The danger of contagious diseases is that they are passed from one turkey to another at a very high rate. Birds with these types of diseases require isolation from other individuals. Among the most dangerous and common diseases of turkey poults under the age of 2 months is sinusitis. This is a contagious runny nose that can lead to the death of young.
The causative agents of infectious diseases of turkeys are various viruses, bacteria, fungi, and ecto- and endo-parasites. The most common types of infectious diseases in adult turkeys are tuberculosis, hemophilia, rotavirus infection, etc. The symptoms of infectious diseases that appear in turkeys are the same as other types of poultry.
The source of infection of turkeys infectious diseases can be sick bird droppings. The most common carriers of infection are rodents, wild birds or animals. Infection occurs through dirty inventory, bedding, etc.
The reason for the appearance of this type of disease in birds is unhealthy diet and violation of the conditions of keeping turkeys. They are very sensitive to lack of drinking and clean water. Bird can not be kept in the dirt. The cause of a number of diseases can be dampness and poor-quality food.
It is especially important to monitor compliance with the conditions of detention and feeding of poults in the first days of life. During this period, they are especially vulnerable sensitive to external factors. In the first hours of their lives, weak turkey poults are rejected and placed separately from others. Non-contagious diseases are not transmitted from one bird to another, but weakened turkey poults need special care.
Birds can lead to death of any kind of disease. Some of them are dangerous to human health and life. The effectiveness of their treatment is influenced by the rate of detection of sick individuals and the precise determination of the type of illness. Among the most common infectious diseases:
- Arizonaosis. The causative agent of the disease are anaerobic bacteria. Her incubation period is 3-7 days. It occurs in the acute form of toxicoinfection. Turkeys become lethargic, sit for a long time stifled. The disease is accompanied by diarrhea, convulsions, paralysis of the legs. The ideas of the neck are curvature of the neck, eyes are covered with pus, which glues the eyelids to the bird. The consequence of the disease becomes blindness. The fatal outcome of the disease in the first weeks of life is 15-60%.
- Gastomonosis. The causative agent of the disease are microorganisms included in the flagellar squad. Disease outbreaks occur in hot weather. The disease is most dangerous for turkey poults between the ages of 2 and 3 months. The incubation period of the disease is 1-4 weeks. It affects the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is accompanied by diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy. The turkeys hang wings. The death of the bird occurs from 1 to 3 weeks.
- Infectious sinusitis. The disease is caused by bacteria that infect the upper respiratory tract. In turkeys, appetite decreases, breathing becomes difficult. During the period of illness the birds practically do not gain weight, their growth stops. In most cases of sinusitis, young turkey poults die. Meat and eggs of a sick bird cannot be eaten.
- Coccidiosis. The causative agent of the disease are unicellular parasites. They act selectively. Turkeys cannot get this disease from chickens or geese. Signs of the disease are diarrhea and hemorrhagic inflammation. With the wrong treatment of the disease, the death of the bird can be up to 50%.
- Paratyphoid. The causative agents of the disease are bacteria. It is typical for poults between 3 and 20 days of age. The incidence of birds from this disease is 70-80%. The disease is characterized by white diarrhea, loss of appetite and cramps.
- Tuberculosis. Caused by bacteria that enter the body of turkeys through the air or with feed. The disease can take a chronic form. The incubation period is from 1 to 10 months. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are weight loss, weakness, swelling of the joints.
- Smallpox. Pathogen RNA virus. The visible signs of the disease are yellow spots on the head and skin of turkeys. Most often, the disease affects the young. It affects the oviduct. This causes turkeys to not carry eggs.
What are the diseases
Causes of turkey disease very diverse. The reason may be a poultry birth defect, improper feeding, adverse environmental conditions. All turkey diseases can be divided into two broad categories:
The risk of infection by certain diseases at each of the stages of development of birds is different. There are a number of characteristic diseases. for adult turkeys and only for chicks.
Infectious diseases of adult birds
The main reason for the appearance of the disease is overcooling of birds, the presence of excessive moisture and unbalanced feed composition. The greatest susceptibility to this disease is observed in individuals with a deficiency of vitamins A and B, as well as in birds with reduced immunity.
When the following signals appear A number of treatment measures are required:
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye,
- visual impairment,
- appearance of discharge from the eyes and nose,
- intense weight loss.
Late treatment of the disease can lead to the death of birds. The treatment process is reduced to the introduction of one of the antibiotics into the poultry diet:
With treatment, you can use Streptomycin, Erythromycin, Levometsitin. In order to prevent the disease, it is recommended to maintain the temperature in the place where the birds are kept, to carry out periodic ventilation, to monitor the cleanliness of the room and the feeding ration of the turkeys.
Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous diseases of turkeys. The disease in a fairly short time affects the respiratory tract and internal organs of the bird. Infection occurs through dirty water, contaminated inventory and litter.
Symptoms of the appearance of the disease is the appearance of the following signs:
- a sharp deterioration in the general condition of the bird,
- lack of appetite,
- inactivity and apathy
- appearance of diarrhea,
- the formation of skin nodules.
It is impossible to cure tuberculosis, which is associated with the rapid development of the disease and the defeat of all internal organs. Sick birds are subject to immediate destruction, and the place where they were kept must be disinfected. After disinfection, the room should be in a ventilated state for a long time for the complete destruction of the tubercle bacillus.
As a preventive measure to prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is recommended to ensure sufficient penetration of sunlight and fresh air into the place where the poults are kept.
Infection with worms is one of the common diseases of poultry. Sources of infection of turkey poults are in the environment, that is, soil, water, food, equipment and already infected birds.
The danger of the disease lies in the rapid defeat of the organs of the respiratory system and digestion. Difficulty diagnosing and timely treatment is the absence of symptoms in the first stage of infection. To eliminate the negative effects of worms, it is recommended to carry out periodic prophylaxis with drugs such as phenothiazine and piperazine.
In most cases, adult turkeys are infected with smallpox through contact with the drinkers of chickens or by direct interaction with the carrier of the virus. The source of possible infection are mosquitoes, flies, mosquitoes. The first symptoms of the disease is the appearance of the following signs:
- lack of activity and appetite
- state of apathy,
- refusal to drink
- desire to spend time in a dark place
- lowered wings
- the coating of non-penile parts and mucous membranes of the eyes with spots.
This disease in turkeys is not treatable. Sick and dead turkeys must be destroyed by burning. Other individuals must be vaccinated with vaccine vaccines.
When this disease appears in the bird, the joints become inflamed. The most at risk are turkeys at the age of 7 weeks. Symptoms of the disease are:
- lethargy and apathy,
- the appearance of chromates on one or both legs,
- pale skin
- softening of joints, increasing their temperature,
- the presence of water diarrhea with yellow-brown secretions.
Sinovit over time can pass on their own. For the treatment using Terramycin, Streptomycin, Biomitsin.
Noncommunicable diseases of adult birds
Non-communicable diseases are the most common and less dangerous for adults. These diseases include:
A symptom of the disease is the presence of signs of solidification and inflammation of the goiter, the presence of secretions from it. Such a bird is sluggishNaughty, she refuses to eat and for a long time stands in one place.
The disease can occur:
- due to overflowing of goiter with solid food,
- power imbalances,
- deficiencies in the diet of chalk, gravel, shell rock.
This disease is not treatable due to the structural characteristics of the goiter of turkeys. The disease leads to the depletion of the bird and its subsequent death.
This disease is caused by improper feeding of the bird. The first sign is the appearance of oddities in the behavior of the bird, which begins to eat everything. The disease provokes problems in the turkey digestive organs. Further disease can provoke other diseases, such as hard goiter or diarrhea.
The main method of treatment and prevention is to provide poultry balanced nutrition.
Infectious diseases of poults: their signs and treatment
Hemophilia or infectious rhinitis are most susceptible for poults between the age of 20 weeks. Sources of infection can be food, water, equipment. After the appearance of the first signs and infection of the entire livestock of birds, very little time passes. The first signs of the disease are:
- inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, larynx,
- nasal discharge, tearing,
- the appearance of shortness of breath and wheezing,
- lack of appetite,
- swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, with the appearance of which the head of the chick resembles the head of an owl.
The disease is not treated, so the sick bird is subject to mandatory destruction. For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is recommended to inhale with iodine and chlorine-turpentine vapors. Necessary in order to prophylaxis periodically to disinfect the place of keeping poults:
- 2% formaldehyde solution,
- 20% suspended lime,
- 2% sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 70 0 C.
Gastomonosis or black head most often occurs in poults between the ages of 20 days and 3 months. When infected, the intestines become inflamed and liver damage occurs. Symptoms of the disease are the following symptoms:
- lack of appetite,
- hunched eyes closed
- appearance of diarrhea,
- impaired blood circulation, resulting in blackening of the head and legs.
The treatment is carried out with the use of drugs of furazolidone and metronidazole. These drugs must be used not only in identifying the disease, but also the propriety of the threat of infection to the bird.
Pullorosis or white bacillary diarrhea most common in small turkey poults under the age of 20 days. The source of infection can be troughs, drinkers or a sick individual. Mortality of chicks from this disease is very high and can reach 70%.
Symptoms of the disease are:
- the position of the chicks in a crouched condition with closed eyes,
- constant squeak,
- having difficulty breathing,
- changing the appearance of the litter, which acquires white color and structure in the form of foam,
- strong smelling discharge near the eyes.
In order to prevent diseases, poults should be kept separately from adult birds. It is mandatory to perform the following work:
- periodic sanitary disinfection with a 20% solution of freshly slaked lime,
- regular bedding change,
- periodically water turkeys with a weak solution of potassium permangate,
- Vitamin A supplementation.
Diseases are susceptible to poults between the ages of 3 and 30 days. The probability of death in a sick bird is 80%. Symptoms of the disease are:
- appearance of diarrhea,
- inactivity and sleepy turkeys,
- appearance of lacrimation and eye bonding,
- wobbling gait,
- lack of appetite and constant desire to drink.
For treatment, the bird is soldered with Trimetazine, Mepatar, Lautetsin. In order to prevent the chicks give Furazolidone and Biomitsin from the very first days.
Chicks aged 30 days are most susceptible to this disease. The cause of the disease in most cases is a large crowding and hypothermia turkeys, as well as a lack of vitamin A and D in the diet.
The disease is accompanied inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes and the accumulation of purulent fluid. For treatment are used:
- water soluble tilane.
Preventive measures are considered periodic sanitization and ensuring in the diet of chicks a sufficient level of vitamins A and D.
How to treat
Among the diseases of turkeys are:
- diseases that cannot be treated,
- diseases requiring medical intervention and prevention,
- diseases that can go away after restoring the quality of food or conditions of poultry.
Treatment of many diseases of turkeys is reduced to the normalization of food and conditions of detention. In order to treat such diseases, it is enough to give to the poultry feed additional doses of vitamins and trace elements that have a positive effect on the general well-being of the bird. An effective remedy that positively affects the health of chicks is a weak solution of potassium permanganate and decoctions based on nettle and chamomile.
In case of infectious diseases without the use of special antibiotics impossible to do. Popular and effective drugs are Lozeval and Furazolidone.
Furazolidone is an antimicrobial drug. The antibacterial effect of the drug is 100 times higher than that of furatsilin. The drug is available in the form of yellow tablets of 0.05 grams per pack of 10 pcs.
The dosage of Furazolidone, which must be given to turkeys, is 3 grams per individual. The most convenient way to use the drug for treatment is to dissolve it in water or mixing it with food. Giving a treatment for turkeys It is necessary 3 times a day with an interval of 4-6 hours. Course duration is 8 days. Repeated treatment can be carried out only after 10 days. In order to prevent diseases in chicks, the drug must be given once by 2 grams per individual for 10 days.
In the spring, the birds are weakened and they have low immunity, therefore, during this period, it is not recommended to do prophylaxis with Furasolidone.
Diseases of an adult individual: types and symptoms
The appearance of the bird is the first thing that changes in the case of its disease. Healthy turkey:
- moderately mobile,
- has shiny eyes and smooth feathers,
- has a good appetite.
A sick turkey refuses to eat or does not eat well. The bird lowers its head, bulges eyes, becomes lethargic, seeks to crouch in a corner, it has separate feathers jutting out. Later, the turkey begins to stagger and breathe heavily, unable to stand up. Sometimes there are convulsions of the limbs or the head.
Attention! Another sign of turkey disease is diarrhea. Even if the indisposition is insignificant, this symptom is a pretext to guard.
The owner of the house is important to monitor the health of the turkeys on a daily basis. The first measure in detecting the sickness of a bird is its isolation from the rest. After that, you can start treatment at home or call a veterinarian. Some turkey diseases are incurable. Birds are sent for slaughter.
Diseases are divided into infectious and non-infectious. In the first case, it is necessary to urgently protect the rest of the livestock from the spread of infection. In the second, you can not remove the bird from the team. However, it is necessary to eliminate all the factors that caused disturbances in the development of the turkey.
Infectious and viral diseases of turkeys are numerous, of which the most common are:
- respiratory mycoplasmosis or sinusitis,
- Newcastle disease,
Sinusitis is manifested by wheezing and coughing, under the eyes of the turkey there are bumps, mucus flowing from the nose and eyes. Juveniles also suffer from shortness of breath, breathing becomes difficult. The consequences of respiratory mycoplasmosis are not fatal, but the young bird will grow weakly. Causes of the disease - high humidity, damp litter, drafts. Treatment prescribed by a veterinarian.
Newcastle disease is spread by the virus. In most cases for young turkeys, it ends in death. Symptoms of the disease - a visual increase in goiter, fetid diarrhea of yellow-green or gray tint, and then the failure of the legs. Effective disease prevention - vaccination.
Пуллороз распространён среди птенцов до 2-недельного возраста. Индюшата много пьют и мало едят, ищут тепло, теряют активность. Выделения у них вязкие, поносообразные. В конечном итоге птенцы слабеют, падают на ноги и через время умирают. Effective treatment is possible only with the use of antibiotics, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory analysis. More often, youngsters with pullorosis are simply destroyed.
Histomoniasis, smallpox and tuberculosis in turkeys
Gastomonosis affects the avian intestine and liver. Early signs of fetid diarrhea are orange or green, and then brown. Juveniles lose weight, become weak. Ailment is treated by the addition of furazolidone in food (0.04% of the daily norm of food). After a 2-week course, make the same pause and repeat the treatment, and give the bird orasol again: 15 mg per 1 kg of turkey live weight. The course is 4-6 days.
Attention! Infection spread worms. Together with the main treatment, engage in their breeding.
Smallpox in turkeys manifests itself in red spots on the skin, mucous membranes and corals. The bird becomes lethargic, afraid of light, feather cover ruffles. Smallpox causes discomfort to the hens, their productivity decreases. You can protect against smallpox with a vaccine. Treat it ineffectively. Sick individuals are slaughtered for meat, the remaining parts are burned.
Tuberculosis affects the internal organs of the turkey. On the skin characteristic nodules are formed, the bird loses its productivity. The virus is transmitted through water, food, dirty litter, infected eggs. To cure a turkey from tuberculosis is impossible, it is forbidden to eat his meat. Even the disinfection of the house after the detection of the disease - the process is time consuming and long: the usual disinfectants do not help. Without a long dry in the sun can not do.
The preventive measure for most turkey diseases is the cleanliness of the house and a proper balanced diet. Experts do not recommend growing birds in the same room with another bird. It is also undesirable to keep together adults and young individuals. Regularly inspect the livestock, so as not to miss the first symptoms of common ailments.
Domestic Turkeys Contagious Diseases
Such diseases are transmitted from one turkey to another, therefore, when they are identified, treatment of patients should be carried out, but also prophylaxis on the entire population of turkeys that has been in contact with the diseased.
For the prevention of most infectious diseases of turkeys, for example, paratyphoid fever, histomoniasis, pullorosis, turkeys drink water with dissolved furazolidone 2 tablets per 10 liters of water. Furazolidone can be added to turkey feed at 0.22 g per 1 kg of feed. Specialized feed for growing domestic turkeys usually contain this medicine in the composition.
Sinusitis (respiratory mycoplasmosis / infectious rhinitis)
Inflammation of the sinuses is a highly contagious disease that often occurs in turkeys, less often in adult turkeys. In the early stages is easily cured. If untreated, it is fatal.
Infected by airborne droplets, through contaminated equipment, bedding or feed. The disease often manifests itself when hypothermia poults, with high humidity, stress.
Sniffing, transparent, and after and dull discharge from the nose and eyes appear at an early stage of the disease. Drying crusts interfere with normal breathing, and formed on the eyes, irritate the eyelids, leading to swelling. The nasal sinuses dilate due to filling with fluid and look like bags near the eyes of a turkey.
Often accompanied by wheezing and dry coughing.
Treatment of sinusitis in domestic turkeys is started immediately when the first symptoms are detected. Sick birds are isolated, and for the rest of the livestock take preventive measures. Sinusitis is treated with antibiotics, paying attention to raising immunity.
Sinusitis turkeys are dried with a solution of the drug Farmazin500 in a dosage of 1 tsp. With a slide in 1 liter of water. The treatment lasts 5 days and at this time the bird does not give pure water. For the prevention, all livestock that have come in contact with the diseased bird are being fed. You can also use the antibiotic thelan 10% at 0.5 g per 1 liter of water.
Turkey with severe symptoms of respiratory mycoplasmosis should be flushed with the nose with the same solution of Pharmazin 500, Tylan (0.25 mg every 10 days) or with hydrogen peroxide using a syringe without a needle. Crusts from eyes and beak are removed with peroxide or chlorhexidine.
If bags of liquid are still visible on the head of the turkeys for 2-3 days, then it should be removed. To do this, take a syringe with a thick needle and in the direction from the nose to the eye, make a longitudinal puncture and pump out the thickened mucus. The cavity formed is washed with chlorhexidine, or dioxidine (the contents of the ampoule are pumped into the cavity and pumped back). Usually one procedure is sufficient, rarely requires a repetition the next day.
A course of vitamins, for example, Chiktonik, is drank for the entire population at a dosage of 1 ml per liter of water for 5 days.
Cure sinusitis is possible if symptoms are noticed in time. It is important to consider that turkeys, whose eggs are used for food, cannot be treated with farmazine. It is also impossible to use turkey meat in food earlier than 5 days after the end of treatment.
For prevention, they feed the solution of farmazin turkeys from 1 to 3 and from 28 to 30 days of life.
Helminthiasis (helminthic invasions)
Worm diseases are plentiful and turkeys are prone to many of them. Parasites in turkeys are found in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, in the respiratory system and in muscles. With proper maintenance, feeding and timely preventive measures of these diseases can be avoided.
Mild infection with helminths is almost invisible, but in the absence of regular worming, the symptoms are bright. Adult turkeys lose weight and become lethargic. The young growth abruptly ceases to gain weight, growth slows down. Sharp weight loss is clearly visible on the paws - they become very thin, as if dried.
For the treatment of drugs used a broad-spectrum, and the identification of certain types of worms - special. A common wide-acting drug, Alben, introduces turkey into the feed at the rate of 1 tablet per 35–40 kg of mass or 10 µg for the active substance per 1 kg of bird weight.
A highly contagious disease of all bird species, transmitted by contact with sick individuals, through contaminated equipment and blood-sucking insects.
At an early stage, an apathetic condition, lack of appetite. Plumage disheveled, and wings lowered. The bird tries to stay in a dark corner, tilts its head. Spots appear on mucous membranes and bare skin, then scabs or sores form on the spot.
The effective treatment of smallpox turkeys is not known, therefore, the affected individuals are killed and burned. All attempts to cure the disease are based on hiding the symptoms, while the bird remains a carrier of smallpox and can infect others.
Turkeys have a hard goiter with improper feeding. Especially when there is a large amount of grain in the diet, but there is no shell rock or coarse sand. It often happens with time-limited feeding, when a hungry bird fills a goiter after a long fast. Sometimes due to thirst in the heat, turkeys overflow the goiter with water, and a drooping goiter forms.
The turkeys are sitting, stifling, with no interest in what is happening, refuse to feed. When probing turkeys swelling goiter, tightly filled with food or filled with water is noticeable. When pressed, there may be a discharge with a sour odor.
Treatment of solid goiter is not developed, the mortality rate is 100%. Sick turkeys are immediately slaughtered for meat. But the turkey with sagging goiter there is a chance to save. It should be left in peace and the first day on a starvation diet. In the following days, gradually bring the amount of feed to the norm and organize a permanent access to water.
Hypovitaminosis of turkeys, perverted appetite, avitaminosis
These diseases are the consequences of unbalanced turkey feeding. Most often, the symptoms appear first in individual individuals, and then in the entire population.
- Dim protruding plumage
- When molting, the feather looks like a rod for a long time, bare skin instead of feather
- Turkeys are always hungry and peck even non-edible items, such as bedding
- The appearance of rickets
- Swollen eyelids, tearing
- Egg hitting, feathering out
- Uneven growth and development among poults of the same age
- Cloaca inflammation
With timely normalization of feeding, these diseases are treatable. Additional vitamin and mineral supplements should be added to the diet. Vitamins are administered individually to each bird in the form of injections or drops in the beak, and for the prevention of the entire livestock, vitamins are added to food or water. The drug Chiktonik diluted in the calculation of 1 ml per 1 liter of water and feed the turkeys for 5 days. After 3-4 weeks, the course should be repeated. Providing the poults with a paddock in the sun, greens and grated carrots in the feed also helps avoid vitamin deficiencies and hypovitaminosis.
The appearance of small ulcers, purulent crusts and the protrusion of the cloaca in turkeys indicate a great lack of vitamins A and E. The inflamed areas are washed with chlorhexidine and smeared with anti-inflammatory ointment, for example, levomekol. This turkey avitaminosis is treated with Trivit, giving a drop of each bird to the tongue. For the prevention of trivit injected into the feed of 13 ml per 10 kg of feed during the month.
Treatment of histomoniasis
As mentioned above, the disease is poorly treatable, therefore, competent prevention is very important. The diseased bird must be immediately isolated to prevent contamination of other individuals. For 10 days, the turkey is watered with a solution of metronidozole (2 tablets must be dissolved in a liter of water). Usually the condition of the bird improves after a day. The rest of the birds also need 5 days to add 250 mg metronidozol to food per kilogram of feed.
A very dangerous disease that can kill up to 80% of birds. The disease most severely affects turkeys up to 3 weeks old.
Symptoms of paratyphoid fever:
- lack of appetite,
- diarrhea, heavily soiled (even clogging) of the cesspool,
- staggering gait, weakness and apathy,
- obviously thirsty birds
- sticky eyes with lots of discharge.
At the first symptoms of paratyphoid fever specimens should be immediately isolated. Contamination of the eyelids and cloaca should be washed off with warm water. A good prophylactic is considered to be furazolidone.
Severe turkey disease with a high percentage of lethal outcomes. For young animals, the acute form is characteristic, whereas adult birds are more often chronic. Turkey poults can hatch from eggs already infected or become infected from adult individuals.
Symptoms of pullorosis
The chronic form practically does not manifest itself; therefore, there are no clearly expressed symptoms. It is determined by laboratory testing. Turkey poults, first infected with pullorosis, usually suffer from an acute form, which is manifested in such symptoms as:
- low mobility, stiffness,
- complete loss of appetite
- half-closed eyelids,
- white stool with a strong unpleasant odor,
- turkey poults sit or stand, legs apart.
Due to severe diarrhea, there is clogging of the cloaca, which can be an additional reason for the death of the turkey. Before death, the birds throw their heads back, sometimes they fight in convulsions, fall on their backs.
Since the poults refuse to feed, but they drink a lot, in case of pullorosis, antibiotics are given with water. Tilan or Baytril demonstrate sufficiently high efficiency, which are added to water for 5 days at a concentration of 0.5 ml per liter. The causative agent of turkey disease persists for life, so eggs from ill individuals should not be used for breeding.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in turkeys
As a rule, with light infections, it is quite difficult to identify the signs. If you do not comply with preventive measures and allow serious infection, then there are quite pronounced symptoms. For adult turkeys, this is a strong weight loss and lethargy, for young animals - a sharp slowdown in growth and weight gain. A characteristic symptom is a noticeable thinning of the paws.
There are drugs with a wide spectrum of action, as well as specialized - directed against specific types of worms.
"Alben" - one of the most common complexes for deworming.
It is added to the feed of 10 mg of active ingredient per 1 kg of live weight (in a single tablet, 360 mg, respectively, it is designed for 36 kg).
This is an incurable disease with high contagion. Its pathogens can exist for a long time on the inventory and together with it can be transferred from one nursery to another.
Symptoms of smallpox in turkeys
- apathy, lacking appetite,
- ruffled feathers
- the bird hides from the light
- spots appear on exposed skin,
- over time, characteristic ulcers appear.
At this stage, the disease is considered incurable. There are methods to hide the symptoms, but the bird remains the carrier of the disease and can become a source of infection even after a long time. Therefore, all infected birds are killed and burned. The only effective way is prevention and vaccination, which is carried out by poults at 6 weeks of age.
Avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis and appetite disorders
The main cause of this group of diseases is improper feeding. Symptoms usually appear gradually, first in a group of birds, and later spread to the entire population, which is caused by the different physical state of individual individuals.
- diarrhea and inflammation of the cloaca,
- rickets in a large number of individuals,
- dull sticking feathers, slow moult,
- turkeys refuse to feed, but peck litter, peck eggs and peck feathers from each other,
- pronounced variation in weight gain in poults and young stock,
- teary eyes with swollen lids.
The main way to combat vitamin-deficient conditions is to normalize feeding with the use of vitamin and mineral supplements. Preparations can be administered individually (to ensure that each bird has received the required dose), as well as added to water or feed. In most cases not allowed, treatment is successful.
One of the best remedies against vitamin-deficient conditions is the combined drug Chiktonik, which includes a set of the most important vitamins and amino acids. It should be added to drinking water in the amount of 1 gram per liter. It is recommended to conduct 2 such courses for 5 days with an interval of 20-30 days.
The most effective way to fight rickets in turkey poults is regular exposure to the sun. If an adult turkey pecks eggs, this may indicate a lack of protein, so their diet should be supplemented with protein supplements.
The inflammation of the cloaca with the appearance of ulcers in young animals indicates a significant deficiency of vitamins A and E. In this case, more serious treatment is required than just normalization of nutrition. Inflammation must be washed with chlorhexidine and treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.
“Trivit” is used to treat this condition. First, it is given individually (1 drop per tongue), after which 4 weeks is used as a food additive for the entire livestock. Also, good sources of vitamins A and E (and several others) are greens and carrots.
Having enough information about all turkey diseases and getting the most necessary medicines in advance, you can avoid a large mora in your bird farm.