The farm provides the family with food of plant and animal origin. Breeding pigs in the compound is beneficial for many reasons. Getting meat after a short fattening, disposal of food residues, summer content with grazing makes pork a cheap and affordable product.
Is it profitable to keep pigs and why
Pork production is beneficial for both the family and business development. In any economic situation on the table will be a piece of meat. With small investments, you can start a pig breeding business in your own farmstead. A unique animal will provide a stable income both when raising livestock for meat and when keeping sows for the implementation of offspring.
Objective data on the efficiency of keeping pigs:
- the rapid increase in the commodity mass, for the year of keeping the live weight of a newborn pig increases 140 times,
- carcass weight compared with live weight is 85%, while cattle 50-60%,
- for farrowing, the uterus brings up to 14 piglets depending on the breed, each of which will bring in $ 100-200 in a month,
- pigs absorb up to 30% of the composition of the feed, in other domestic animals, this figure does not exceed 20%.
The correct choice of breed and small investments will allow beginners to breed pigs at home to create a successful business. To meet the needs of the family in meat and fat, it is enough to buy two piglets in early spring. Babies do not need a lot of space for content. In the summer, animals grow rapidly. With the onset of autumn in the compound a lot of plant residues, which are a good fodder base. For intensive feeding of pigs for two months before slaughter, you will need to increase the consumption of protein feed. If you do not consider the work on the care of pigs, a year's supply of pork will cost cheap. Do not need a warm pigsty. But there are requirements for fattening pigs that need to be fulfilled.
Keeping pigs at home requires the right approach to food choices. So a kid at the age of a month needs:
- the prevalence of dairy products and cereals based on milk or milk substitutes,
- use of special premix for piglets containing special sets of vitamins and antibiotics to make babies grow healthy,
- maintain the frequency of feeding, corresponding to the age and size of the stomach of a pig.
When fattening a pig from 2 to 4 months, do not include raw potatoes in the diet, only mashed potatoes or shreds. Root vegetables are better to be boiled and chopped. Carrots are healthier to feed raw grated, the grass should be finely cut and brewed with boiling water.
After slaughtering the carcass pigs are treated with a blowtorch to remove the bristles. Wash off carbon deposits will help high pressure. Compact car wash is available from car owners. The application of this method of processing increases the presentation of the product.
Business activities for the breeding and fattening of pigs
Any business requires planning. The business plan for the breeding of pigs should include expenditure and revenue. Pig production is profitable only if the requirements for the conditions of detention and feeding of animals are met.
Therefore, the cost estimate of the main item is the construction of a pigsty at the rate of 4 square meters. m per feed unit and 6 squares per sow. The room should include a den, a walking area and a canopy from the sun. For pigs should be provided swimming pool. If feeding is done in a common trough, there should be enough space for each animal to approach.
The stable must be strong so that the pig does not go free as a result of the digging. In the pigsty provide:
- roof that prevents leakage
- natural and combined lighting
- capital walls, freezing,
- a floor with gutters for waste disposal and a clean, dry bedding,
- room ventilation.
When it is placed, there should be a walking ground, while in summer time pigs spend most of their time. In the fresh air, there is a faster build-up of muscle mass, animals are less sick.
In the expenditure part includes the purchase of pedigree specimens. For commercial production of meat, breeding of pigs of the required breed must be maintained at the farm. This will reduce the cost of acquiring piglets on the side and allow you to get healthy offspring for the herd.
If piglets are purchased from other farms, they must be quarantined before the herd is formed. It is necessary to include in the cost estimate vaccination of the herd at each developmental period. Without a certificate of veterinary control of livestock, the legal sale of meat will be impossible.
The current costly item will be the acquisition of special feed for pigs, premixes and vitamin complexes. However, food is much cheaper than meat. The cost of production is traditionally high. And with the observance of the technology of growing business risk is reduced to a minimum, but you need to plan this item of expenditure.
With a large number of pigs, dry feeding is preferable. Increased feed costs will pay off with a large weight gain and lower maintenance costs for fattening. It is important to provide animals with water at 6-8 liters per head per day.
The revenue part takes into account that one sow can produce up to 14 piglets, the fattening of which will provide up to 3 tons of marketable products. To distribute profit in terms of receipt of products. If the resulting balance does not yield the expected profit, the pig breeding business plan needs to be optimized. That is, find cheaper food or suckers. Successful breeders in the home yard receive up to 1000% profit in 2-3 years.
In order to grow pigs at home, as a business was successful, you should follow the rules:
- observe the hygienic conditions of pigs,
- Do not miss the time for casting piglets,
- carry out preventive measures against diseases and avitaminosis of livestock,
- to observe the time and frequency of feeding animals, to ensure constant access to water.
Feed feed with mold and signs of souring liquid feed can not be. Feeders should be treated periodically with boiling water.
When buying offspring from pedigree pigs, you need to know about the structural features of animals. You can get pork with a predominance of bacon, bacon or meat from a particular breed.
Is it profitable to keep pigs? There is no other way to provide family meat at cost. For a business organization with a small number of heads, meat will be sold without going to trading platforms. Buyers will be neighbors. Livestock products are always in steady demand.
Breeding pigs: the benefits
Compared to other pets, the pig is more endowed with such qualities as:
- High productivity, high speed meat and its significant volumes. The weight of a newborn pig is about one kilogram, in a week - 2-3 kg, after a month - 20-30 kg. A one-year-old pig weighs 150 kg, and it oversteps the mark of 100 kg at the age of seven months.
- Omnivorous. Pigs eat almost all vegetable and animal feed, including food waste.
- Good reproduction rate and high fecundity. With good conditions of maintenance, one sow is able to please the farmer with offspring twice a year, that is, one farrowed for 12-14 pigs, each of which will give more than 100 kg of good meat per year.
- High digestibility of food - up to a third of the substances contained in the feed. For example, poultry is able to learn only one fifth of it. That is, to gain weight the pig will need less feed than any other animal.
- Popularity. Pork, like chicken, is particularly loved and popular with consumers.
Premises for domestic pigs
How to grow pigs if home conditions? Breeding pigs in the first place requires a suitable room. It should be a dry, warm and well ventilated stable (or shed), reliably protected from penetrating winds, especially in winter. In order to comply with sanitary conditions and prevent various infections, the shed must be whitened from the inside.
Laying a foundation 50–70 cm high above the ground before building a room will ensure its dryness. Particular attention should be paid to the location of groundwater, the depth of which should be from the ground level deeper than 1.5 meters. Otherwise, the room will be wet, which will adversely affect the health of pigs.
The walls must be thick enough to maintain heat in the room and protect animals from freezing. Ceilings are preferably insulated from above, as a low-cost insulation can use a 20-cm layer of sawdust and 5-cm layer of sand above it.
For the roof, which should be waterproof, warm and strong, most often used slate or sheeting. The floor is often made concrete (without cavities and crevices in order to avoid the accumulation and decay of animal waste products). It is easy to clean and does not slip, which prevents possible injuries to pigs. Gutters must be equipped to remove excrement.
Comfort for pigs: the key to success
The stable should be equipped with pens, which, in turn, are required to be divided into the zone where pigs will be fed (with a food trough located in it) and the den - the place where animals will spend the rest of the time. A pig is a rather large animal, and it is prone to the destruction of partitions and undermining the floor, so special attention should be paid to the strength of these parts of the room. Ideally, the fences of the machines will be metal. Be sure to have a drinker located on a small hill. Otherwise, the pigs will pollute the water intended for drinking.
Also pigs need a shallow hole filled with water for swimming, and equipped with a canopy space for walking in the warm season. Moreover, this area should be quite extensive (at least 10 square meters. M), especially if you plan to release a sow with offspring or a large number of individuals.
The pigsty should be provided with electric lighting used during the period of farrowing and feeding the young offspring with the sow. For small piglets, heaters will be required.
Breeding pigs: choice of breed
Consider another important issue with domestic pig production. This is the choice of breed of pigs. There are three types of them: greasy, meat (bacon) and meat-meat (universal).
The fatty breeds of pigs are aimed at obtaining high-quality fat. Naturally, the meat on the carcass is present, but at a certain point, starting from six months of age, the growth of muscle tissue slows down, causing an intense accumulation of fat. One carcass of this type contains 40–45% fat and meat, respectively, 50–53%. Externally, the greasy type pigs are characterized by a wide and coarse torso, its front part is an order of magnitude heavier than the back one. Ukrainian steppe, Berkshire, Hungarian "Mangalitsa", Large black are considered the most popular breeds of the greasy direction.
Meat (bacon) pig breeds are characterized by increased intensity of muscle tissue development in comparison with fatty ones. In breeds of this type, a rapid growth of offspring is observed, which, with the right intensive fattening, reaches a weight of 100 kilograms by 7–8 months of age. The amount of meat obtained from such pigs is 58–68%, less often - 80%, and fat - 21–32%. The shape of the body in meat pigs is somewhat elongated, characterized by a shallow chest and a strongly developed rear part, which is larger than the front. The most prominent representatives of the meat type are the English large white breed of pigs, Estonian bacon, Vietnamese vislobryukhaya, Tamworth, Duroc, Pietrain, Landrace.
The meat-bearing breed is considered universal, because from it they get the most delicious meat and tender fat. Even with standard feeding (food waste), pigs of this type quickly gain weight, the meat index of which varies from 53 to 65%, fat - 29–37%.
For the content in the home, as well as industrial cultivation, can adapt any of the breeds. It is important to determine the purpose of its appointment: the production of meat, fat or both.
Feeding animals can be done in two ways: wet and dry.
Wet feeding is traditional and involves the preparation of mash - feed, diluted with water. Pigs give food waste and boiled roots. This method is inexpensive, as it does not require the purchase of additional feed, however, the gain of the animal will not be very intense. Therefore, to quickly obtain meat emphasis should be placed on dry feeding, with which less hassle, and the result will become more noticeable. Dry guinea pig feed needs to be combined with plenty of water. You should also take into account the characteristics of each feed, so the pigs are better to give a lot of grain in a ground form, which will become the basis of nutrition. Cooked potatoes can be used as a supplement. Raw vegetables can be given in small quantities as vitamin supplements. Feeding is better to carry out in small portions, because with significant single volumes of the food will remain in the trough in the form unclaimed for further use.
Fish and bone meal, leguminous crops, fodder yeast, cake and skimmed milk - sources of protein, will be excellent additives to the main feed, especially for meat breeds of pigs.
Content sow: subtleties
Often for breeding pigs youngsters are purchased on the market (which is quite expensive), but you can keep your own sow. Sexual maturity in the female usually occurs not earlier than 8 months, the farrowing occurs within 110-115 days from the moment of fertilization. For mating requires the use of a pig that has reached a mass of 100 kg. It should be well fed, significantly enriching the diet with vitamins. To make the mating, it is necessary to determine the period of the beginning of the hunt in the pig, the signs of the onset of which are the restless behavior of the animal, lack of appetite, the appearance of redness on the genitals, discharge and heat. Pigs should be brought down within 12 hours with a boar. The period of ovulation in an animal lasts for one and a half days, so it is important to determine it in a timely manner. Within 17 days from the moment of mating, the behavior of the animal should be observed: if fertilization has not occurred, the mumps will behave calmly, if there are signs of hunting, then you need to repeat the procedure.
In the first 3 months after fertilization, the pig is given regular food, later it should be made more concentrated, preferring coarse and succulent feed. The animal should not be overfed in order to avoid complications during childbirth. A couple of days before the farrowing, the pig begins to behave restlessly, its sides are very lowered, the mammary glands swell, and swelling of the genitals is observed.
At birth of an animal, the presence of a person is desirable, especially if the sow is young. Perhaps the birth may be delayed, and the animal will need help. Pigs, appearing one at each attempt, immediately you need to wipe with hay, free your mouth from mucus. A piglet may appear in the amniotic sac, which must be immediately torn apart and set free the baby.
Pigs are born weak, so in order to avoid losses of young stock, you should create the most comfortable conditions, the temperature of the pigsty should not be below 18 degrees, the room should be well ventilated and dried, without traces of dampness, the presence of electric lighting is necessary. During the first three weeks of life, small piglets feed on mother's milk, which is able to increase their immunity and gain the necessary weight, then the young should be taught other foods aimed at intensive growth stimulation. It is recommended to take away piglets from sow not earlier than 4 weeks from the moment of farrowing. In the absence of sows, youngsters are fattened from a nipple with cow or goat milk. In the milk age, it is also important to make them vitamin injections with iron content.
Caring for pigs is not particularly difficult. It is important to provide them with adequate housing conditions, timely feeding of pigs and quality supervision of the young. The temperature of the air in the barn should vary from 12 to 16 degrees, for the young - 18–20 degrees. The optimum humidity in the room is 70%. It is important to observe the sanitary and hygienic standards of pigs, regularly clean the floor in the pigsty, clean the food trough from food residue.
Business plan for domestic pig
Составление бизнес-плана при планировании создания собственной свинофермы требует включения таких затрат, как строительство свинарника и закупка необходимого для работы оборудования, зарплата персонала, приобретение кормов, ветеринарные услуги. На затратную часть может повлиять ряд различных факторов. К примеру, свинарник можно самому построить с нуля, а можно приобрести старую свиноферму и произвести в ней ремонтные работы. The use of modern equipment will significantly reduce the cost of wages, which will make breeding pigs more profitable. Although most businessmen prefer to use manual labor, saving on automation services.
Pig breeding is always profitable
The profitability of the pig as a business is estimated at 30%, but if you wish, you can achieve higher rates. This requires:
- Opt for the breed of pigs, the most suitable for the purpose of the content and its conditions. Particular attention should be paid to the selection of young stock, which is recommended to buy from different suppliers in order to avoid genetic mutations. Acquisition of sows requires consideration of their milkiness, performance, nipple condition and brood safety.
- Periodic disinfection and prevention of dampness and drafts in the pigsty.
- Creating optimal conditions for pregnant sows.
- Experience and professionalism of farm workers.
- Providing animals with nutritious, high-quality, vitamin-based food, taking into account all the features of feeding animals.
- Vaccination and regular inspection of animals to prevent the occurrence of diseases, timely treatment of pigs when they appear.
Pig production as a business with the above recommendations can be a very profitable occupation, because high-quality pork always has an increased demand.
Breeding pigs is the most profitable business in the field of animal husbandry, so keeping even one pig in the yard is always profitable!
Features breeding at home
Keeping pigs at home is beneficial, primarily because of the demand for meat products and their high cost. At the same time, income can be obtained quite quickly. At the age of six months, most individuals reach a mass of one hundred kilograms. In addition, females breed twice a year, ten to twelve piglets. Thus, the annual potential of pork meat is almost two and a half tons.
Pigs can be raised by experienced farmers as well as beginners. At the same time, the farm requires minimal investment and allows saving in the process of pig breeding.
Good and stable income can be obtained only if the basic norms and rules of keeping and feeding are observed, regardless of the scale of production.
Cleanliness in the premises, regardless of the quality of the building, is a prerequisite for animal hygiene and health. Floor cleaning in pig houses should be done daily. To facilitate it during construction, it is recommended to make a drain.
After clearing the floor of the litter, you must lay out the litter. It is made from coarse hay, straw or sawdust. Replace it, too, must be daily. In addition, once or twice a week during cleaning it is recommended to perform sanitary treatment of the room itself, as well as inventory and feeders.
The preparation of the diet depends primarily on the breed and its type. Most often, the basis of the daily menu is a combination feed consisting of grain crops, bran, oilcake and premix additives. This food should be supplemented with fresh and boiled vegetables and root vegetables, greens or hay, dairy and dairy products.
Feed can be given in dry form or in the form of mash. Be sure to also submit a large amount of water for good digestion.
Nuances in winter and summer
In the winter season, pigs should be kept indoors, with additional heating (if necessary). Short walks during this period should be allowed only if the temperature rises above zero degrees. And to the onset of cold weather, the floor and walls should be as insulated as possible. There must be no drafts. The temperature for adult pigs should be at least twelve degrees, for sows with piglets - at least sixteen.
The diet in the winter is also somewhat modified. Instead of green grass, one should introduce hay and grass dust, as well as melons and root crops.
In summer, pigs can be kept in enclosures equipped with a canopy, feeders and drinkers, as well as a swimming pool. Of these pens, it is necessary to make available the entrance to the premises in case of deteriorating weather conditions.
To prevent the formation of fungi, mold, parasites and bacterial infections, once every one or two weeks it is necessary to sanitize the walls and floor in the pigsty after careful cleaning. Caustic soda or hydrated lime should be used as a disinfectant. The solution of potassium permanganate has a low impact, so it is better to use it for processing inventory and feeding containers.
What is better to build?
Buildings for keeping pigs can be made of wood or brick and blocks. Concrete and brick pigsty will cost more, but they are usually more durable. In addition, such a structure is easier to warm, since it obviously does not let through drafts. Content in concrete flocks will be more hygienic..
The floor is also recommended to be made of concrete. Over it is built a wooden platform, which will occupy three quarters of the area. On it and need to lay the litter.
If there are rats
The presence of rats in the pigsty is dangerous. They can harm young animals, as well as infect them with infectious diseases. If they start up in flocks, you should get rid of them. To do this, you can use one of three methods:
- Mechanical. It involves the placement of traps and mousetraps around the perimeter of the pigsty, which can be purchased or made independently.
- Biological. The essence of the method is to attract cats and dogs for catching rats and mice. The difficulty, however, is that it is difficult to find a suitable animal.
- Chemical. It is the most simple and popular method. Treatment with drugs should be carried out in a respirator and gloves. At the same time, it is possible to apply poisons only on those areas where pigs cannot reach.
It is recommended that dead rats be removed from the pigsty as soon as possible for the purpose of hygiene and the prevention of accidental poisoning of domestic animals.
It is dangerous to poison rats with ordinary potent poisons, as you can accidentally poison domestic animals.
The average pig is ready to mate at the age of seven to nine months. The first farrowing, as a rule, brings about five to eight piglets, the next - up to twenty, depending on the breed. The whole process of farrowing takes an average of two to six hours. It should take place with the obligatory supervision of the farmer.
Pregnancy of pigs on average lasts just over one hundred and ten days. The readiness for litter is usually indicated by the restless behavior of the sow, swelling of the udder and nipples. If these signs occur in the pig house, it is necessary to prepare a soft and dense bedding, as well as to prepare inventory.
As soon as the piglets are born, their feet and noses should be wiped from the mucus with a rag. The umbilical cord can be cut or cut off at a distance of about six centimeters from the abdomen. Next, it will need to be treated with iodine. After that, the young are applied to the udder to obtain colostrum. The first feeding of the piglets must be done in the first forty-five minutes after birth.
Immediately after farrowing litter must be removed from the pigsty and burn. Further, periodic monitoring should be established so that the sow does not crush the offspring.
If the pig shows excessive anxiety, it is recommended that the piglets be sown for two to three hours, then reapplied to the nipples.
Feeding suckling piglets
In the case of a successful outcome of farrowing piglets can be left with the mother. Thus, the piglets will get their own food every fifteen minutes. The number of feedings in the first days can reach twenty. Feed the young need only two weeks after birth. To do this, he can prepare mash from milk, barley and clay. It is also recommended to give soft green grass. As the piglets grow and develop within one to two months, they should be gradually transferred to “adult” feed. By that time, the milk in the mother's udder no longer remains.
To obtain high-quality offspring for sale and breeding, it is necessary to form a herd.
How many boars do you need?
At first, for breeding, it is enough to purchase a pair of piglets - females and boars. They can give the first offspring. However, if it is planned to grow a large herd of pigs, it will be necessary to periodically purchase additional animals for renewal in order to prevent closely related bonds. In some cases, you can do without the males, using the technology of artificial insemination.
Breeding pigs can be practiced at home to improve the quality of selected breeds by crossing them. It is recommended to acquire animals for this purpose only in specialized farms.
How to understand that a pig is pregnant?
To determine the presence of pregnancy is quite simple. As soon as the sow begins to hunt, its genitals slightly turn red and swell. In addition, there may be a slight estrus, as well as anxiety and loss of appetite. The case is usually carried out at the onset of these phenomena. To understand that the female is pregnant, it is enough to observe one day after the procedure. If the signs of hunting are not repeated, then the pairing was successful.
First birth problems
Most often, problems during farrowing can occur if mating was performed before the age of six to seven months. This is due to the lack of mass. However, there are difficulties and not related to this factor. So, the female may show aggression and not let the piglets to the nipples. Often this is due to excessive sensitivity of the udder. In this case, it is recommended to file the canines in the young.
The first hours after childbirth, sows often refuse food. In this case, it is necessary to make an attempt to feed it with haylocks and liquid feeds. If during the day the animal continues to refuse to eat, you will need to resort to the help of a veterinarian.
To restore the strength and appetite of the pig, you can prepare a warm aqueous solution of sugar for drinking.
The video covers the pork production business.
Top building materials
- porous aerocrete,
- cinder blocks,
- rubble stone
Inside the wall can be plastered and whitewashed or sheathed boards. Suitable microclimatic conditions for keeping pigs should be maintained in the pigsty. The attic must be insulated, and the floors can be poured with concrete or assembled from boards. In external walls, manholes with dimensions of 70x70 cm are needed, through which animals will be able to get to the street area for walking.
Conditions of detention
The most difficult is the rearing of young pigs, which need more comfortable conditions. Purchased piglets should be left in a quarantine room for a week to identify sick individuals in the early stages of development.
Young animals should be grown at an ambient temperature in the range of 18-22 degrees and humidity in the range above 70-80%.
Pigs must be kept in warm rooms without moisture and drafts, so that they can become stronger.
The room for pigs should be kept clean, and animals should be provided with walks outside. Change water as often as possible, and after each feeding, clean the feeders. Monthly pigsty requires disinfection treatment.
The correct technology of growing pigs involves ensuring adequate natural light in the room. Sunlight has a positive effect on the development of individuals. In the winter months, when the light day is shortened, artificial lighting is required.
A nursing female needs lighting for 18 hours a day at an illumination level of about 15 lux, and fattening individuals need lighting of 5-6 lux for 12 hours.
Ventilation of the room
In the pigsty, you need to equip the ventilation system, which will take the processed air out of the room, and instead drive fresh air from the street inside.
Small-scale pig keeping is possible with an improvised ventilation system, and industrial equipment will be required for breeding on a larger scale.
The main thing is not to forgetthat drafts are dangerous for piglets and young stock, therefore ventilation should not be too powerful. Optimum conditions for growing pigs are created with a forced-air and exhaust installation with capacity control.
Which breed is better
To organize a home farm, you need not only to study and observe the conditions of breeding pigs, but also to buy suitable living creatures. All domestic pigs are divided into three categories, depending on the meat:
- Bacon. In their meat most of the layers of fat, but there is no layer of fat.
- Tallow and meat. They have high-grade lard, but they also have meat.
- Meat and greasy. They get mostly meat.
In Russia, about three dozen breeds of different categories are in demand, and among themselves they differ in terms of cultivation, meat quality and weight. In determining the breed of pigs in the compound, be guided not by features, but by market demand in the region:
- Large white. This breed was brought from England, but our selectors made a significant contribution to the current appearance of animals. Proper breeding of white pigs allows individuals to gain 100 kg of weight in 7 months, and the mass of adult boars reaches 350 kg and females up to 250 kg. Breed attributed to meat-greasy.
- In the bacon category, the most popular in the Russian Federation is considered to be a breed called landrace. One hundred kilograms of animals gain about six months, and the maximum weight is 300 kg for males and 220 for females.
- The most popular breed among the fat-meat is difficult to select, as there are many of them. Among them is a large black. Pigs gain a centner in 6-7 months, reaching a maximum weight of 310 kg for boars and 215 kg for sows.
If you are interested in growing pigs in order to get dietary meat, pay attention to the Pietrain breed. Such pork contains less fat, and the animals themselves do not require any special care.
What to feed the pigs
Than to feed pigs for fast growth - this question is asked by all beginners. If for you pig breeding is a business, it’s better not to save on feed. A balanced diet is the main factor influencing individual weight gain, and the taste of meat depends on the quality of the feed.
In total there are three categories of feed, but we recommend using the first and second, or combine them.
It is not recommended to produce feedings of the third category, otherwise the meat will lose its taste. You can add it to the diet in rare cases, and 2-3 months before slaughter to exclude it altogether. Between the feed differ in composition:
- Feed category I - this is wheat, barley, rye, beans, peas, carrots and beets.
- Category II includes alfalfa, clover and other herbs.
- Category III feed consists of potatoes, corn, wheat bran, beet molasses, buckwheat, etc.
A greater amount of green fodder contributes to the growth of meat, and the roots, corn and barley increase the fat layer. Thus, everyone decides for himself, the better to feed the pigs.
Domestic pig - what is the benefit?
Perhaps, after poultry farming, this is the most profitable type of home business. No wonder it is pig breeding that is in second place in terms of profitability among all types of agricultural production.
This is explained by the following factors:
- high fertility rates (up to 30 piglets per year with proper approach and comfortable conditions of detention),
- rapid rate of weight gain (with proper feeding and care, 100 kilograms of young animals are already gaining at the age of 6-8 months),
- small term of carrying offspring (110-115 days),
- good adaptability to any conditions
- high yield of the final product (60-70%).
The benefits of breeding pigs at home can be viewed from different angles. For example, you can grow these animals in your private home for personal use.
Of course, this is associated with certain costs for the purchase of feed and requires a lot of time and physical labor, but as a result you will be confident in the environmental safety of the pork produced, and at the same time get a lot of healthy and tasty meat and lard.
Another approach to domestic pig breeding is raising animals for the purpose of further selling meat and grease products.
It should be noted that the pigs have almost no such parts of the carcass (well, except for bones and some types of intestines) that could not be sold. Guts are used as a shell in the manufacture of homemade sausage, the demand for which is always great. You can calculate the revenue yourself, based on the prevailing market prices in your region, and calculating that one large pig can produce up to two hundred kilograms of meat and fat.
Another type of income from the breeding of these animals is the sale of piglets.
Если вы не хотите сами заниматься откормом молодняка, его можно легко продать, так как в сельской местности спрос на него всегда велик.
Есть и еще один способ заработать на свиньях. Это использование племенных хряков для оплодотворения.
If you have brought and raised a good boar-producer, then good money is paid for its mating with a female, and the amount of remuneration grows depending on the purity of the breed and the productive qualities of the animal. Immediately we will warn - this earnings is not constant and we called it only as a source of additional, but not basic income.
Breeding pigs at home
For many, it will be an interesting discovery that pigs are very intelligent animals. They are very fond of affection, and in return reward the owner with loyalty and extreme affection. In this regard, it is best to take for breeding not adult pigs, and small pigs. This gives you the opportunity to do their own "education".
Successful breeding of pigs at home depends not only on the quantity and quality of their feed ration, but in many respects on the room in which you keep the animals.
Firstly, it should be spacious enough, protected from drafts and at the same time be able to be ventilated. It is also necessary to provide for the possibility of convenient and quick cleaning and disinfection.
The pigsty must be warm (the temperature in winter is not lower than 12 degrees for adults and not lower than 16 degrees for sows with piglets). In addition, these animals are very fond of sun and mud baths, so you need to provide for the possibility of their walking in the warm season and good lighting of the pig in the cold winter time.
In order to get numerous and healthy offspring, special attention should be paid to the choice of sow. It should be a good breed with high rates of productivity and fertility. Therefore, it is necessary to deal with existing breed species and determine the approach to their content and nutritional preferences. In addition, if you want to organize a profitable pig breeding enterprise, be prepared for certain material costs for the purchase of feed, the necessary equipment and the creation of comfortable conditions for keeping.
After getting the offspring, you should not expect that only breast milk is enough for the piglets. They need to start feeding from the first days after birth.
This feed is produced immediately after the babies are sucked on mother's milk. For these, a mixture of cow's milk and raw chicken eggs is used in proportions to one liter of milk - 3 raw eggs. The need to feed young animals is explained by the fact that in the first weeks of life they especially need a large amount of protein for normal and healthy development.
One day of life for a piglet during the suckling period is equal to the month of human life. Given this fact, you should plan your baby food beforehand. One day - an egg-milk mixture, the next day - thoroughly grated raw carrots, on the third day add grated apple to the mixture, on the fourth day - chopped boiled potatoes and so on.
The more pigs eat green fodder, the tastier and softer the meat they get.
Nettle, carrot and beet tops, and simply weeds growing in the garden are suitable as such feed. Pigs harbor omnivores, so finding suitable greens for them is not difficult. It should be remembered that, next to the feeder, it is imperative to put a container with charcoal and salt, and also do not forget to provide animals with round-the-clock access to water, which must be fresh and clean.
Choose a breed
This choice depends entirely on your personal preferences. Breeds are actually many, but all of them, according to the type of products they receive, are divided into three groups: meat (a lot of meat - a little fat), greasy (more fat), bacon (miao and lard - in equal proportions) and universal (they are also called meat-grease).
The latter pedigree group is interesting because the percentage ratio in the carcass of animal meat and fat can be adjusted independently by selecting a special diet and various conditions of detention.
In other words, the choice depends on you - either get a meat-tallow animal (with a predominance of the meat component over the sebaceous one), or a fat-meat meat (with a large amount of fat). And, of course, you can try to equalize the proportions of these two valuable products.
The largest white breed has received the greatest popularity in our country. It has a high slaughter yield, is very undemanding to the conditions of its maintenance, quickly gaining weight and adjusting the meat / fat ratio in the carcass of such animals is quite easy (of course, with strict observance of one or another feed ration).
Among the bacon breeds in Russia, Canadian breeds Duroc and Landrace are popular, and among the sebaceous breeds, the Mirgorodskaya and Vietnamese vislobryushaya breeds (otherwise they are often called either Korean or Asian).
Before you buy a piglet, first follow him for a while - as he runs, moves, with what appetite he eats. Frisky young with a good appetite - it means healthy.
If the pig moves sluggishly, eats reluctantly, as if through force, then it is better not to buy one.
When choosing young stock, pay attention to the exterior.
Thoroughbred piglets are distinguished by strong limbs, an elastic tail, a heavy head, a straight profile of the stigma, and also a strong and straight back. If, on the contrary, the little piglet’s legs are thin, the head is light, the back is deflected, the stigma is very “snub-nosed”, the ears are hanging (except for breeds of lop-eared pigs), then you have a typical representative of a tribal marriage that you shouldn’t take.
The very first step of the novice breeder should be the device of a good pigsty that meets all the necessary requirements for the proper maintenance of these animals.
First of all, this structure should be stable, durable, multifunctional and, of course, hygienic. It is necessary to take into account the fact that it will contain not only adult individuals, but also sows with piglets. In this regard, the walls should be made smooth, without roughness and, especially, sharp protrusions. Floors can not be made completely wooden, because pigs often bite wood and can damage them. Yes, and keep wooden floors clean is very problematic, since it is simply impossible to cover them with varnish or other protective agents. Modern pigsty have concrete-wooden floors with plastic or metal lattice channels. However, the concrete must be insulated with bedding from a mixture of hay and sand.
For normal circulation of fresh air, be sure to make a few holes (or better - provide a system of supply and exhaust ventilation). Pigsty should be well lit. Fully concreting the floor is also impossible, because in the winter in the room will be very cold, and the forced heating will fly into a pretty penny. The best variant of the flooring - half of the concrete / half - wood.
The system of discharge of liquid manure should be foreseen before the start of construction, so as not to miss this important point and not to redo the pigsty later.
It will be convenient if the floor and the waste of vital activity will be immediately made with a slope. The floors themselves in the pig houses are either solid or slotted. The second option is optimal for breeding pigs, because it allows to significantly reduce the cost of waste collection. Through the cracks in the flooring they immediately fall on the lower tier and are disposed of there.
Usually slotted floors are made using ordinary building reinforcement and concrete. However, the size of such slots must be strictly observed so that the limbs of animals do not fall through them and do not injure pigs.
For newborns and young piglets such flooring is not suitable, so their sector in the pigsty should always have a solid floor.
In order that the youngsters do not jump out on the slit coating, you need to carefully monitor, because it is the leg injuries that are the most frequent cause of death of the offspring. Zones of adult animals and young stock with sows should be separated from each other by a fence.
The temperature regime should be as follows: not lower than + 12 degrees for adult animals and not lower than + 16 degrees for young animals and sows. Temperatures greater than +30 degrees are also harmful to pigs.
Feeding and care
It is necessary to feed pigs daily and, preferably, at a specific time. Breaks between feedings must be at least eight hours.
After each feeding, the feeders must be thoroughly cleaned from non-eaten residue.
Grain and succulent feed should be alternated with root crops and feed.
The diet is always selected depending on the breed of pigs and what products you are going to get from them.