Although in Russia dominant roles have always been cattle and pig breeding, sheep breeding in our country has also been done. The pride of Russian sheep breeders is the Romanov breed of sheep, whose characteristics have made it the leader among domestic breeds. And although in the total number of modern livestock their share is not so large, in the northern regions of the country it is this breed that dominates.
Origin of the Romanov breed
The first reliable mention of the sheep of this breed dates back to 1802, which means their actual appearance at least already in the XVIII century. The breed was formed by the method of national selection of local purebred goats in the Romanov-Borisoglebsk district of the Yaroslavl province. Subsequently, in this county, the breed became known as Romanov.
Peasants engaged in improving the breed, sought to obtain a breed that would have good productivity in the far from the most favorable climatic conditions of this region. Simply put, a breed was needed, unpretentious in content, capable of doing almost exclusively with hay and grass, but giving as much meat and wool as possible. And although the selection was carried out far from scientific methods (and it was impossible to expect anything else from simple peasants), in the end, the obtained characteristics of the Romanov sheep breed make it possible to classify it as almost the best among domestic breeds.
Gradually, the Romanov sheep spread throughout a large part of the Russian Non-Black Earth Region. In Soviet times, the breed began to breed centrally, and not only in the northern regions of the RSFSR, but also in Belarus. Over time, interest in the Romanov sheep has not waned, so today they are bred in Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and some countries in Northern Europe.
Description of the sheep of the Romanov breed
The first official standard of the Romanov sheep appeared rather late - only in 1908. With some clarifications, he generally remained the same to this day. The official description of the sheep of the Romanov breed provides the following features:
- Height about 70 cm
- strong constitution
- powerful bones and muscles,
- wide chest
- straight back,
- slightly saggy sacrum
- strong straight legs.
In addition to the standard strong constitution, two types of constitution are distinguished in Romanov sheep - tender and rough, which, however, are not very popular among livestock breeders.
It should also be noted that sheep and sheep in a slaughter flock may have horns, but the existing standard provides that the breeding sheep of the Romanov breed must certainly be hornless.
Lambs of this breed are born black, but white spots are possible on the head and legs. At the age of 2-3 weeks, the young growth begins to overgrow with light fluff, and after 16-20 weeks it acquires the color of an adult animal (see photo). At the same age is the first haircut.
The productivity of sheep of the Romanov breed
Romanov sheep are a source of high quality sheepskin. According to many experts, in terms of lightness, appearance and thermal insulation properties, this sheepskin is the best in the world. The most valuable shepherds get from young age 6-8 months.
Of course, the shorn wool of sheep of the Romanov breed is also an important type of product. Haircut is carried out three times a year so that seasonal moulting does not spoil the quality of wool. The haircut is not very large: at one time up to 3 kg per sheep and up to 1.5 kg per sheep.
Although the breed is known primarily for its fur-coat products, the economic feasibility forces farmers to pay attention to meat characteristics. The average weight of an adult sheep is about 70 kg, sheep - 45 kg. The weight of lambs at the age of 3 months is up to 17 kg, and in the ninth month of life - up to 40 kg.
At the same time, the Romanov breed has a high fecundity. During one pregnancy, a sheep gives birth to 2-3 lambs, which means an annual income from one female to a centner of mutton and 2-3 quality fleeces. It is these characteristics of the breed in its time and made it one of the most popular in the Black Earth.
It is noteworthy that, unlike other breeds, sheep of the Romanov breed are capable of breeding all year round, and not only at certain points in time. Due to this feature of sheep, farmers can plan the appearance of lambs for a more favorable time.
The content of the Romanov breed sheep
Special care for Romanov sheep is not required. Thanks to the thick skin and thick wool, they can feel comfortable even in the most severe frosts. All they need is deep, dry, clean straw or hay. But sawdust or peat is not recommended for this purpose.
It is important to know that in conditions of constant stall maintenance, the health of sheep deteriorates, so it is much preferable to provide them with free grazing in the summer and the opportunity to walk outdoors in the winter. Such a lifestyle not only reduces the risk of disease in Romanov sheep, but also increases their fertility and improves the quality of the fleece.
Sheep can be grazed even on very poor pastures. Only flood and forest meadows, as well as marshland, are strictly not suitable for them. The high level of humidity characteristic of these types of pasture harms the sheep's digestive system. Instead of natural pastures you can use artificial. They are best sown with cereals and perennials.
When stalling, including in winter, sheep are advised to give succulent feed, in particular silage and root crops. But the basis of the diet in any case should be hay and grass. Moreover, it is better to choose clover and legume-cereals. Sheep can also be given straw, but before serving it must be steamed. The queen bees are also given concentrated feed, and the producing sheep is given special food additives that improve reproductive functions.
Considering that the main type of products is sheepskin and wool, it is highly not recommended to include in the ration of Romanov sheep breeds flour and other feed, with which animals can easily stain their fleece.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Romanov sheep breed
At the mention of the Romanov sheep, each time it is noted that this breed is the pride of domestic breeding. However, she did not become an international hit, although foreign sheep breeders still show some interest in her. Moreover, even on the scale of the Russian animal husbandry, Romanov sheep make up a relatively small part of the population.
The strengths of this breed are as follows:
- Casualty to the conditions of detention. This breed fits into the stereotype that sheep are very unpretentious and almost omnivorous animals. They do not need any special conditions and expensive feed. Moreover, they were specially bred as an unpretentious peasant breed, and therefore care for Romanov sheep does not cause any particular difficulties.
- Undemanding to feed. Since Romanov sheep are initially recommended to fall on pastures during the entire warm period of the year, feed costs will be minimal. It is only in winter that sheep need to provide the simplest diet, consisting of hay, silage and in much smaller quantities of some other more expensive feed.
- High quality sheepskin. Most sources say that sheepskin, obtained from Romanov sheep, is the highest quality in the world. We could not find any arguments against this statement.
- High fertility. By giving birth to 2-3 lambs at a time, the Romanov ewes demonstrate the ability to easily increase the livestock by 2.5 times in just one year.
- Meat productivity. With an average mass of 8-month-old young stock about 40 kg, the slaughter yield from them is about 20 kg of young mutton.
With all its advantages, sheep and sheep of the Romanov breed still did not deserve wide world fame. This is due to the following disadvantages:
- Low wool yield. In comparison with other breeds of woolly direction, the Romanov sheep still give too little fleece - about 4.5 kg per year from one female, whereas the same merino sheep give 7-8 kg.
- Weak lungs. The Romanov breed is very susceptible to lung diseases, so many farmers are forced to reinsure and keep sheep in full-fledged sheep-houses, and not on the street.
In addition, the maintenance of the Romanov sheep breed is fraught with the same difficulties as most other sheep breeds - intolerance to damp and drafts, susceptibility to parasites, fearfulness, etc.
Prospects for breeding Romanov sheep
Although the Romanov breed has many strengths, its main advantage is still the ability to produce very high-quality sheepskin. Due to the specific combination of down and wool, it is ideal for the manufacture of high-quality fur products and excellent exterior characteristics. Since the textile and fur industry is constantly experiencing the need for such raw materials and in large quantities, farmers who specialize in the Romanov breed will never be at a loss.
However, for the profitability of breeding sheep of the Romanov breed to be high, you need to have a large herd at once. Obviously, it is profitable to implement 2-3 skins at a time will not work. The dealers, of course, will buy them, but not at the price that the fur factory can offer for a batch of several hundred skins.
However, even small owners will not lose out if they choose the Romanov breed. These sheep have very good meat productivity, and therefore problems with the sale of hides and wool are compensated by the sale of meat. And although the market for lamb in central and northern Russia (the main breeding sites for Romanov sheep) is quite small, you can always sell a few dozen kilograms of meat.
For domestic sheep breeding, this breed is legendary. Its maintenance and breeding does not require special efforts from the breeder, and the fertility and survival of the livestock is simply amazing. Romanov sheep quickly form a herd, because, unlike the average ewes of other breeds, which have one lamb, they bring three to five babies at once. They are very early - already in three or four months the individual is fully mature and capable of lambing. In the year, the female brings two litters.
The sheep of the Romanov breed were bred by gradual selection, breeding of a species in which ordinary peasants were engaged. For them, characteristics such as high fecundity, precociousness, and unpretentiousness of the breed were a matter of survival. As a result, a breed was formed, which Russia is still proud of. Its representatives can survive in the most scanty conditions, show an excellent weight gain when feeding with one hay, are resistant to various diseases.
Today, the Romanov breed of sheep is very popular among Western breeders. The feedback from experts emphasizes that pedigree specimens are purchased to improve the characteristics of new breeds being bred. That is, the gene pool of the breed is an excellent basis for breeding. All sheep products are in high demand, from which it can be concluded that this particular breed is the best option to start your own livestock business.
Breeding sheep of the Romanov breed
In appearance, they are very easy to recognize. These are very large individuals with a short tail. The coat is thick and dense, black or white. Free-grazing individuals more often appear gray. If we proceed from the breed standard, then neither male nor female should have horns. Horned individuals will be considered a deviation from the standard, but they are quite often found in flocks.
Since in rural conditions it is difficult to maintain cleanliness and standard of the breed, all representatives of this species are divided into three groups - with a rough, strong and tender bone. Each branch has its own characteristics, which we now consider.
Sheep with a boned bone are considered less prolific and tenacious, their productivity leaves much to be desired. Such animals are most easily recognized by their narrow chest and head, and the sharp withers. The backbone is underdeveloped, and the wool is not too valuable. The ratio of hair and fluff is not in favor of sheepskin, as the fluff from it easily falls off. Despite the fact that their wool is very beautiful, snow-white, these individuals practically do not participate in breeding.
The second group has a strong backbone. This is already a real Romanov breed of sheep, reviews of which are always only the best. The representatives of this group have a wide chest, thick woolen coat, predominantly gray. They demonstrate excellent vitality and fertility. The hair length is about 30 cm, and the down is 50 mm. Sheepskin from this type of sheep is very high quality, it is used in industry.
Finally, the last group is sheep with heavy bones and a rough woolen pile. Their hair is longer than fluff, the sheepskin is coarse and ugly, but the sheep show the best indicators of endurance, fertility and vitality. Therefore, in rural areas, they are the most common. Severe conditions, lack of vaccinations and balanced feed animals tolerate well.
We turn to the direct description of what constitutes the Romanov breed of sheep. The characteristic of a typical representative shows us an animal with an average head size, a prominent nose, erect ears and small eyes. They have an average torso and a muscular neck. These are tireless animals that can travel considerable distances in search of food. Both males and females have wide withers, the back is straight and strong, and the chest is wide.
They are created for life on free grazing, their legs are strong enough, straight, of medium length. Wool is very dense, it covers the whole body, including the stomach. Wool consists of down and hair. The down is always longer than the hair, its ratio to the scalp should be within 1/10. Hair color - black or gray, and fluff - white or cream. The maintenance of sheep of the Romanov breed does not present difficulties even for beginners, and the profit for the farm can be quite tangible.
Now you can imagine what the Romanov breed is. Breeding involves the use of only the best representatives, as a result of getting a strong offspring. We have already talked about the physique, but the color also plays a role, since the fleece is one of the most sought-after products of sheep. The main color characteristic of this breed is black. The head and neck are of the same color, only white markings are allowed in the head area, however if this color extends to a third of the torso and more, this is considered a marriage. Gray color is acceptable, but such a fleece is valued slightly lower.
The legs are also black, a gradual transition from white to black is possible. The color of young lambs may differ slightly, but for purebred breeding, individuals with gray, red stripes and spots are not used. Of course, for agriculture, which produces animals for their own needs, this does not matter much, but if you decide to enter the market with your product, then you need to take in breeding only purebred specimens.
As already mentioned, the Romanov breed is considered to be universal. Characteristics of ewes as milk producers are quite good. Of course, compared to a cow, she milks much worse, but milk is much more nutritious and healthier, and also twice as fat. If you make homemade cheese, then its output from sheep's milk will be much higher. Many people who are thinking about trying themselves in sheep farming are interested in the question of how much milk can be obtained from one sheep. The answer is: approximately 100 liters in one lactation period. Since she can bring lambs twice a year, the figure is multiplied by two. If you have 10 sheep, you get an impressive amount. If the cow stops feeding milk after feeding the calf, in the case of sheep, one ends, the second one begins to milk. That is, small amounts of product yield is compensated by a large number of livestock.
The second product is meat
Of course, you will not keep sheep just because of the milk. Large offspring involves periodic updating of the breeding herd, and the rest of the livestock is sent to the market. Sale of sheep of the Romanov breed is carried out both with live heads, for a tribe, and for carcasses, for meat. It depends on how your business is built.
Meat of sheep of this breed is very much appreciated in the market. It has excellent taste, as well as a unique aroma and taste. The output of meat products is about 50% of each carcass. The market is very valued meat of seven-month-old lambs, experts take it for kebabs and pilaf, preferring other types of meat. В этом возрасте они весят около 40 кг, на тушку приходится половина веса, значит, вы получаете примерно 11 кг чистой мякоти. Если учесть, что килограмм шашлыка из такой мякоти обойдется примерно в 200 долларов, то, как видите, разведение романовских овец - достаточно выгодное дело.
Однако мы пока говорили о самом деликатесном продукте - молодой ягнятине. А сколько весит взрослая особь? От 80 до 100 кг - баран, и примерно 75 кг - овца. Accordingly, the carcass goes from 35 to 50 kg, which is a very good indicator. A well-fed sheep usually brings at least three lambs per lamb, and each will weigh about 4 kg.
The third product is wool.
Romanov breed sheep in Bashkiria are often bred because of the excellent fleece, which is very popular. Black or white wool, despite being rather coarse, is widely used. The coat consists of black hair and white fluff and is of very high quality. Experienced sheep farmers know that wool should be cut at the moment when the ratio of down and hair is 1/7. If there is more fluff, then it will become loose when worn, and if there is more hair, then the products will not protect the wearer from the cold. It is at the time of shearing the hair becomes a delicate bluish tint. This means that the fleece is completely ready.
The highest quality fleece is the one that was received at the age of six months. It is assumed that before that the animals should not get a haircut. Individuals who have reached the age of one year old are sheared three times a year, and up to 3 kg of wool can be obtained from one sheep. The yield of pure fleece at the same time - about 80%.
The fourth product, which very successfully disperses in the market, are lambs. Sale of sheep of the Romanov breed is a profitable business, since interest in these animals will never fade. The fecundity of ewes is simply amazing, while the survival rate of young stock is almost 100%. A thoroughbred for one lamb brings a minimum of two lambs, and most often this number reaches 4-5 babies. Okotec occurs twice a year, so with a starting population of 10 animals by the end of the year you will have a large herd of mature individuals that are themselves capable of reproduction. In this they have no equal. The farms are very valuable breeding sheep of the Romanov breed. You can buy them for 7-10 thousand rubles, just one individual costs just this amount. With the specified market value, your farm will quickly start making a profit.
Of course, lambs are a source of profit, each farmer cares first and foremost how much a Romanov sheep costs. Young breeding individuals can be sold for at least 5000 rubles, which is very attractive. In itself, reproduction does not constitute anything difficult, but the behavior of animals must be regularly monitored. The fact is that at home a sheep can show sexual desire even during lactation. On the one hand, it is precisely because of this that you can get a few lambing per year, on the other hand, natural mating will have to be replaced by artificial insemination. This method allows you to control the natural processes of reproduction in the herd.
For example, a young sheep reaches sexual maturity at 3.5 months, but it is still impossible to let her go to the sheep, because the body is not able to give strong offspring. Only with a competent approach to breeding you will always have breeding sheep of the Romanov breed. Sometimes it is not easy to buy such on the market, because most often in farms there is no work on selection of breeding individuals, the herd breeds in natural conditions, which means that the defects of the breed increase every year.
The first mating or artificial insemination is done when the lamb has reached 80% of its standard weight. That is, an average of 40 kg, usually in such weight, it happens in 7-8 months. The period of sexual hunting lasts up to 5 days, this is quite enough to produce a mating. After 145 days, babies will be born. At the same time, keep in mind that the mother has enough milk to feed 3 lambs, so if there are more of them, you will have to feed them.
Conditions of detention
The initial task of the founders of the breed was the cultivation of such qualities as unpretentiousness, adaptability to different environmental conditions, good productivity with a poor diet. This is exactly what the Romanov breed of sheep has become. The price of animals is quite reasonable. Keeping at home is not a chore, so cattle breeding is convenient as a starting business. It almost does not require investments. But there is one important point: a large pasture is necessary for sheep farming, since the stall maintenance of the sheep is practically beyond tolerance.
This breed is unpretentious to temperature and other climatic changes. Sheep feel great in the heat of 30 degrees, and in the cold. So you don’t have to worry about them, no matter what the weather is on the street. It is thick sheep wool that is a universal temperature regulator, which has no analogues in the world. In winter, your flock will need thick and dry bedding, and in summer - daily grazing on green meadows.
Feeding Romanov sheep
It is best to use open natural pastures. If you do not have such an opportunity, then it is recommended to arrange artificial pastures, that is, to allocate a certain area sown with cereal or legume herbs. Do not use flood and marsh meadows - the food there is poor, it will reduce the productivity of sheep. If for a certain period it is necessary to transfer animals to stall maintenance (strong cold and inclement weather in winter), then feeding is done in special pens. They set the feeders, which are filled with food. As it fits fresh grass and hay. It is desirable that it was cereals or legumes, clover is great. Concentrates, mixed fodder and fresh vegetables can be given in small quantities. Animals are taken to the watering place twice a day.
Winter feeding is mainly due to hay. It will need approximately 2 kg per adult. Barley is used as a concentrate, but as an additive, since sheep quickly become fattened from it. As a protein supplement, pea flour and other legume residues are successfully used. Exclusively for young stockings, bran, the basis of which is oats, is added to the daily diet. You can stock fresh root vegetables in order to feed them to animals. To maintain high quality wool, you need to add to food chalk, salt and bone meal.
The Romanov breed is truly one of the best in the world. Smart, hardy, prolific, these sheep will help you to create an effective farm without much investment. Undemanding to conditions of detention, animals will completely cost unheated stalls and a vast pasture where they will feed.
Some secrets of popularity
Today, Romanov sheep and their breeding in peasant and farms have earned popularity. Often, these lambs began to breed even the townspeople and residents of suburban settlements. There are several reasons for acquiring such popularity and they are indisputable.
- This breed is most suitable for a rapid increase in livestock due to its high fertility. One ewe can produce 3 to 6 lambs in one litter.
- Due to the thick sheepskin, it is possible to keep sheep in unheated rooms even during severe frosts, which reduces the cost of their maintenance.
- They grow quickly enough, which allows you to get meat in 6-8 months, and sometimes even faster. By the age of 11-12 months, a ram can reach 70-80 kilograms.
- Food for the cultivation of these animals requires a little, which allows them to be maintained even in urban environments, for example, in the country. Lambs, if necessary, are able to feed on grass to the leaves, moss, dead grass, coarse straw.
- Puberty comes early: by 4–5 months. Yarka shows sexual activity throughout the year, which also allows you to increase your livestock very quickly.
- Romanov meat, sheepskin, wool and milk are highly valued due to their high qualities.
Where to start a man who decided to breed sheep of this beautiful breed?
First, you need to decide what you would like to receive from your animals? Will you focus on breeding? Or is it important for you to grow sheep only for your personal needs in the shortest possible time? Or maybe you want to engage in sheep farming to get milk and make products from it? A proper understanding of your goals will help determine:
- how many goals you should buy,
- what feeds to buy, and to what extent,
- Is it necessary to build premises for maintenance and lambing of queens or quite simple canopies?
To provide one average family with meat, milk and wool (without selling products), it is enough to purchase 3-4 queens and one ram! If your goal is to get products and sell them on the market, then you should start with at least 10 queens and 1-2 sheep. On this basis, it will be easy for you to calculate the size of the desired premises for keeping sheep.
The next important step is the acquisition of animals. It is more expedient to acquire adult individuals, because even by their appearance it is easier to select the animal you need. The purchase of young stock is, of course, cheaper, but there is a risk here - it is not known how the small bjashka will show itself in the future in terms of productivity. But before proceeding to the purchase of animals, prepare the premises for their maintenance and feed.
Sheep pregnancy or how to take birth
Pregnant queens need to be fed intensively, to provide them with vitamins and essential minerals. The owner needs to record the date of the mating and the nickname or number of the ewe. So you will be able to separate it in time from the general herd before the lambing, prepare the animal for the birth and follow them. Pregnancy lasts an average of 145 days. A few days before lambing, you need to cut the hair around the udder, trim the hooves. In the cage, where will pass okot lay a fresh bedding.
2-3 days before lambing, the udder is poured, the belly becomes lower, the tail becomes thick and soft, and under the tail everything turns red and swells. Immediately before the lamb, the animal begins to worry, stop eating, shifts from foot to foot, often lies down.
Childbirth begins with the disclosure of the birth canal in the uterus. This stage lasts about 2 hours. At this time, the animal is better not to disturb. Then, the contractions begin. The walls of the abdomen begin to contract strongly, the pharynx opens, and the lamb is pushed out. The cord normally breaks itself. It is important to observe that the film in which the baby is born does not cover his mouth and nose so that he does not suffocate. Usually, the mother herself licks her baby.
After 20-40 minutes, the next lamb is born, then another. Normally, lambs must be born with their front legs forward, but sometimes they are born with their backs. Here it is important not to let the fetus linger in the uterus head, otherwise it may suffocate. If he didn’t come out right away, you can pull him a little by the hind legs. But still, in most cases, ewes safely give birth themselves. After 4-6 hours, the last should come out - the lambing has ended. In case of detention of the placenta - contact your veterinarian.
Features of feeding newborns
Half an hour after birth, large lambs already know how to stand and learn to suck milk from the udder. Weak individuals, if they cannot find the udder, should be substituted for it. If the lambs were born more than two, it is important to arrange their feeding. It is good if you have a milk goat in your compound. Goat's milk is most suitable for feeding lambs.
Feeding weak babies can be from a baby bottle with a nipple. It is necessary to start feeding in small portions, gradually increasing the volume. You can use substitutes instead of natural milk. From 3-4 weeks of age, lambs begin to train to concentrate. Put trough with crushed feed, chalk, salt and other vitamin supplements. At the age of 4 months, lambs are separated from the queens. From now on, they begin an independent life.
Breeding sheep of the Romanov breed is an interesting and rewarding occupation! With the right approach, the livestock of your animals will grow very quickly and will pay for all costs incurred.
The main features characterizing the Romanov sheep
The settled breed that is used in breeding is standardized. Standard - a description of the external features that define the purebred specimen. So, beautiful horns, the male or female are not a generic sign, the carrier of such jewelry is sent for meat, after collecting a tribute in the form of six and skins. The predominance of white areas in color is also a sign of splitting. The characteristic of the Romanov breed of sheep was created in 1908 by the biologist Pavel Nikolaevich Kuleshov.
A group of breeds of sheep is called a short-tail, which fully describes the structure of this part of the body. Here is how the breed describes the standard:
- height - medium,
- chest - wide, deep,
- back - straight,
- sacrum - slack,
- withers - wide,
- body build - strong
- legs are straight, of medium length.
The structure of the backbone can be strong, delicate and coarse. Sheep with strong bones are the most enduring and produce more offspring. They have a good thick undercoat, down from 50-60 mm does not roll. In color dominates the gray-blue color. Sheepskin is appreciated.
The coarse type of Romanov sheep has a massive skeleton, thick skin, and coarse wool with a lot of awn. The awn's appearance above the down makes the color of the sheep dark or even black. These are the most unpretentious, tenacious sheep. Their wool is used for felting boots. The skin is not suitable for fur coats, it is thick and heavy, the coarse wool does not warm well.
The third type of skeleton is tender. The Romanov breed of sheep with a thin skeleton has a narrow body. Everything seems to be flattened from the sides - chest, head, legs standing close. And specific diseases - pulmonary. Spit a little in the wool, so the sheep is white. But the skin is thin, the skin is weak and fertility is low.
Sheep manure is considered a very effective organic fertilizer. The composition of its concentrated, should be used with caution, preferably in the form of liquid dressings or tamping greenhouse.
Characteristics of the Romanov breed of sheep is the sum of the indicators.
Color standard - down should be creamy white, hair black and always shorter than down. The ratio of down to hair 4/1 - 10/1. Newly born lambs must be black. After two or three weeks, they will gradually acquire the breed color. Black head and tail, legs to the hock, a third of the torso. The border between the light and black parts is sharp. Light effects depend on the ratio of hair and fluff on each part of the body. If the thick undercoat does not allow the top fluff to coagulate, coarse hair creates a direction of growth, long soft down can only twist from above, creating beautiful curls with gray tints.
Deviations from the standard are common, but standard individuals are selected for breeding sheep.
Breeding perspectives for Romanov sheep
Breeding Romanov sheep is not difficult. The sheep, called bright, is ready for fertilization from 4 months, but mating is done when the live weight is bright at least 40 kg, at about 7 months. Pregnancy lasts 145 days. During the period of lactation, there may be a hunt and a new pregnancy. Twice a year physiologically, the offspring is possible. The breeding sheep of the Romanov breed are many, the two lambs have a norm, sometimes more.
In favorable conditions and with proper care for the year, the herd can be increased by 3 times. The mother is ready to feed 3 lambs within 2 months. In close quarters, during the period of mass lambing, it is not always possible to fully preserve the offspring. If in the first minutes of the life of a lamb a sheep did not lick it and did not let it go to the udder, the newborn will die of starvation. Therefore, the task of a person is to detect a woman in labor in a flock and slip it into the udder of a lamb. Nobody will feed the alien baby.
The more lambs are born in baranuhi, the smaller the offspring, lower survival rate and longer fattening to commercial weight. One lamb weighs 3.7 kg, and each of the four is a little more than 2. Therefore, in 100 days the first one will weigh 25 kg, and a multiple lamb will gain only 16 kg.
After 3 weeks of feeding, lambs and females are kept separately, a herd of adults is led to grazing, but at a certain time they are driven to feeding. This mode creates a better lactation. There is the possibility of manual feeding of lambs with the selection of milk for food needs. Grown up youngsters are divided into Kutsans and Yarochek and graze them not only separately, but in different sectors. At this point, the females are ready to mate.
Breeding can occur unregulated and year round, if the herd has a ram producer. In farms, offspring plan, so that you can feed the young with the best weight gain and wool quality. Therefore, the mating is carried out at the same time, in order to get the same-age flock suitable for autumn slaughter. The maintenance of Romanov sheep in skins during the winter period makes the mating correct in the autumn, for the release of grown lambs to the pasture.
Feeding and care for livestock
The maintenance of Romanov sheep differs from the purpose of keeping the flock. Flock is completed from one age and one sex of sheep:
- youngsters on the suction,
- maternal stock,
With a kosher-base method of keeping, each flock has its own sector, in which there is pasture, watering, paddock and warm indoor space. Several similar flocks can be placed nearby.
Овцы – животные копытные. Копыта стачиваются, когда овцы ходят по степи, копытят землю. Содержать этих животных без выгула нельзя. По нескольку часов в день стадо должно перемещаться, разыскивая корм, даже под снегом.
Грубый корм этим животным необходим. У них больший расход энергии расходуется для протекания физиологических процессов. The table shows the norms for the most responsible group of animals - the breeding stock.
In winter, cattle are fed with roughage, for nursing mothers it is useful to get roots, lambs from a week old begin to feed with bran and special compound feeds. From 3 weeks, babies are taught to silage and hay from legumes. It is necessary to provide an increase in body weight of 120-150 g / day. Rams producers in the case period receive even a return in the diet, for more active semen.
A practically waste-free meat-wool sheep population is a very profitable production. Production begins at 5 months of age:
Romanov sheep wool is the most delicate, from the first removal, called poyarkovoy. This is a top quality product. Later, sheep are sheared 3 times a year, as the down grows. If the sheep are not cut in time, a seasonal molt will begin, the fleece value of the fleece will be lost. About 2 sheep are removed from the sheep, 3 kg of wool is removed from the sheep. Valuable material used in light industry. Having passed the POSH (primary wool processing) factory, the product becomes clean, free from coarse fiber fleece.
When slaughtered, the skins taken are degreased and sent for further processing. Perhaps your muton fur coat is made of Romanov sheep breed. Furriers believe that this is the best material for tailoring high-quality dushegreke.
Meat from sheep, lamb, is highly regarded for its special flavor. It is known that sheep feed on grass, they are not fed growth hormones - meat is secondary production. From one young sheep at slaughter receive up to 20 kg of meat and offal. Kebab from lamb is valued all over the world.
Milk from sheep is 2 times fatter and richer in minerals than cow's. Sheep is not very productive animal. But if you contain several dairy sheep, you can make cheese and other medicinal dairy products.
The first mention of the Romanov breed dated 1802 year. Peasants who lived in the territory of the Yaroslavl region of Russia, were engaged in breeding sheep. At their disposal were local short-tailed breeds. Sheep breeders were constantly selected for the reproduction of the best individuals with good quality indicators of wool.
Gradually, the descendants of short-tailed sheep began to give birth to lambs, fully satisfying the needs of the local sheep breeders - they were prolific, had thick wool and provided farmers with meat and milk. So the sheep of the Romanov breed appeared. The first representatives of its representatives were distributed in the territory of the Romanovo-Borisoglebsk district of the Yaroslavl province, so they were called Romanov.
Consider the external characteristics of the Romanov sheep breed:
- growth in withers reaches 65-70 cm,
- barrel-shaped body,
- back and rump straight,
- the head is compact, the muzzle is elongated,
- the nose has a characteristic crook,
- ears are arranged vertically,
- chest deep and wide,
- tail is thin and short, up to 13 cm,
- limbs muscular, straight,
- sheep can be horned or horned
- the average weight of a ram is 60-70 kg, ewes are 45-55 kg,
- the hair on the face, limbs and ears is black (white spots are allowed on the legs),
- The hair of the Romanov sheep is black, and the down hair is white, due to which the coat seems blue,
- down longer than guard hair.
Attention! Lambs of the Romanov breed are born with black wool. Over time, it brightens. At the age of 3.5-5 months, the coat color changes completely.
External characteristics of the Romanov sheep breed
Sheep of this breed are classified by type of bones. There are normal, rough and gentle bones. For industrial breeding, the first type is best. In sheep with normal bones, the highest rates of nastrig and quality wool and meat productivity. In sheep with a coarse type, the coat is coarser and the slaughter yield of meat is reduced, since the bones and skin of animals are heavy. But they are more enduring and viable. The third type is not used for breeding on the tribe, they cut the wool of their minimum, and the fleece is not the best quality, it falls. Sheep and sheep of this type do not differ in good health.
Okot from the sheep of the Romanov breed
Breeding sheep of the Romanov breed is associated with the need to often give birth to queens. The farmer should have an idea of how lambing occurs. It usually occurs at the end of winter or the beginning of spring, depending on when the mating was made. With his approach, the lamb is behaving restlessly, bleating. Other signs of approaching lambing:
- udder swelling (2-3 days before delivery),
- selection of droplets of colostrum from the nipples with pressure,
- sagging belly,
- an increase in external genitalia.
Attention! 3-4 days before the expected date of the lambing, the ewe should be transferred to a separate stall, put there a clean and dry litter, prepare the feeder and the drinker.
Okot in Romanov sheep occurs easily. Lambs appear at intervals of 15 minutes. Usually human involvement is not required, but in rare cases when the lamb occupies the wrong position in the birth canal, help may be needed. When a cub comes out, the sheep gnaws the umbilical cord itself, then licks the baby.
Important! During the first hour of life, each lamb must receive a portion of maternal colostrum.
A novice farmer needs to enlist the support of a veterinarian by inviting him to give birth to a sheep. In case of complications, he will show how to act. In the future, the sheep breeder can handle it himself. After lambing, the afterbirth should leave the birth canal. Normally, this occurs after 4-6 hours. If this does not happen, you will need veterinary care. The last is carried away from the farm and buried in the ground. Ewe provide drinking water, and you can feed it in 6-9 hours after birth. Newborn lambs are kept in a separate compartment, they are given for feeding every 2-3 hours.
Those who only have to choose which sheep to breed should pay attention to the Romanov breed. It has excellent performance characteristics, and in the care and maintenance of unpretentious. The main thing for the representatives of this breed is to move more and eat well so that the productive indicators remain at the proper level.