The black mamba is a snake that lives in African equatorial forests. You can meet her on the southeastern coast of Africa (more often in the south of the continent, in the latitudes of Lake Titicaca). She lives everywhere except in Namibia and South Africa. She managed to adapt to all climatic zones. This savannah, and forests, and rocks, and swamps.
The man captured a huge part of the space under the development of agriculture. For this reason, snakes are often forced to settle in the fields, in particular, among the plantings of reeds. Sometimes they bask in the sun, climbing to its top.
One individual weighs about 1.5 kg, and its body length reaches 4 meters. The snake mamba has a thin body, an elongated head, rather large dark eyes with a round pupil. The color may be brownish gray or dark steel. The abdomen is usually lighter than the back, gray-white or yellowish. The internal cavity of the open mouth of the mamba is always dark in color. The black tongue of a snake accepts external information, and poisonous, fixed upper canine teeth are a powerful weapon of asp. Do not represent teeth of danger only for mongooses, because the black mamba avoids and is very afraid of these small fearless animals. She crawls with pleasure through shrubs and trees. However, other related snake breeds do this more often. Usually masked among the foliage and branches, where it is not visible at all.
The black mamba is one of the most poisonous breeds, but it does not attack people, except in self-defense. Aggression can be caused by any sudden movement of the legs or hands, as well as loud, unexpected sounds.
Features of food, habitat and reproduction
The snake feeds on rodents, lizards and birds. The chosen victim is attacked instantly, inflicting a poisonous bite. Mamba is an aggressive and swift predator. It is capable of developing a large speed when driving, reaching 19 km / h. Such amazing data is inherent only to her, because the black mamba is considered the record holder (in terms of travel speed). With this ability, snakes usually victimize, not just wait. The way of life of the asp is solitary; it settles mainly in hollows of trees and crevices of rocks.
At the end of May and the first decade of June their marriage period begins. The rule of males is not to bite when they fight for the female. During the battle, their bodies are woven, hitting each other with their heads, the opponents try to press their opponent to the ground. The female chooses a winner and after a certain time lays up to 17 eggs. After only 40 days (maximum) snakes are born, their length is only 50 cm. The babies are quite independent, but the program of the killer and the hunter is incorporated at birth. The newborn black mamba can get food. Her color is green with an olive tint, although until the moment when the young individual reaches maturity, she will change color and shed again many times.
When the deadly snake venom is applied to humans and animals, paralysis of the circulatory and central systems occurs.
Related species - mamba green and narrow-headed.
Under natural conditions, the snake lives for about 20 years.
It belongs to the class of reptiles, the order of the scaly, the family of asps, the genus of the mamba, the form - the black mamba.
- The discussed family members prefer to live alone, but may occasionally stray into groups. This is especially true of the period when the mating season begins. To build a pair, the mambas live together for some time, then crawl away in their places. Reproduction is carried out in the spring. Males are looking for a life partner, they can fight for one female day and night.
- Marriage games are hard. Males intertwine with their bodies, lift their heads high, trying to show who is stronger. They beat their heads, riveting the attention of the opposite sex. Then the female chooses a winner. The fight continues until the loser crawls away. When the attack continues, the poison does not apply.
- From the middle of summer, the females in question are beginning to lay eggs. It occurs in a secluded inconspicuous place. In laying there are up to 16 pieces. After about 3 months, little serpents are born. It is worth noting that the young are born fully formed individuals.
- They can lead an independent lifestyle and not depend on their parents. In addition, small individuals already have a deadly poison. It is for this very reason that youngsters do not need guardianship and are able to gather food for themselves. And after the birth of the serpent, have a length of about 0.6 m.
- They swallow small rodents without any problems. Just a year later, the young growth already grows to 2 m. At such sizes, they are already beginning to hunt for larger prey. In the wild, black mambas live to be 12 years old, no more.
- The individuals in question do not have the best reputation even in their native Africa. When the locals hear about such a snake, they shudder. On such a continent, this individual is revered, respected and feared. The locals black mamba is a symbol of death.
- There are certain areas in Africa where the population of the individuals in question is strongly predominant. From here there are many myths and legends about such a snake. People are afraid of black mamba due to the fact that individuals are one of the fastest and most dangerous reptiles.
- The represented individual has agility and mobility. A characteristic feature is that such a snake can quickly and silently slide on the ground. In this case, the individual raised head. In addition, while moving, the snake moves at its usual speed of 12 km / h.
- In addition, the locals in the legends love to exaggerate a little, they say that such reptiles can reach speeds to incredible levels. Therefore, a person from her can not be saved. In fact, despite all the tales and not the best character, when meeting a man, the snakes try to avoid contact.
- When an individual notices people, it freezes. At the first opportunity, she tries to crawl away quickly. A black mamba can attack only if you have driven her into a corner or leave no other choice. If you do not leave the snake a chance to escape, it shows aggression. It is worth noting that the individual does not hiss.
- However, at first, the reptile tries to warn the offender to retreat. To do this, it relies on the tail and takes a vertical stand. The snake opens its mouth wide and waits. If the person does not retreat immediately, the mamba inflicts several quick and fatal shots to the face or body.
- In rare cases, when a snake tries to crawl away and a person meets on its way, it can attack right on the move. Because of this, the victim does not even immediately understand what happened. He became the unwitting victim of the most dangerous snake in the world. After some time, the first symptoms of the bite will begin to appear.
In this material we studied all the features affecting the most dangerous individuals. Despite its poisonousness, the mambas have enemies who, from birth, are immune to the poison of this reptile. Snakes fear the mongooses and some individuals from the order of the sebaceous. Partly for this reason, it cannot be said that their existence passes without threats. They lead a bush life, develop a great speed of movement.
Black Mamba is one of the most terrible and dangerous snakes in the world. And today, friends, we will tell you where to meet the reptile, and what to do if a mamba bit.
Description of the black mamba
The length of such a snake can be 2.5-3 meters, which is not small. Color mambas coal black or asphalt color. The speed of movement during the hunting period is 20 km / h. Fangs grow to 23 mm. By the way mamba the only snake that attacks from cover completely unexpectedly, and besides this it pursues its victim. Of course, mamba In its own way not one is listed, in addition to black, there are 4 more types in nature:
1. James Green Mamba
2. Blacktail Mamba James
3. Western green mamba
4. Eastern green mamba
Of course, any of these snakes is a great danger to humans, but black mamba the most ruthless among them and merciless. BUT black mamba's lifespan averages 12 years.
Black mamba bite
Africans are not just called mambo the kiss of death, the black death. After all, the snake will not hiss and intimidate the enemy, she immediately attacks, and her poison can kill two people at once! When bitten, it releases about 400 mg of highly toxic poison, and 15 mg is enough for a lethal dose! The worst thing is that if a person is bitten, the person is doomed, unless he is given an antidote immediately! With a bite in the arm or leg, death occurs in 2-3 hours, with a bite in the face, in 15 minutes! For these daunting reasons, Africans are afraid to face mamba. And for good reason! A snake can stalk a fleeing person and still bite.
What eats black mamba
Black Mamba perfectly oriented both during the day and at night, therefore, she can hunt at any time, depending on hunger, but the food itself is rare. AT diet warm-blooded animals are included: birds, rodents, squirrels. Mamba hunts down his victim, bites and waits for her to death. In case one bite is not enough, it will bite again, besides, after eating the snake does not fall into a stupor.
Habitat of the black mamba
Black Mamba, like many snakes, prefers a warm climate. Its habitat in eastern Africa, from South Africa to Somalia and Ethiopia, and south of the Congo Basin. Reptiles are simply not adapted to life in dense thickets and even to tropical rain forests. Since it is able to pursue its prey in open spaces, it settles in light forest with scrub. Interestingly, only mongooses are able to transfer the poison of the mamba and even kill it.
These reptiles have a body length of 2.7 - 3.1 meters, a mamba is the second snake in length after a cobra, its weight is between 1.1 - 1.6 kilograms.
Some sources claim that it can reach a length of more than 4.6 meters, but this has not been documented.
This name she received due to the fact that when she opens her mouth, her mouth cavity is painted completely black. Body color varies from olive to brown. The abdominal part of the animal is colored light brown.
In the back of the body in a snake, dark spots can be depicted, sometimes in combination they can alternate. The black mamba is considered one of the fastest snakes in the world, it can reach speeds of more than 12 km / h. The body of the snake is flattened on both sides, the tail is long.
The teeth of the snake are located, as in many other predatory snakes, on the upper jaw, the length ranges from 5.6 - 6.5 mm, respectively. If an ordinary man in the street looks at her open jaws, then it may seem to her that she is smiling, but this has nothing to do with emotions from the side of a snake, these are only characteristic sections of her mouth.
Scaly body cover has the following characteristics:
- Around the middle of 21 - 25 scales,
- Abdominal 250 - 280,
- Podhvostovyh 110 - 140 steam rooms,
- Upper-labial 8 - 9,
- Lower labial 12-14,
- Temporal 2 to 3,
- Preordendal 3
- Eye-topsy 2 - 6,
Anal brushes divided.
Black mamba - common in the tropical part of the African continent. The maximum number of individuals is concentrated in the following parts of the continent:
- The congo
If you compare the mambo with her relatives, she does not like to spend time on the trees. Leads only terrestrial lifestyle, except that sometimes, when sunbathing, it can crawl on a tree or shrub. It can also be observed in large hollows or in abandoned termite mounds.
Preferred places for snakes are:
- Wood savanna,
- Light forest
- Stone ravines,
- River valleys,
- Fallen forests
Extremely rare it can be found in the deserts. Mamba prefers to be within 1000 meters above sea level. But in some parts of Zambia, it can be seen above 1,657 meters, and in Kenya, it can live even higher, up to 1876 meters above sea level.
Character and behavior
Despite all the arguments that local residents cite, that she often attacks the local population, she is extremely careful and maximum, tries to avoid all contact with a person.
Explain the frequent attack of snakes on the local population in the following cases: provoking an animal, or an inattentive inspection of the terrain, along the route in which you can overlook the reptile and step on it.
Based on the observations, when the reptile sees a person, she freezes in the hope that she remains unnoticed or crawls away quickly. Even when she has nowhere to go, or she is driven into a dead end, the reptile will first warn the object that she may bite.
We conclude that she is not aggressive and her behavior is not much different from other types of venomous snakes.
In a poisonous black mamba, a very varied diet, the daily menu includes:
Leads from ambush, often prefers the same place. Attacking the victim, the mamba bites the prey, saturating its flesh with a powerful poison that causes paralysis. Sometimes, the victim may try to escape after the first attack, but the mamba does not provide such a chance, and finishes the victim with another bite of death. The process of digesting food usually takes from 8 to 10 hours.
- After being bitten by a black mamba, a person who does not receive an antidote dies.
- When biting the body enters more than 420 mm of potent poison.
- If she stings in a quick movement, then the person can not notice the moment of the bite, only after a while, the symptoms will make you pay attention to the place of the bite, as it swells and begins to split in the eyes.
- Her poison kills a healthy person in 45 minutes.
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Snake green mamba is quite widespread in the forest regions of West Africa.. Most often found in Mozambique, East Zambia and Tanzania. It prefers to live in bamboo thickets and mango forests.
It is interesting! Recently, there have been cases of the appearance of a green mamba in parks of cities, you can also find a mamba on tea plantations, which makes the life of tea and mango collectors deadly in the harvest season.
He likes wet places very much, so be careful in areas located in coastal areas. there is a green mamba in flat areas, but it is also found in mountainous areas at altitudes up to 1000 meters.
It seems to be created to dwell on trees and its amazing color allows you to go unnoticed for potential victims and at the same time hide from enemies.
Green mamba lifestyle
Appearance and lifestyle makes this snake one of the most dangerous for humans. Green mamba extremely rarely comes down to the ground from trees. She can be found on the ground only if she is too carried away by the hunt or decided to bask on the stone in the rays of the sun.
Green mamba leads a woody lifestyle, this is where she finds her victims. A reptile attacks only when necessary when it defends or hunts.
Despite the presence of a terrible poison, it is quite shy and non-aggressive reptile, unlike many other of his fellows. If nothing threatens her, the green mamba will prefer to crawl away before you notice her.
For a man, a green mamba is a very great danger during the harvest of mango or tea. Since it is perfectly masked in the greenery of the trees, where it is very difficult to notice.
If you accidentally disturb and scare the green mambo, she will definitely defend herself and use her deadly weapon. During the harvest season, several dozen people are killed in places of large concentrations of snakes.
Important! Unlike other snakes, which warn about an attack by their behavior, a green mamba caught off guard, attacking immediately and without warning.
It can stay awake during the day, however, the peak of activity of the green mamba falls at night, at this time it goes hunting.
The diet, the food of the snake
Snakes generally rarely attack a victim that they cannot swallow. Но это не касается зелёной мамбы, в случае неожиданной опасности она с легкостью сможет напасть на объект крупнее себя.
Если эта змея издалека услышит, что ей угрожает опасность, то она предпочтёт скрыться в густых зарослях. Но застигнутая врасплох она нападает, так работает инстинкт самосохранения.
The snake feeds on everyone who can be caught and found in the trees. As a rule, these are small birds, bird eggs, small mammals (rats, mice, squirrels).
Also among the victims of the green mamba may be lizards, frogs and bats, at least - smaller snakes. Large sacrifices also occur in the diet of the green mamba, but only when it goes down to the ground, which happens very rarely.
The natural enemies of a green mamba in nature are few, due to its appearance and "camouflage" color. It allows you to successfully hide from enemies and hunt, remaining unnoticed.
If we talk about enemies, then basically these are larger species of snakes and mammals, whose diet includes green mamba. Of particular danger is the anthropogenic factor - deforestation and the tropical jungle, which reduces the natural habitat of these snakes.
Danger of poison green mamba
Green mamba has a very toxic and potent poison. It occupies the 14th place among the most dangerous animals for humans. Other species of snakes, when threatened, sizzle strongly, rattle their knuckles on the tail, as if they want to scare them away, but the green mamba acts instantly and without warning, its attack is swift and invisible.
Important! The poison of the green mamba contains very strong neurotoxins and if the antidote is not administered in a timely manner, then tissue necrosis and systemic paralysis occur.
As a result, almost 90% is fatal. Every year in the habitats of the green mamba its victims are about 40 people.
According to medical statistics, death occurs in about 30-40 minutes, if not in time to assist. To protect yourself from the attack of this dangerous snake, you must follow certain security measures.
Wear tight-fitting clothing, and most importantly, be very careful. Such clothes are very important, as there are cases when the green mamba, falling from the branches, falls off and falls behind the collar. Being in such a situation, she will certainly inflict several bites on a person.