Black and motley dairy breed of cows: description, feeding and care, the main advantages and disadvantages


The milk production of cattle depends on the characteristics of the animal, conditions of detention, age and many other factors. But first of all - from the breed and origin. Since the beginning of the last century, a black (variegated) breed of cows has been widely distributed in Russia, and it still holds leading positions today.


Among the distinctive characteristics relating to the exterior of these animals, of course, the main is the suit. Wool is always black and motley color, very pleasant and soft to the touch. Thin skin forms small folds on the body. The back and loin make a straight line. The elongated body of an animal with a rather bulky belly is developed proportionally. Udder cup with asymmetrical lobes and very close posterior nipples. Strong limbs set straight. The cow is gaining body weight very quickly. Having a birth weight of 35 kg, by the period of growing up, it weighs 470–550 kg with a height of 140 cm. Bulls are much heavier - their weight is from 850 to 900 kg.

Breed features

Black-and-white breed of cows belongs to the dairy, so its meat qualities are quite satisfactory. The question “a lot a cow gives milk” is the main one in assessing its merits. This breed is considered the most productive in terms of the amount of milk, milk yield sometimes reaches 7000 kg per lactation.

Animals are highly adaptable to a wide variety of climatic conditions. They get used to any weather conditions very quickly, easily tolerate cold and heat, have good health and stable immunity, can stay on pasture for a long time and not be afraid of long-distance crossings. The food is unpretentious, as long as there is a large amount of fodder - both green pasture, haylage and silage. Due to all these features, farmers prefer the breeding of this particular breed.


Domestic black-and-white breed of cows bred by breeders in the 30s of the twentieth century. Local cattle from different regions of Russia crossed with Dutch cows. The work was carried out in 2 stages: first, obtaining various hybrids, then their improvement. This breed was officially recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture only in 1959, after which it became popular not only in our country, but also abroad, the black-and-white breed of cows.


Of great importance for this indicator is the region of breeding cows. Milk fat content is in the range of 3.2-3.9 percent, and its high threshold was observed in cows in Siberia, Estonia and Ukraine. Breeding farms can boast of high yields, sometimes reaching 6500 kg. Fighting for leadership and competing for various indicators, state farms record and achieve by milking. The record for today is the figure of 10,000-12,000 kg. This amount of milk for the period of lactation today can give a black-and-white breed of cows. The characteristic of meat productivity differs significantly. Only 50% is slaughter output carcasses.

There are several types of this breed, differing in external features, in milk yield, depending on the breeding site. These indicators are influenced by climatic conditions, the level of breeding work in the region and the initial type of livestock.

Breed of cows of the Central region of Russia

The black-and-white breed of cows in this part of Russia has its own characteristics. These are very large animals. Cows have an average weight of up to 650 kg and high productivity (7500–8000 kg of milk with a fat content of at least 3.6%). Bulls sometimes reach a mass of 1000 kg. The breed was created by crossing local breeds of cattle (Kholmogory, Yaroslavl, etc.) with German and Dutch. Intra-breed types bred in Central Russia (Moscow, non-medicin and Baryba) were bred in 2003–2004.

Breed of black and motley cows in the Urals

These animals are distinguished by a lighter type of constitution, they are very harmonious and have a rather dry constitution. The color is predominantly black with white spots of various sizes, located throughout the body in a chaotic manner. Basically, by crossing the Tagil breed with variegated Baltic cattle, this black-and-white breed of cows appeared in the Urals. The characteristic of milk production is somewhat different: with high fat content of milk, reaching 4.0%, milk yield cannot be called very large. Even in the tribal state farms, they rarely exceed 5,500 kg. In 2003, the breeders created an interbreeding type, the Ural type, by crossing Holstein bulls and black-and-white cows.

Black-and-white cattle in Siberia

The result of the crossing of Dutch and Siberian cattle was the appearance of large and massive animals, whose weight reaches 560 kg. Milk yield ranges from 4,500 to 5,000 kg, and cows in breeding farms can produce 8,000 kg. Milk has a high percentage of fat. Intra-pedigree types created in Siberia (Oka, Ilmen) are well adapted to Siberian weather conditions.

Due to the genes of the Holstein cows, the features of the exterior and the milk productivity become more and more common, which the black-and-white breed of cows possesses. Photos of animals that can be found in the special literature are not much different; it is sometimes impossible to determine from them - the breed is bred in Siberia or in the Urals. They all have a very similar constitution and a predominantly milky type of composition.

Holstein cows

Improving the black-and-white domestic breed of cows, breeders used the Holstein breed in their work. Hailing from Holland, these animals, thanks to their best qualities, have spread throughout the world, becoming especially popular in Germany. The breed was officially registered in 1983 in North America. Today it makes up 90% of the total number of cattle bred in the territory. A strong constitution and high productivity have become distinctive features that the Holstein cows are famous for. The black and motley color of these animals is predominant, but there are representatives of a completely black and even red and motley color. White markings are most often located on the stomach, on the limbs and on the tip of the tail.

Cows have strong bones, developed muscles and well-defined milky forms. Cup-shaped udder has a large capacity. During the day, milk yield may be more than 60 kg, and the productivity per lactation - 8000 kg. With a height of 150 cm, the weight of cows can reach 700 kg, bulls - over 1100 kg. When providing animals with high-quality nutrition, these figures can be even higher. Calves are born weighing from 38 to 47 kg. The representatives of the Holstein breed are very demanding to the conditions of detention, therefore it is necessary to approach this issue extremely responsibly. They do not have high stress resistance, but at the same time they are very affectionate and clean. In the summer, the grass that cows get for walking is enough as feed, but in winter it is necessary to use hay, soybean meal and corn in the ration.

Yaroslavl breed of cows

It was bred in the Yaroslavl province by the method of selecting local cattle, for which it received its name. This breed is one of the oldest in Russia and today it is increasingly being crowded out by others with higher productivity. It is a black-and-white breed of cows, distinguished by a slightly angular physique, narrow chest and underdeveloped musculature. The peculiarity of the Yaroslavl breed is the predominant black color with small white spots in the head, abdomen and limbs. Animals have short stature, not exceeding 127 cm at the withers, and a mass rarely exceeding 500 kg. A well-developed round-shaped udder ensures high milk production - up to 6000 kg, the fat content is 4.2-5.2%.

Today, the Yaroslavl breed, due to its weak characteristics, is no longer of such economic importance as it used to be. Her livestock is declining, but despite this, it is of great value for breeding work. So, thanks to the crossing of Yaroslavl with the Holstein bulls, a new type of Yaroslavl breed, the Mikhailovsky, has a high milk yield. In addition, these animals are distinguished by precocity, longevity, and easily adapt to local conditions.

And in the private sector today, more and more black-and-white breed of cows. Reviews of the owners point out a number of its advantages over all others. Breeding work, which is constantly carried out today with this breed, aims to create large animals with higher productivity and to correct all the shortcomings of the exterior.

Advantages and disadvantages

Of the main advantages of the breed black motley cows can be identified:

  • high productivity of milk and meat,
  • excellent ability to adapt in different climatic conditions,
  • good health and resistance to infections of various types,
  • young individuals quickly gain mass,
  • the precocity of cows,
  • good level of product quality.

The disadvantages usually include intra-breed differences, the average fat content of milk, demands on the conditions of detention and feeding in particular.

The black-and-white dairy breed of cows has gained popularity among many breeders. Its representatives are characterized by high productivity in meat output and daily milk yield, and the content is not much different from other types of cattle.

Breed characteristics

The milk productivity of black-and-white cows is high. In the year they can produce up to 6000-7000 kg of products. Higher milk yields are also recorded - up to 10,000-12,000 kg of the product. Milk fat on average is about 3.7-3.9%.

Attention! Such a high milk yield is more often only in breeding farms. At the usual domestic breeding from one cow of this breed per year usually get in the range of 3000-3500 kg.

The productivity of dairy cattle of black and motley breed depends on the correctness of the selected diet, the level of breeding work and the region of animal breeding. Depending on the area inside this breed, there are three types of it:

  1. Cattle from the central regions — cows in these areas are characterized by the largest size and high milk yield than in other regions, but the milk fat content is lower.
  2. Cows from the Ural regions - representatives of this species are smaller. They differ and lower yields, but the indicators of fat content are higher.
  3. Cattle individuals from the Siberian regions are the smallest representatives of the black-and-white colored cows. The annual milk yield of these cows is usually up to 5,100 kg, but the fat content of dairy products is good - 3.7–4%.

In addition to milk, meat is also obtained from these cows. It is tasty and non-greasy, the quality is considered good. Slaughter yield is usually 50-53%, in rare cases up to 60%.

Advantages and disadvantages

Cows of this breed are strong and hardy animals. They are independent, they easily adapt to new conditions, easily overcome rather long distances from one pasture to another. They have good health and good immunity, are immune to many diseases. Diseases are easy enough. In food unpretentious. In summer, they can feed themselves on pasture with succulent fodder, and in winter time - harvested hay and silage. But when feeds are added to the ration, the milk yield increases significantly, only the fat content of the milk can fall.

The undoubted advantages of these cows include:

  • large output of milk and lean meat,
  • good quality of the products,
  • quick weight gain of young stock,
  • the possibility of drawing up the diet without the use of any additives,
  • calm nature of animals.

There is a black-and-white cattle and a small set of disadvantages, but breeders continue to work on them. Among the disadvantages include:

  • some differences between the established types,
  • low growth of animals
  • not too much protein in milk.

Also, such cows require more hay and grass. They need to stay and more spacious barn. The room where the animal is located must always be kept clean. But this no longer applies to the shortcomings of such cows, but is a necessary measure when keeping domestic cattle.

Black-and-dairy dairy cows are convenient to maintain in the conditions of large farms and personal farmsteads. They are calm and independent, give a lot of milk, unpretentious to the diet, not too difficult to care. And for all these qualities they are still preferred over other breeds of cattle by farmers and individuals.

The origin of the breed

The Dutch and Ostfrizian breeds of cows became the forerunners of the appearance of the black-and-white breed. Due to the mild climatic conditions in the Netherlands, a good animal diet and the increased interest of livestock producers in obtaining a highly productive herd, a black-and-white breed of cows has emerged.

Initially, the black-and-white cows were dairy, but were very susceptible to various diseases, as they had a rather low immune defense system in the body and a fragile physique. But, thanks to many years of work of breeders, this breed was slightly improved, increasing its meat value and level of immunity.

After the end of hostilities in the October Revolution, scientists of the Soviet Union paid close attention to this breed of cows and appreciated its high potential. In 1959, the black-and-white breed of cows was recognized as a separate breed.

Characteristics and description of the breed with photos

The black-and-white breed of cows was bred by crossing several Dutch and Ostfrizian varieties of these animals. Therefore, the external data of this breed differ depending on the examination of the breed as a whole, or its individual type.

Coloring they have corresponding to the name of this breed, namely black skin, sprinkled with snow-white spots, having a chaotic arrangement on the body and various sizes and shapes. The constitution is pretty powerful and proportionate, with an elongated body, which is typical of dairy cows.

  • They have a long head with an elongated muzzle and gray horns.
  • Medium long, folded, non-muscular neck.
  • The sternum is of medium width, its depth reaches 75 cm.
  • Smooth back with a wide rump.
  • Legs are smooth, very strong and stable.
  • Very volumetric peritoneum and cup-shaped udder.
  • Growth in withers reaches 133 cm.

Depending on the type, the following species of this breed are distinguished:

  • Black-and-white cow from the Central region, characterized by a large build. The mass of cows can vary from 550 to 650 kg, and bulls up to 1000 kg or more. This breed of cow is not only a good milk producer, but also meat,
  • Ural black-and-white cow with a dry body constitution, which gives them a lighter and more harmonious appearance,
  • Siberian black-and-white cow, which has a lower body weight than animals from the central region and is not as densely built as that of the Ural breeds. An adult individual of this type can reach up to 550-560 kg.
There are three varieties of black-and-white breed of cows.

The average annual milk yield of this breed varies from 4000 to 6500 g of milk, with fat content of 3.5%.

These animals are adaptable to various changes in climatic conditions and can quickly adapt to different regions and continents.

Productivity characteristic

Calves from motley cows are born with a body weight reaching 35-42 kg, depending on whether a heifer or goby. They have a good appetite since birth, which allows them to recruit from 600 to 800 grams daily. And with a more intensive diet, calves are able to add a kilogram per day. Therefore, by the age of one and a half, calves reach 400-430 kg in their mass. Larger calves can reach up to 480 kg.

Therefore, the entire young of this breed in a fairly short period of time, due to its ability to quickly build up the meat relief and early ripening, grows into a huge colossus, with which you can get a lot of high-quality beef meat.

Regardless of which type this bull breed belongs to, their total body weight in rare cases is less than 900 kg, and in adult female individuals the body weight varies from 500 to 650 kg.

By the age of one and a half, calves of black and motley breed reach 400-430 kg.

The most interesting is that such a result is obtained without special investments for the purchase of special concentrates and additives. In the summer, the animals have enough food on green pastures, and in the winter months they have enough hay and juicy supplements.

But, nevertheless, the main value of these animals lies in their highly productive dairy ability.

Стоит отметить, что показатель удойности черно-пестрой коровы будет варьироваться в зависимости от климатического пояса, в котором проживает животное, условий кормления и содержания.

Передовые фермерские хозяйства, специализирующиеся на племенных породах черно-пестрых буренок, в Центральных районах России получают по 8000 кг от своих животных, причем процент жирности у них составляет 3,6%-3,7%.

The Siberian black-and-white cow also has a good production rate, not inferior to the breeding breeds from the central regions. It gives the same amount of milk, but the percentage of fat content is slightly higher and amounts to 3.8-3.9%.

Ural beauties produce on average up to 5,500 kg of milk with fat content of 4%. Under normal conditions of keeping a black-and-white cow produces up to 3500 kg of milk.

Ural black-and-white cows produce on average up to 5,500 kg of milk.

It is important to understand that the percentage of milk fat content depends entirely on the quantitative volume of milk yield, and the volume amount of one milk yield depends on the body weight of the animal, which depends entirely on the diet.

We offer to get acquainted with other cattle breeds:

Maintenance and care

The maintenance and care of the black-motley cows practically does not differ from the content of other representatives of the cattle. But before you buy such an animal, you must carefully calculate the necessary investments for its maintenance and planned income. After all, this breed of cows with proper care can bring not a bad income, for which you need to make a lot of effort.

The crib for keeping black-and-white cows should be spacious.

The content of the cows is to conduct the following procedures:

  • milking,
  • clearing the crib,
  • feeding,
  • harvesting hay
  • harvesting juicy and roughage, etc.

The productivity of cows of a given breed also depends on external conditions of housing. Due to the fact that these individuals are rather large in size, their barn should also be spacious so that the animal feels comfortable.

Milking procedures are carried out according to the same scheme as for cows of other varieties. The maximum amount of milk is obtained in the 4th lactation period.

With a calm appeal to the cow and ensuring proper care, the animal quickly becomes attached to its breadwinner and quickly begins to master all the necessary behavioral skills.

Proper feeding of livestock

Black-and-white cows are quite large in size, and therefore their feeding ration should be somewhat larger than that of ordinary cows. In a year such an animal requires harvesting of about 20-25 centners of hay and 30 centners of straw, plus rough and juicy feed, at least 50 centners.

Black-and-white cows consume more feed than other dairy cattle breeds.

The diet of the cow is fully reflected in the qualitative and quantitative production of milk.

In winter, a large barrel of water (at least 100 liters) and a feeding trough equal to the size of one portion of hay should be installed in the barn. If the temperature in the barn in the winter is optimally warm, the barrel with water can be filled continuously. It is only important to refresh the water in a day, maximum two, since the leftover food from the cow's muzzle will regularly fall into the water, and the water will quickly fade. At negative temperatures in the barn during the winter period, it is recommended to change the water daily.

If it is possible to feed the cows feed, this should be carried out according to the scheme: 100 grams of feed per 1 liter of milk produced.

When keeping young stock in winter, the ration of feeding per head should be at least 15 centners of roughage and 9 centners of juicy.

Breeding of black and motley breed of cows

Cows of this breed reach sexual maturity already at 6 months of age, but for mating with a bull, they are not yet ready. They reach economic maturity by the age of 16 months, when their body weight reaches 65-70% of the body weight of an adult cow.

The photo calf black and motley breed.

When breeding domestic cows of variegated color, as mentioned above, it is necessary to take care of the conditions of their housing. The stable should be dry, warm and spacious, at least 18-20 m 2. The temperature in the barn should not fall below 5 degrees Celsius, especially in winter.

Owner's reviews about the breed

Alena is 35 years old. I had a black and motley ladybug, very calm and not whimsical in food. She fed mainly hay and added some vegetables from the garden, received quite a lot of milk and also high-fat sour cream.

Tatiana is 43 years old. For the 3rd year I have been keeping a black and variegated cow, I get a lot of milk from it, but fat content is only 3.2%. Calves are harvested very large, weighing from 35 kg. grow at a minimum feeding (dert, grass and hay) fairly quickly and by the year gain from 280 kg of body weight. They are very hardy to the harsh weather conditions and quickly acclimatize when the climate changes.

We offer to watch a video showing cows of black and motley breed.

Breed types

Black-and-white breed of cows is in demand among farmers throughout Russia. There is a conditional separation of the breed, depending on the place of cultivation.

  • Central areas. The animals are large, the weight of an adult bull is 900-1000 kg, an adult cow is 550-650 kg.
  • Ural regions. Black-and-white cows are characterized by a dry type of constitution, compared with compatriots from other regions look harmonious and light. Productivity is average.
  • Siberian region. The cows are small, the average weight of one individual is 500-560 kg. Milk gives little compared with representatives of other regions, but the fat content of the product is quite high.

Farmers Reviews

What do farmers say about black and motley cows? Burenkas are fastidious in food, but with a properly selected diet they will be thanked with high yields. Very calm and leisurely. Good go to contact, peaceful. The cow actively responds to the attitude to itself. It is necessary to talk with her gently and calmly, to stroke the sides and udder. Burenka feels the mood of the owner, she can be transferred to his nervousness. Harsh hails, injuries and jolts have a negative effect on milk yield.

Any changes in animal health, mood, and habits may indicate the onset of the disease or the hunting period. Therefore, the farmer should carefully monitor the behavior of the cows. If she is provided with high-quality care, the animal will give high yields. Farmers noted this feature: the more a cow gives milk, the lower its fat content.

Housing for the animal should be spacious enough (at least 23 sq. M.), Well lit, without drafts, with a dry, soft bedding and a good ventilation system. Comfortable temperature in winter is 6-12 o C. A leash should not restrict the buren in movement. The room where the cow is located must be kept clean.

For animals, the following activities should be carried out:

  • regularly brush wool with special brushes,
  • trim hooves,
  • daily before and after milking wash the udder,
  • bathe in the warm season.

Only with the observance of the norms of feeding and a properly formulated ration, black-and-white cows will be pleased with high feeds. The basis of food for cattle should be high-quality hay of legumes and cereals. Silage content - not more than 20% of the total feed. To increase milk production, it is necessary to add root vegetables (beets, pumpkin), concentrates, mineral and vitamin supplements in accordance with the norms. The animal is fed twice in the morning and in the evening.

In summer, cattle are on pasture maintenance. An animal should be taught to pasture gradually, over a period of 7-10 days. At this time, avoid overeating juicy food in order to avoid stomach problems in the animal.

The main condition for high productivity is watering with fresh water, at least 3 times a day. Salt is also a guarantee of animal health. This mineral supplement compensates for the lack of sodium and chlorine involved in the process of neutralizing acids and promoting the formation of gastric juice. Lack of sodium in the body of the animal adversely affects appetite, contributes to growth retardation, reduces protein and fat synthesis. Table salt is fed with succulent and rough feed in a crushed form (55-60 g / day per 1 head).

Calves are born weighing 30-35 kg. Average daily gain of 650-800 grams, provided that the feeding is properly organized. By the age of 1.5, they reach a weight of about 480 kg. Being precocious in nature, they actively increase the meat relief and quite early acquire impressive size. Heifers weighing between 320 and 350 kg are recruited in 18 months, which is when they can be used for reproduction.

Juveniles are characterized by high survivability. Diseases, including dyspepsia and pneumonia, are very rare in black-and-white cows.

What are the advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of the breed include:

  • good health - cows easily tolerate diseases, are characterized by high resistance to infections,
  • high productivity
  • excellent adaptability to climatic conditions
  • high quality products - lean meat and full-fat milk,
  • early maturity - by the age of one and a half, the heifers are capable of fertilization, and the posterity is treated with care and tenderness.

  • significant differences between intra breed breeds,
  • requirements for conditions of detention
  • low fat milk.

The primary value of the breed lies in its almost perfect milk production. Cows of the black-and-white breed in breeding farms, with proper maintenance and full-fledged feeding, yield up to 8000 liters of milk per lactation period per head. The fat content of the product is 3.7%. Good performance in the Siberian representatives of the breed: about 6 tons of milk, but at a higher fat content: up to 3.9%. According to the indicators, they are inferior to the Ural cows, giving 5,500 liters of milk with fat content, also about 4%. Under normal conditions, black-and-white cows, as a rule, produce 3000-3500 kg of milk. You can buy such an animal in any region of the country.