The common mole rat is completely devoid of vision, instead it has tactile hairs, a well-developed sense of smell and hearing. This animal is enough for a normal life, during which he almost never sees sunlight. For many land owners, a mole rat has become a real punishment, because it is able to dig up the entire landing area and even affect the stability of the buildings located there.
Few people have seen ordinary gadflies alive because of their lifestyle. They are rarely chosen to the surface, and their activity increases with the onset of darkness. So many people have to make up some idea of the size and lifestyle of the animal only on the traces left by it. To help those who wish to find out how the mole of ordinary people lives and looks like - photos and stories of biologists.
Description of the mole of ordinary
The maximum length of these rodents is 32 cm, and the weight is 700 g. They have an elongated body in the shape of a cylinder, a short neck, legs and tail, and a head flattened at the top. The ears of the animals are barely noticeable, and the eyes are hidden under the skin and completely atrophied. Color different individuals may have some differences.
The short, soft coat of blind people usually looks like a mixture of brown, gray and brown shades in different proportions, sometimes there are light spots on the head and body. The rodent has a broad nose, usually painted black or brown. At the first meeting with the common mole rat, the upper and lower incisors extended far forward are striking.
Where do ordinary blunders live
For permanent habitation, an ordinary mole rat usually chooses a steppe or forest-steppe. He likes to settle near the beams, along the roads separating the fields, and forest roads. It can be found in Russia, Ukraine and Moldova. In the northern part of the range, the mole rat is considered rare, although it is the most common species of its kind, which also includes sandy, giant, Bukovinsky, and Podolsky blind spots.
At the moment, the preservation of the number of species is threatened by plowing the land, measures to improve the properties of the land and protect plants. Meanwhile, it cannot be said that this species is on the verge of extinction. Anxiety in relevant organizations arises only about the preservation of populations in some of the northern and southern zones, where the common mole rat lives. The Red Book of the International Union of Protection has it in its lists. In view of this, the capture of animals in certain zones is prohibited, and the actions of humans in their indigenous habitats are limited.
How ordinary blunders live
The common mole rat, in short, has spent its entire life, which is, on average, 2.5–4 years old, underground, digging complex tunnel systems and producing food. Most of all, the animal loves roots, tubers and bulbs of plants, but it can also feed on the stem with leaves. About 10 kg of edible supplies should be prepared for a mole rat for the winter. At this time of year, its vital activity decreases markedly, but the rodent does not fall into hibernation.
The optimal population density of an ordinary mole rat is 3 individuals per hectare, but this number can go as high as 20. With the help of sharp incisors and paws, the animals break through the extensive two-tier system of burrows. The upper tier is located at a depth of 20-25 cm, and the lower one, where the mole rat forms galleries for nests and placing food supplies, is at a depth of 3-4 m. The external openings are not permanent, but are formed only to extract dug earth to the surface. .
How the animal multiplies
The social structure of the ordinary mole rats is made up of family groups that include one male and one or two females. If there are two females, they give birth one by one in a year. Mating occurs in spring, and a brood consisting of 2-3 cubs can be born from February to May. Half of the males live apart and do not produce offspring.
The resettlement of young stock occurs at a distance of tens or hundreds of meters. Females do this in the first year of life, getting to the surface, which explains their high mortality. Most often, they are the object of hunting birds of prey and foxes. Males are separated from their mother after a year, without leaving the bowels of the earth. The main underground enemy of the mole rats is the steppe polecat.
Extensive underground labyrinths are great for the life of mole rats, but can be a cause of concern for humans. If the garden or garden becomes the habitat of this rodent, you can say goodbye to the lion's part of the crop. Most likely, the animal will like carrots, potatoes and onions. He also has onion flowers, beans, corn and young trees to taste.
Endless piles of dug land, subsidence of soil, the sudden disappearance of planted crops and even small trees - this is what people observe when an ordinary mole rat settles on their land plot. The description of its sabotage can be continued for a long time, and for many it is an impossible task to stop it.
How to get rid of a mole
Only one question arises when an ordinary mole rat starts up on the plot, how to get rid of the pest? For many, this becomes an overwhelming task. After all, the animal is constantly hiding in the ground and its presence, creating new mounds and destroying planted plants, only at night.
It is best to try to create conditions for the animal to leave the plot on its own. A lot of ways are invented for this, but none of them guarantees that the animal will run away forever. But still it is necessary to make every effort to get rid of the mole rat, without shedding his blood.
One of the most commonly used methods is to fill the tunnel with water. But this may require too much water, since the underground passages of the animal are very branchy. And if the soil quickly absorbs moisture, this method is completely useless. Some try to smoke a four-legged neighbor with the help of smoke, pouring kerosene or stinking mixture into the hole. Another way is to create a constant noise in the area of its residence that an ordinary mole rat does not tolerate. Alternatively, you can apply the installation of an ultrasonic repeller.
Radical ways to get rid of a mole rat
When you can not get rid of a mole rat, some resort to a more radical measure - murder. To do this, you can watch for the animal by opening one of its moves. He does not like drafts, so be sure to want to close the hole with earth. As soon as he gets closer, it will be possible to destroy him.
Another way is to make a hole in the hole and place a trap in it so that the mole-ram gets into it on the way to the open doorway. It is important that the trap does not have a human smell, for which it is worth rubbing it with potatoes or earth. You can use poison to kill rodents. But if on the plot there is something to live on, the rodent may not marry the poisoned dish.
The common mole rat is a rodent that few people saw alive. Underground life with night activity has led to the fact that few know about its existence. Many would prefer to never know about the existence of such an underground resident, instead of seeing how he destroys the cultures growing on the site.
This animal reaches 30-35 cm in length, strikes at the first acquaintance with the complete absence of eyes and ears, it looks quite unusual. However, these organs of sensation in a mole rat are, although they are underdeveloped and hidden under the skin. The large spade head has protruding incisors, sufficiently developed to lay underground tunnels. The whole body is covered with gray-brown fur.
Lifestyles and habits
It lives underground, prefers a single way of life. He arranges several tiers of underground labyrinths connecting residential minks with economic chambers and “latrines”. The nose of the mole rat pushes the earth to the surface when laying tunnels. In the spring, he makes new moves; by winter, the summer surface mink clogs and arranges to winter in the central part of his “apartments”.
It feeds on rhizomes of plants and their aboveground parts. It remains active throughout the year and does not hibernate, but makes reserves for the winter, which are 10–20 times its body weight. When a mole rat settles near crops of potatoes or other crops, it causes significant damage to the crop.
The male is making a move towards the female, guided by the vibration of the soil and the sounds that she makes. Usually mating occurs in late February - early March. A young female brings one cub, an adult - 2-3 in a litter. Sexual maturity occurs at 2-3 years of age. They communicate by tapping on the walls of the passages and the characteristic chug.
Life expectancy is about 5 years, although they can live under favorable conditions up to 8-9 years.
The common mole rat in the photos below:
Video: Ordinary Blind
Let's get to know the mole
The common mole rat on maintaining a way of life resembles a mole: it lives under the ground, digs numerous passages, forming sediments on the surface of the earth throughout its route. And yet it is a completely different creature.
The animal digs large pits and throws up to 5 kg of soil out
This animal is small in size, up to 30-32 cm. His organs of vision are atrophied and hidden under the skin, a barely noticeable tail and a gray short fur.
Blind, a photo of which will help not to be confused with other rodents, is a long-liver.
It loosens the ground with powerful incisors, unlike the mole, which does this with its front paws. The mass of land thrown out can reach 10 kg and 50 cm at the base.
Blindland systems are characterized by layering.
One of the tiers - food, is at a depth of about 20 cm. The other contains nests, compartments for storing food reserves, connecting tunnels. This tier is located at a depth of 3-4 m.
The molehills that the blind man makes are photos.
Features in habits and preferences
These animals prefer to live apart. In the event of a collision, the males fight until one of them dies. Each male gets one or two females. On the area, the size of one hectare, can live from three to twenty animals.
Activity in life is from March to May. In the summer and winter time, it falls, but the animal does not fall into hibernation.
The animal feeds exclusively on plants, undermining roots and tubers.
There are 4 known families of these animals. Each species lives in a specific zone, but mostly they can be seen in steppes, forest-steppes, deserts, semi-deserts and less often on the outskirts of forests.
These animals like soils of moderate and low density. They do not go to clay and sandy soils that are too wet and saline.
The magnitude of the damage
A mole rat animal may differ from a mole not only in appearance, but also in the nature of the damage to a person.
Mole and mole rat have differences in food preferences.
If the former feed on insects and worms, the latter, on rhizomes, eat the tubers and bulbs of plants.
The animal drags the garden plants in the hole for the rhizomes. Most of all prefers beans, does not ignore the umbrella, as well as the hard-to-color.
These animals, breaking through the passages, can harm residential buildings.
Hillocks resulting from their construction activities, spoil the aesthetics of the parks, provide difficulties during the field and garden work, haymaking. Blindfolded destroy planting, flowers in flowerbeds.
Potatoes, carrots, beets, and corn are noticeably destroyed. In one day the animal can destroy from four to six bushes of root crops.
Giant subspecies listed in the Red Book
Harm caused by a mole rat, is calculated in the amount of from 10% to 20%. In the bins of one individual can be found 18 kg of crops.
How to drive out of land plover
Gardeners are often worried about the question: how to deal with mole rats? Ways to combat this animal are similar to those methods that are effective against the mole. But they require great perseverance. There is another nuance. More often in the nature of these animals there are two types: giant and ordinary.
The first is listed in the Red Book, it can not be destroyed.
A common mole rat is found on garden plots. Fighting animals is possible in several ways:
- One way is to fill its tunnels with water. However, this method will require a very large amount of water, because its tunnels are very extensive. And in the case of good absorption of soil moisture, this option will bring little effect.
- You can smoke the animal. For this purpose, kerosene or another smelly substance is poured into the hole. However, this method leads to soil pollution.
- You can use the repellers, which create vibrations, perceived by the animal as a danger signal. A very effective electronic tornado repeller.
- The use of traps, krotolovok not an effective method, according to knowledgeable. The animal somehow recognizes them and skillfully goes around. Perhaps this is due to their excellent prudence and flair.
- An alternative substitute for traps can be a pet, such as a cat or dog. Experienced say that this is an effective way. It consists in the following: it is necessary to determine the place of the rodent tunnel, where the soil falls through. Spade up to half a manhole. Blind man does not tolerate drafts, so soon he will hurry to arrive at the place of its source in order to throw a course at the ground. It is necessary to dig a hole near this stroke, about 50 cm by 50 cm, up to 40 cm deep. Then wait with the pet of a rodent.
- In a similar way, you can catch the animal on the hook, which is replaced by a four-footed animal. The hook is inserted in advance into the open course. And the other end with a loop attached to the hole. An animal will fall on him. Any movement will aggravate his position.
- The use of poisons for this purpose is an effective method. But on the beds often there is an excellent forage base for the animal. Therefore, he can ignore the poison. If desired, you can use poisons used to bait rats. However, it can also harm pets.
- The most humane method is to frequently dig up the plot.
Blind is a territorial animal, leading a solitary lifestyle. Therefore, expelling it from your site, you are guaranteed a long peace of mind.
Features and habitat of the mole rat
Common mole rat - This is a mammal animal that belongs to the order of rodents. In the course of evolutionary development, all the organs of this animal have adapted to the underground way of life.
Eyes completely atrophied and lost the ability to see. This is almost the only case in the rodents ration, when there was a complete loss of vision.
The way of life of these mammals is exclusively underground. Blind as well as, they dig long labyrinths of passages, and they push the extra soil that bothers them to the surface.
In the family of blind people, there are 4 species. Each of them has its own habitat. Animal mole rat chooses for its residence steppe, desolate, forest-steppe and the outskirts of forests.
The soil suitable for their habitat should be of moderate density. Clay and sandy soil does not suit them. Their habitat includes forest-steppe and steppe of Moldova, Ukraine and Russia. This is mainly pasture or unplowed land rich in grassy vegetation.
Blind man digs the ground with his teeth
Mole mole small size in itself. Its length is 30-32 cm. Weigh from 700 gr. up to 1 kg He leads a rather solitary lifestyle, so few have seen him live. To correct this mistake and have an idea of the appearance of this animal, we bring to your attention a few photo of goggles .
As seen in the image, he has no ears, his eyes are hidden under the folds of his skin, and his little tail is almost invisible. The extremities of this underground resident are short, and the head resembles a bayonet spade.
By the way, digs its tunnels mole mole only teeth, not paws. This happens as follows, the front incisors of a mammal smash into the soil, and then with the help of a shovel-like head, crushed earth lumps are pushed out. The special structure of the jaw and muscles allows you to push the lower incisors and move them forward and back.
Such work leads to significant tooth wear. buckfly . But do not worry, the incisors grow very quickly, so this underground resident will not remain without a “tool” for digging their tunnels.
By the way, thanks to his work, he not only grinds the incisors, but also sharpens them when biting into the soil. The animals in captivity deserve greater sympathy. They do not have the ability to grind their teeth and sometimes they cannot close their mouth due to the fact that the incisors have grown to enormous size.
The fur of these giants of their craft is very soft, dark in color. The nose is covered with horny skin. This layer is protective. Он защищает от различных механических повреждений во время утрамбовывания стенок норы.
Характер и образ жизни слепыша
Если кроты разрыхляют почву передними лапами, то песчаные слепыши орудуют мощными резцами. Кучи земли после их деятельности остаются больше, чем у кротов, и достигают около 0,5 м.
On the photo is a sandy mole rat.
The weight of one such heap can reach 10 kg. From 1 to 20 representatives of this species live on 1 hectare of land. The most active period of life of these rodents falls in the spring months. In summer and winter, they become less active, but do not fall into hibernation.
Labyrinths of moves goggles giants are special in their structure. Their distinguishing feature is the longline tunnel system. So, the top floor of "such a building" is considered food, it is located at a depth of 25 cm.
On this tier, rodents collect food: tubers, rhizomes of plants. On the second floor there are tunnels, summer and winter nests and storerooms. It is located more deeply - 3-4 m. In winter, the entrance to these underground galleries is clogged with earth, and the animal lives here before the onset of warm times.
The total area of such labyrinths is 450 m. The number of food pantries in such a territory can reach 10 pieces, and winter stocks amount to 10 kg. Here is such a thrifty animal.
Lifestyle giant blind men alone. They carefully guard the borders of their territory. Sometimes, the clashes of two males end up in clashes over the territory with a fatal outcome. Lifespan goggles is 2.5 - 9 years.
Their activity causes enormous harm to agriculture. Signs of buckwheat in the garden - this is a hill of earth. They not only spoil the aesthetic appearance of the site, but also ruin the harvest.
Corn, legumes, carrots, beets and potatoes suffer most from these underground animals. Only one day an individual can damage 4-6 bushes of root crops.
Darling settled down on your site, how to fight it ? To get rid of such a pest by repeated digging the soil. So destroying the feed tiers of their moves. It happens that they are repelled by an unpleasant smell, so you can use special purchase scarers.
One of the ways to fight is to catch buckfly manually. To do this, determine the fresh entrance to the hole and look for another entrance. Then the segment between them is excavated.
In the photo is a giant mole rat
This animal does not tolerate drafts, so will try to eliminate the destruction. At this moment it will be possible to catch this pest. Drive out mole mole can and with the help of water. Find a mound of earth mixed with clay and pour water into a hole nearby.
Blind eat only vegetable food. They eat tubers, bulbs and rhizomes. To get to the stem, they pull over the root, so that the whole plant is in their hole. Favorite "dishes" buckfly are legumes, asteraceae and umbrella.
Reproduction and life span of a mole rat
Blind live alone, but during the breeding season they form family groups. The structure of such a family includes 1 male and 1-2 females. As a rule, members of such families live in the neighborhood. Male digs a tunnel to his darling. He moves to the sounds that makes the female.
If there are 2 females in the group, then they breed one by one. One year first, second second. Such unions break up, only in case of death. 2-3 babies are born per year. This is a significant event in the period from February to May.
The resettlement of the younger generation passes in a peculiar way. So “girls” are resettled to the upper tiers a year after their appearance, and “boys” - in the 2nd year, to the lower floors. They become sexually mature at 2-3 years of age.
Garden pest dummy not known to all gardener gardeners. Sometimes gardeners are found on sites of mounds of earth. In addition, the garden is dug underground tunnels in such a way that you can fall through the ankle into the ground. First of all, summer residents sin on moles. But it turns out that there are other rodents that can spoil the external and internal appearance of the suburban area. Of course, one should not ignore the labor of moles in the construction of underground tunnels, but there are other animals - members of the family of mole rats, who also, like moles, love underground construction. Blunts are different from moles in appearance and food preferences.
Occupation and appearance of mole rats
It turns out that molehills do more damage to vegetable gardens than moles. are insectivorous diggers, who can annoy the gardeners only by digging hills and minks in the plots. Blind are the same rodents, the delicacies of which are roots - beets, carrots. In addition to vegetables, animals love to eat the stems and leaves of plants, love to eat.
In addition, shortly before the onset of winter, blindfolded are engaged in stocking food. Stocks of one rodent alone can reach 10 kilograms. The animals are active year round, do not hibernate, however, to the onset of cold weather, their behavior becomes somewhat calmer.
Features and appearance of a mole rat.
The animal differs in a flat shovel-shaped head, on which are reduced eyes, in place of which there is a skin fold. The animal has poorly pronounced ears and tail, and its body is covered with thick and dense hair.
Blind people are many summer residents confused with moles, calling moles, mole rats. But there are many differences between the two animals that lead the underground life.
- Blind has larger sizes than a mole.
- If a mole digs passages in the ground with its paws, then the mole is distinguished by weakly developed limbs, five-fingered, with small claws.
It is impossible to dig tunnels up to half a kilometer in length with such paws, therefore their mole ram digs with the help of its powerful teeth. Its wide incisors penetrate the ground, and the lips with multiple folds are located behind the incisors. Due to this, the ground does not enter the rodent's mouth.
Features and differences of mole rat from mole.
Where do the dandruff live?
The habitat of rodents may be a steppe, a field, a virgin plot of land, a forest belt, a beam. An ordinary mole rat burrows holes in several tiers, which have a complex system of moves. The location of the feed passages is a depth of 10-30 cm. From these passages other, deeper passages are branched - nests and rodents are located at a depth of 80 cm - 3 meters.
Photos of a pest of a mole rat that can deliver quite a few problems to summer residents.
When a rodent digs its moves, it is capable of throwing heaps on the surface of the earth, reaching enormous sizes. Get rid of a mole rat quite difficult, since the rodent most of the time of his life lives underground.
Methods, tools and traps for dealing with gadflies
The most effective way to fight blind people is to use strong poisons, which are similar to the poison used to bait rats. However, with the use of poisonous substances, it is likely that pets or children will be affected.
For this reason, it is better to install traps or live traps, however, and there are some drawbacks. The installation of these devices takes a long time. In addition, rodents have the foresight and ingenuity, so they easily bypass the dangerous place where the trap is installed.
The old and experienced blind people have an excellent instinct that allows them to bypass even the most cunning traps. In addition, animals can be aggressive - they make a growl if their lives are threatened. If you opt for traps - set them at the entrance to the animals' burrows.
A blind pest destroys plantings and crops in the dacha.
Experienced mole rats are caught with a hook. To do this, you need to dig out the entrance to the hole, and insert a long wire inside the course, at the end of which one or several hooks are attached. The other end of the wire is equipped with a loop, which helps to secure the hook in the mink of the animal (otherwise the rodent can drag off the trap).
Sensing the appearance of a draft, a mole rat hurries to the exit from the mink and gets hooked. Moving from side to side, he will only aggravate his already unenviable position. The owner of the suburban area can only remove the animal from the hook and decide what to do with it further.
The use of crossbows, traps, poisonous substances - these methods are inhuman, because they kill mole rats. The use of water and electronic repeller leave the animal alive. Some summer residents smoke rodents from minks by connecting a hose to the exhaust pipe of a car. Thanks to this method, the dandruff does not appear on the site for several months, but the soil is noticeably polluted.
A good effect can be achieved when using an electronic repeller that acts on moles and mole rats. Rodents do not tolerate vibration, so they quickly leave the site.
Active pets - cats and cats, excellent rat-catchers, can help you hunt for mole rats - gardeners often and successfully use this method, introducing cats to rodent hunting.
Introduction of cats to the hunt for the blind
This requires the following actions:
First you need to determine the location of the underground passages of the animal, which is easy to do, because in those places the ground falls under your feet.
Using a shovel, dig about half a meter underground tunnel. Since rodents are sensitive to the appearance of a draft, you will very quickly see a mole rat, who will come to fill the open part of the manhole with earth.
Cats are natural hunters, but not all domestic animals are capable of catching deers.
At this time you should not lose time - you need to dig a wide hole (up to half a meter) near the exit of the mink, the depth of which should be 30-40 cm, and then take your beloved pet and wait with it when the rodent appears. If a mole rat is young, he is less agile, and catching him is not difficult.
By the way, you can use the help of a dog to catch a mole rat.
Water use for catching a mole rat
One or two buckets is not enough for you to catch a rodent . In order to catch it with water, you must use a long irrigation hose, or stock up on at least ten buckets of water.
First, you need to find a tunnel that leads to the hole of a mole rat. Normal moves are calculated on the ground, buried in mounds. A hole leads to the hole, which is distinguished by the fact that there is clay in the mound (the rodent has a nest at a great depth, where the soil is clay).
A manhole is excavated near the mound with clay, and a stream of water flows into it continuously. The underground passages deepen in a helical manner, therefore it is necessary to flood them generously with water so that the rodent will float to the surface of the earth. It remains to grab the animal and do with it as you wish.
So, it is necessary to draw conclusions:
Blind pimples are voracious pests that also live long. To save their harvest should be urgent get rid of rodents the method that each summer resident chooses himself.
See our ready-made recipes.
Answers and explanations
Answers and explanations
- Mark violation
Want to see the answer? Click above!
- Mark violation
- Mark violation
Want to see the answer? Click above!
- Mark violation
- 6 points
- 32 minutes ago
- 5 points
- 33 minutes ago
- 5 points
- 55 minutes ago
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
- 8 points
- 1 hour ago
Choose 3 correct answers
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
2) Seasonal changes in wildlife are studied using the method:
2. Conducting experiments
3) The organic substances that make up the cell include:
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
- 5 points
- 1 hour ago
1. Yakі signs, cool stats can you assign an X chromosome? Guided butt
2. In the birthplace of the batty syn pain on hemophilia.
3.Organism is obsessive. Is it possible to heterozygous?
4.V_domo, what is the motherland of Rh-negative (recessive), can you think of rhesus-positive?
5.Vіdomo, so krіm povnogo trap неп nepovne domіnuvannya.U chomu plyaganogo his specialness? Navigate butt