" (com - together, mensa - meal).

Examples of swindling are very common.

Forest frogs use plants as protection. Jackals expelled from the flock will follow the tiger to seize the remnants of its meal. Small fish live on other marine animals, changing color to merge with the owner, thereby receiving protection from predators.

Burdock produces thorny seeds that cling to animal fur or human clothing.

Plants rely on this seed dispersal method for reproduction, while animals are not affected.

Stinging: Examples of Animals and Plants

Often, one organism uses the other for permanent housing.

An example is a bird that lives in a hollow tree. Sometimes epiphytic plants growing on trees do not harm the living partner, while others can be real parasites and have a negative effect on the tree, taking nutrients from it.

Also, commensalist relationships are those in which one organism forms a habitat for another.

An example of parasitism in this case is a hermit crab - here a shell from a dead gastropod is used for protection. Another example would be the larvae living on a dead body.

The animal is attached to another for transportation. This type of commensalism is most common in arthropods, such as insect mites.

Other examples include anemone attachment to the shells of a hermit crab, pseudo-scorpios living on mammals, and centipedes traveling on birds.

Commensal organisms can form communities within the host organism. An example of such swindling is the bacterial flora found on human skin.

Scientists argue about whether the microbiota is really a type of commensalism. For example, in the case of skin flora, there is evidence that bacteria give some protection to the host (which would be reciprocated).

Pets and commensalism

Dogs, cats and other animals also seem to have commensal relationships with people.

It is believed that the ancestors of dogs followed the hunters to eat the remains of carcasses. Over time, the “collaboration” became reciprocal when people also used the relationship to get protection from other predators and help in tracking prey.

Sea "freeloaders"

Examples of parasitism in nature are relationships between individuals of two species, in which one species receives food or other benefits from the other without harming it or benefiting the latter.

The pilot fish swims near the white shark. Due to the flat oval sucking disk structure at the top of the head, the remour fish sticks to the body of its host. Both of these freeloader fish feed on the remnants of their host’s food. One of the most famous examples of commensalism in the ocean is the relationship between clones and sea anemones.

Examples of biology in biology clearly show a symbiotic relationship between organisms, which is beneficial for one of them and neutral for the other.

Many cases of commensalism are surrounded by contradictions, since there is always the possibility that the commensal owner also benefits or is harmed by a method unknown to science.

Relations of this type are of great importance in nature, as they contribute to closer cooperation of the species, more efficient development of space and enrichment of the diversity of food resources.

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Symbiosis: what is it?

By symbiosis, it is commonly understood that there are special relationships between organisms in which both partners or only one partner benefit. For the first time the term was used by the German microbiologist and botanist G.А. de bari He established it, studying lichens (represent the result of a symbiosis of algae and fungus, in the photo), and opposed parasitism. There are several forms of mutually beneficial cohabitation: mutualism, cooperation, commensalism.

It is a fairly common form of mutually beneficial cohabitation of organisms, in which the existence of one partner is impossible without the other. The most famous case is the symbiosis of fungus and algae (lichen). And the first receives the photosynthesis products synthesized by the second. And the alga extracts mineral salts and water from the hyphae of the fungus. Separate life is impossible.


Commensalism is in fact one-sided use of one type of another, without adversely affecting it. It can be carried out in several forms, but there are two main ones:

  1. Housing tenancy (sinoykia), that is, the provision of another type of shelter. Examples of symbiosis in nature in this form are very numerous. In particular, the Kamchatka female kareprokta lays its eggs under the shell of a crab, and the freshwater bitter - in the mantle cavity of the bivalve - the toothless.
  2. Mockery, or epikokiya. One species (commensal) attaches to another (host) or lives near it, feeding on the remnants of its food, and sometimes moving with it. Molestation is characterized as one of the paths of transition to parasitism. In the photo, sharks and pilots, who often follow them in whole flocks and feed on the remains.

All the rest are to some extent modifications of these two forms. For example, entoikia, in which one species lives in the body of another. This is observed in karapus fish, which use the cesspool of sea cucumbers (a species of echinoderms) as a dwelling, but feed on its borders with various small crustaceans. Or epibiosis (some species live on the surface of others). In particular, barnacles feel well on humpback whales, without disturbing them at all.

Cooperation: description and examples

Cooperation is a form of relationship in which organisms can live separately, but sometimes combine for common good. It turns out that this is an optional symbiosis. Examples:

  • Sea anemones and hermit crabs who live in an empty shell of mollusks, he carries her everywhere along with a polyp, increasing the space for catching prey, and thus providing himself with protection.
  • Large fish and shrimp that cleanse their body of parasites and dead cells.
  • Large hoofed animals and birds that hog out of their wool are parasites (ticks), or moult pick out scraps of winter wool and use it to build nests.

Symbiotic relationship between plants

Plant symbiosis is very common, and if you look closely at the world around us, you can see it with the naked eye.

  • Certain types of mushrooms and trees, when living together, form a mycorrhiza among themselves. For example, birch and boletus.
  • Lichens are an example of symbiosis between two plant organisms, the most familiar to everyone from the school biology course.
  • Epiphyte plants (non-parasitic) are “lodgers” (commensalism) on trees that serve as their habitat, but not a source of nutrients. They are derived from dying tissue and host secretions. The epiphytes include algae, mosses, ferns, lichens, which themselves represent a symbiosis of fungus and algae, flowering plants.
  • Forests of tropical forests and vines that use them as a support.
  • A symbiosis of water fern azolli with blue-green alga anabene, which has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Symbiosis (examples) of animals and plants

  • Tropical plant myrmecodia and ants: they live in thickened stems, providing protection from other insects, and at the same time acquire housing.
  • The brightest case, in the literal sense of the word, is actinia and clown fish (in the photo), which purifies the predator plant from food debris, getting protection and shelter for it.
  • Sloth and algae that grow in its wool, giving it a greenish color.
  • Symbiosis of fungi and ants Atta or termites.
  • Man and bacteria that form the intestinal flora.
  • Pollinating plants with a single species of bird or insect is observed, for example, in orchids - this is a very common symbiosis.

Examples are very numerous, and many relationships between different elements of the plant and animal world are still poorly understood.

What is antibiosis?

In essence, this is a process opposite to symbiosis, in which two populations interact and one of them or both have an overwhelming effect on the other. That is, it is an antagonistic type of relationship. Antibiosis can exist in three forms: competition, predation and parasitism. An example of the first case is the suppression of the growth of microorganisms by fungi that produce antibiotics. For predation, one species uses the other as food, killing it (foxes and hares, lions and wildebeest).

When parasitism, one species uses the second as a source of food and habitat. Parasites can be temporary (mosquitoes, leeches) or permanent (roundworm, lice, bovine tapeworm).

Симбиоз, примеры которого встречаются практически на каждом шагу, в том числе и в жизни человека, в составе естественного отбора является важным компонентом эволюции в целом.