In the aquarium synodontis bred extremely rarely, and if they are bred, it is mainly due to hormonal injections.
For breeding synodontis, a couple of producers use spawners, a volume of about 70 liters. Before spawning, the producers are seated and richly fed. A safety net is installed above the bottom. The temperature is 2-3 ° С higher than the one at which the catfish were kept before. Before planting to spawn, a couple sit down for 1-2 weeks. When feeding, part of the plant food should be at least 30%. The stimulus to spawning is the replacement of a part of water with a fresh and strong current.
Spawning usually begins on 2-3 days, and proceeds in different ways. One pair can be in the pipe and spawn there, the spawned caviar is carried away freely by a stream of water. In another case, spawning can occur between two large stones or in the thick of a synthetic substrate, but necessarily along the course.
Eggs are colored brownish-reddish, slightly elongated, about 1 millimeter in diameter. From one female they usually get up to 500 pieces. The bulk of the caviar is concentrated in an area where the flow of water is almost not felt.
The development of eggs is as follows: after 6-12 hours, non-fertilized eggs turn white. Such eggs very quickly affect saprolegnia, so they must be removed from the general mass to prevent infection. Healthy caviar, at a temperature of 26 ° C, develops about 40 hours.
Next, you need to darken the entire aquarium, because The larvae have a negative reaction to the light and therefore try to move to the least lit places of the aquarium.
On the fourth day, the yolk sac dissolves in the larvae and the fry begin to feed.
As a starting feed, use "live dust", nauplii Artemia. As they grow, the fry go to larger feed.
Fry grow unevenly, but they do not need to be sorted. Mature fish become one-year-old.
Synodontis - fish with a stocky body, slightly flattened laterally. His skin is durable and slimy to the touch. The back of the fish is more curved than the belly. The tail fin of synodontis consists of two blades, the dorsal fin is triangular in shape; moreover, the synodontis has a large fat fin.
The big-eyed fish, the mouth is located below and equipped with six whiskers. Males are always smaller than females and not so stocky. Thus, the length of the male reaches 6 cm, females - 9.5 cm.
Types of synodontis
In aquariums, you can usually see the following types of change-catfish:
- synodontis eupterus - females of this species reach a length of 12 cm. Males are smaller, but are painted much brighter. Their caudal and dorsal fins have a white-blue edging. The body is colored yellowish and completely covered with dark spots,
- flag synodontis - It is a light-colored fish, whose casting silver body is covered with large black spots. The main features of this species are the elongated ray of the dorsal fin and the neatly shaped tail,
- multi-spotted synodontis grows up to 12 cm in length. The color of this fish resembles the skin of a leopard: clear black spots are located on the golden-yellow skin of the back and sides. There are no spots on the abdomen of the synodontis, the blades of the tail are black, the fins are edged with white-blue,
- voile synodontis - the largest view. The body length of this fish is up to 30 cm. Males of this species practically do not differ from females. Their dorsal fin is void-shaped, the body is gray-gray, covered with many black dots.
Synodontis, As I mentioned at the beginning of the article, a peaceful schooling fish. But there is one peculiarity, even though these catfish are not predators, they are very fond of live food, therefore, they easily eat small fishes as well as fry. To prevent this from happening, this type of aquarium fish is best combined with their similar-sized fish.
The Synodontos get along very well with such fish as the angelfish, lyalius, iris, Mbuna cichlids, alunoacars and haplochromis.
In the diet, the synodonts are not whimsical, they feed on everyone. The optimal ration is 70% of live food (bloodworm, tube maker, koretra, daphnia, cod fillet, shrimp, meat, heart, etc.) and 30% vegetable (lettuce and dandelion, scalded oatmeal, bread crumbs, etc. P.).
In nature, the catfish feeds on insects, shrimps, snails, fry of other fish species and plant debris.
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Classification and habitat
Representatives of the African catfish family are very interesting fish. They are mostly nocturnal, moving rapidly in search of food. Their color is very decorative, which is generally characteristic of the freshwater inhabitants of African rivers and lakes. Indeed, the Synodontis live in Lake Tanganyika and in the waters of the Congo River. They can also often be found in swampy land areas.
Scientists have long described Central African som and classified them as representatives of the Siluriformes (Somoobraznye) order of the Siluroidei (Somidiform) sub-order of the Mochokidae (Mohokids) family. There is another scientific name for the family - Fringed or Peristous soma.
These Africans were brought to European aquariums relatively recently - in the 1950s. They instantly became the favorites of many aquarists due to their peaceful nature, interesting behavior, relative lightness of content and memorable color.
Description: General Specific Properties
The appearance of all representatives of the Fringe has many features in common.
Body they have an elongated and slightly compacted side, the dorsal curve is slightly larger than the ventral one. Synodontis skin is very strong, covered with mucus.
Head. The eyes, located on the sides of the head, are large. A wide mouth with a thick lip is located at the bottom of the head. Near it grow three pairs of rather long whiskers, which help catfish to navigate and swim in the conditions of a nightly reservoir.
Coloring different species may vary significantly, but there is a common feature - colorful spots on the skin, which, depending on the specific type, may be more or less.
Fins. All catfish have a similar structure of the fins. The dorsal fin is triangular in shape with very prickly tips, the pectoral fins are relatively large, elongated in shape, which helps the fish move quickly. Tail fin in all V-shaped individuals with long rays.
In home aquariums bred several species of these African catfish. They should be discussed in more detail.
Som cuckoo: features and content
This is often called the African freshwater catfish Synodontis multipunctatus (Synodontis multi-spotted), whose popularity is especially great among aquarists containing Tanganyik cichlids.
It would seem, what is the relationship here? It turns out that the multi-spotted synodontis, reaching sexual maturity at the age of 2 years, has a very curious way of reproduction.
During its spawning period, the female catfish, whizzing past spawning cichlids, as if imperceptibly throws their eggs to them. Cichlids, taking them for their own, hold in their mouths alien future offspring during the entire incubation period.
Appearance. Synodontis multipunctatus has a light, yellow color, and his entire body is covered with a variety of black spots of various diameters. Thanks to this color, this catfish got its generic name. The multi-spotted synodontis in an aquarium reaches 12 centimeters, the males are slightly slimmer than the females and their color is brighter.
Conditions content data Africans average complexity. For their normal existence, you need a fairly large capacity - from 80 liters or more. In the interior of the aquarium must be present shelters (snags, grottoes, caves). Elements of the bottom substrate should not be allowed to damage the sensitive antennae of the fish, therefore it is better to use run-in gravel, small pebbles or river sand as the soil.
Water. Special attention should be paid to the quality and parameters of the aquarium water. With a neutral pH balance, it is necessary to maintain its increased stiffness (ranging from 10 to 20 degrees). Comfortable temperature regime - not lower than + 23 ° C and not higher than + 28 ° C. Be sure to need effective stable aeration and filtration.
Water changes (1/4 of the total) should be done more often, once a week. There are no special requirements for lighting, it should be moderate.
What to feed. Although multi-spotted catfish eat mostly live food, they can be given vegetable food and special commercial food, without allowing overfeeding, of course.
Synodontis shifter, or Synodontis nigriventris
A very interesting ornamental fish from the Congo River, to observe the behavior of which is sheer pleasure. True, the active daily phase of this catfish begins at nightfall.
Appearance. This is not to say that the skin color of fish is very bright. It has a beige color with brown or black spots, the dorsal fin is pointed, eyes are bulky and large with black edging, belly is convex and darker than the back.
The usual size of the female flipper does not exceed 10 cm, and the male - 7 cm. The life in an aquarium is usually not more than 10 years.
Conditions of detention. You can keep individuals of Synodontis nigriventris in an aquarium with a capacity of 50 liters or more. When catching fish should be very careful. In the net of the net, for example, it can become confused, since it is widely spreading its thorny fins when in danger.
There are certain requirements for water parameters. It should be replaced (30%) on a weekly basis, and the pH balance and hardness should be kept close to neutral. But the water temperature can be standard - 24-26 degrees above zero.
The presence of shelters in the aquarium is necessary - the fish will be there to relax in the daytime.
What is the reason Synodontis nigriventris got the generic name shifter? The explanation is quite simple - he almost always swims belly up. The only exceptions are the minutes when the catfish picks up food from the bottom of the aquarium. Interesting swimming style, isn't it? Interestingly, ichthyologists still cannot clearly explain the reasons for such unusual behavior. However, the audience with undisguised pleasure watching the unusual swimmer.
Breeding shifter synodontis - not an easy task. Independently in captivity, he rarely breeds, so he is given a hormonal injection. If successful, the female lays about 1000 tiny eggs, of which fry appear in a week. You can immediately begin to feed them living dust.
The first 2-3 months the young swim like all the right fish - belly down. But then some unknown force makes them roll over anyway!
Synodontis is veiform
Appearance in some way different from the usual for this family. Nature has endowed this representative of African freshwater catfish with a luxurious dorsal fin, its shape resembling a veil. The color is also memorable - rich gray color from the head to the edge of the tail with a huge variety of small black dots.
In captivity, these fish grow to 30 cm, and for their maintenance at least a 150-liter aquarium is needed.
In all other respects, Synodontis eupterus behaves like other individuals of this family of fish.
Natural reproduction in captivity is difficult, it is artificially caused by pituitary injections.
Synodontis Angel, or Synodontis angelicus
This wonderful catfish has another generic name - stellate synodontis. With good reason, he can be considered the most beautiful representative of the family of fringed fringed.
Purple color with bright yellow spots or chocolate color with orange spots contribute to a high degree of decorativeness when kept in aquariums.
Individuals reach sizes of 22-24 cm and live in captivity up to 15 years. These are pack catfish, which is why the required volume of the aquarium should be at least 150 liters.
Angel Synodontis loves to dig the soil, so the ground should be sandy, and the vegetation (if any) - with a strong root system. For the daytime rest of the fish should be equipped with an aquarium shelters.
The parameters of water required for maintenance should be identical to the conditions of the maintenance of the shifting catfish.
Live food (daphnia, bloodworm, pipe maker, etc.) is used as food, but catfish do not refuse vegetable food.
Reproduction is also caused by hormonal preparations.
Synodontis decorus, or flag synodontis
This generic name of this Congolese catfish was due to the elongated anterior ray of the dorsal fin. The fish have a silver color with large black spots, the tail fin is a regular V-shaped with black transverse stripes. The color of the males is brighter.
Under optimal conditions, Synodontis decorus can live in a home aquarium for up to 15 years. This catfish, which grows up to 30 cm, can be maintained in a society of inhabitants proportionate to it (it will simply eat small fish).
Approximately 80% of the normal diet should be made up of live food, but for normal development, vegetable food is also required. Chopped dandelion or lettuce leaves, as well as oatmeal scalded with boiling water will do.
Water parameters and interior arrangement of the aquarium - the usual for this family.
Spawning is also caused by artificial means, and in the spawning should be twilight.
Considering representatives of African lakes and rivers, it can be noted that synodontis are not yet widely distributed in our aquariums. Much more often you can meet other Africans - cichlids. However, the high decorative effect, as well as interesting behavioral traits, contribute to the increasing popularity of these wonderful fish.
Video about one of the representatives of the Synodontis soma-inversion:
A brief history of catfish synodontis
Som synodontis is a freshwater fish from the Peristocese som family. The Latin name of the species is Synodontis. This catfish comes from central Africa.
Synodontises are very popular among aquarists because of their unusual appearance and character.
African soma is awake at night and hiding in the light of day. Habitat - Lake Tanganyika and Congo River. They choose their own quiet wetlands. Representatives of this species came to Europe in the middle of the 20th century. They are easy to maintain, and they can live up to 20 years. Moreover, it is believed that synodonts are endowed with "character." For these reasons, catfish of this type in a short time became popular among aquarists around the world. Anyone can choose a synodontis of the desired size and desired color. This species has many subspecies. Each of them has several names.
The body of the synodontis is elongated, narrowed to the tail. Spinal bend more than abdominal. The skin is durable and covered with mucus characteristic of catfish. The head is large with a wide mouth. The lower lip is usually more pronounced than the upper lip. The eyes are located on the sides. Some species have large eyes (for example, catfish). Near the mouth are several pairs of whiskers. With their help, catfish feels the surrounding space at night. They help him navigate the dark.
Synodontis need mustache for orientation in space at night.
Body color can vary from pale yellow to gray-brown. Spots are located all over the body (size - from point to large round). The dorsal fin has the shape of a triangle, the rays are distinct, prickly. The pectoral fins are elongated (they allow for fast swimming). On the forked tail, long rays are clearly visible.
Individuals of each subspecies have their own sex differences. For example, the female of the shifter has larger spots than the male. The male is smaller than the female. The male cuckoo is easily recognizable by the high dorsal fin. The body of the male is brighter and slimmer. The female voile synodontis is larger than the male. Her abdomen is more rounded, and her head is wider.
Among the large number of forms of synodontis, several varieties have gained immense popularity (mainly due to bright external features):
- Voile Eupterus (Synodontis eupterus),
- shifter (synodontis nigriventris),
- cuckoo (Synodontis multipunctatus),
- petrikol synodontis (Synodontis petricola),
- Synodontosis widespread (Hemisynodontis membranaceus).
Features of maintenance and care
Soma Synodontis unpretentious in the care, but like stability. Soma needs a cozy environment and personal space. He should feel like the owner of the aquarium. One small synodont will fit a 20-centimeter tank. But if you have a wide fish, it can grow up to 25 centimeters (or more). Therefore, a large individual needs an aquarium with a capacity of up to 200 liters. Many aquarists populate a new fish first in a small aquarium, and as they grow, individuals pick up a more capacious tank.
One of the mandatory requirements for the arrangement of the aquarium - the presence of shelter. If you have a single catfish, it is not necessary to overload the entire bottom with snags and grottoes. A modest and strict catfish will use only one item. If you take away his usual shelter, he will proudly refuse the rest. В таких случаях расстроенная рыбка может занять место в углу аквариума или, например, под фильтром. Поэтому укрытий в аквариуме должно быть столько, сколько в нём находится особей синодонтисов.
Сому синодонтису необходимо укрытие
Укрытие нужно для того, чтобы сом мог в нём прятаться днём. Также в аквариуме должны быть растения (анубиас, криптокорина или эхинодорус). Broadleaf algae will create a comfortable shade (as a shelter). Flip-flops especially love to hide under such leaves. In addition, you can put Javanese moss in the aquarium. In any case, the plants must be securely fastened. If the selected alga does not have a strong root system, you can install special pots.
The soil must be safe (river sand, small pebbles, run-in gravel, etc.). The ideal soil thickness is 7 centimeters. The fact is that the catfish move along the bottom in search of food, feeling the ground with a mustache. In some forms of synodontis, the antennae are thin and tender. If there are rough, sharp stones in the aquarium, the catfish can damage its main sense of smell. Especially since some somas love to “dive” with their noses in the ground.
The starfish catfish synodontis angel more often than others “pokes” its nose in the sand (sniffs it, digs in the sand with its muzzle)
Water parameters, lighting and other features
The synodontic organism is accustomed to a neutral pH balance. Water must be warm (24–28 ° C) and hard. If the water is too soft, you can use coral chips to increase the stiffness. It is necessary to saturate the water with oxygen and filter. Somics are predominantly bottom-living, so the accumulation of organic waste at the bottom can adversely affect their health. Accordingly, it is necessary to siphon the soil (cleaned with a special device) and replace the water at least once a week (15–20%).
They live in hard water, everything seems to be normal, the temperature is about 26 degrees. They love to dig in the ground, plants and other fish do not offend (not counting the fry, if they catch it, they eat it). My cichlids also don’t touch them much, except that the black-stripes are kept away from their nests during spawning. When dividing shelters, one got great, chasing each other so that the water splashed out, and now one in battle scars and without a mustache.
It is necessary to illuminate the aquarium, but heavy-duty lamps are optional. Light will be useful to plants, and soms are indifferent to it. If you installed a light fixture, then it can be used until spawning. With the advent of young animals, the aquarium will have to be blacked out.
African catfish are almost omnivorous, but in the first half of the day they manifest themselves as predators. These fish can be fed live food, such as moth. Some do not refuse dry food, if it contains protein. They love hearty and dense food (they do not disdain small fish). Some aquarists feed their pets with shrimp or sprat meat. But if it is done often, the catfish will get used to meat food, which in time will “bring up” a voracious predator in it.
At night, the baleen inhabitants of the aquarium search the bottom in search of food and may inadvertently swallow, for example, guppy or danios. Therefore, if you indulge catfish meat, it is better for the night. In general, synodontis are not picky. If the food falling from above seems to them tastier than the one that lies at the bottom, then they will eat it. Most often for feeding bottom fish use the following feed:
- AL Motyl,
- Tetra TabiMin and Tetra PlekoMin,
- Sera Viformo,
- Sera Premium Spirulina Tabs, etc.
Can the synodontis eat snails and plants
You can dull the predator's instinct with a catfish only by accustoming him to vegetarian food. Bottom fish can be given special vegetable food or ordinary green foods (dandelion leaves, spinach, cucumbers, zucchini, etc.). In addition, catfish will not give up on oatmeal. But they must first be doused with boiling water, otherwise they will be too hard.
You can try to blunt the predator's instinct with the synodontis, offering him vegetable food
From hunger somik not die, even if it does not feed a day or two. But if you overfeed, and even food of animal origin, the fish can get sick, as soma is prone to obesity.
If the owner of the aquarium is not a fan of "sacrifices", then you can not feed the catfish with snails specifically. Sometimes synodontis eat snails, but this is not due to aggression or harmfulness. It’s just that if a catfish came out, for example, to search for food at night, and didn’t find food at the bottom, then the snail may seem like an attractive piece of meat to him. Even catfish cuckoo, which in nature eats only snails, can not touch aquarium, if it finds an alternative version of food.
Compatible with other fish
The main criterion in the selection of neighbors for catfish is the size (it is necessary to move the catfish to fish of the same size). Another important point is the activity of the fish. For example, too slow a fish can stay hungry because of a catfish. Synodontis gets on well with koi cichlids and carps. The conditions of the fish are the same, and the neighbors are commensurate with each other. The conflict between synodontis and cichlid may occur in the first days of the sharing, when males try to show their dominance.
Koi carps will be good neighbors to the synodontis
Intraspecific compatibility due to the strength and age of individuals. For example, an adult and large catfish can “drive out” a young, young catfish from shelter in order to take this place himself. Stronger individuals also survive weak to open areas of the aquarium.
My Dalmatian has been living for 12 years, I have never been satisfied with any relapses, the only thing is that he has eaten an ampoule, and this cannot be taken away from him. All other fish simply ignored, as they are his. At night, it “flies” through the aquarium, fluffing up its dorsal “shark” fin. Because the bad temper of these guys is still in question, they are kind and smart.
Adult Synodontis Owner
Social behavior and character
In Japan, there is a legend about the structure of the world. According to her, the earth rests on the back of the catfish Namadzu (Namazzu cat fish). The peace of the baleen fish is guarded by a certain deity. When the deity is distracted, the catfish wakes up and wags its tail. From this on earth occur tsunamis and earthquakes. Thanks to this legend, the Japanese have a special respect for the catfish - the sacred fish.
Catfish are called catfish not only because of the whiskers and tail. It is believed that these fish are endowed with intelligence and are able to recognize the owner. And synodontis is no exception. For example, if the shifter lives in a small horizontal aquarium, you can stroke it. It is necessary to approach the reservoir in the afternoon, gently move the cover sheet and stroke the catfish on the stomach. He will not wake up immediately, so the owner will have time to enjoy the moment.
In addition, some owners of these bottom fish catch their hands. Indeed, when catching a net, the catfish sticks out its fins and flaps its tail, and this can lead to injury. The owners of the “tame” synodontas believe that the fish are capable of recognizing a person, especially after several years of living together.
An elementary experiment confirms this: you can see how the fish looks at you and waits for food. A couple of days before the experiment you can give your favorite catfish food. On the day of "X" you need to go to the aquarium and bring your hand above the water, allegedly with food. A spotted pet will look directly into the eyes of a person, staying at the same level.
Features of reproduction and breeding
Sinodontisov breeding at home is difficult. Individuals that are in the aquarium stores - imported. It is especially difficult to breed rare hybrid species (the more beautiful and ornamental fish, the harder). For breeding fish breeders make hormonal injections. The exception to the rule is synodontis cuckoo. These fish practice nesting parasitism. During spawning, females “throw” their eggs to cichlids. Those, in turn, bear the offspring of catfish in the mouth. If the cuckoo owner succeeds, the hatched fry urgently need to be deposited. After a couple of days, you can start feeding them with Artemia larvae.
The female of the cuckoo synodontis throws its eggs to other fish, as the cuckoo bird lays its eggs in other people's nests.
The main difficulty of breeding is that the aquarium environment is practically impossible to make it look like the natural one. More experienced aquarists soften and heat the water, imitating the monsoon season. Also set the "trap" for caviar. In an empty aquarium (water only) put the container covered with a grid. At the last is put a shelter without a bottom. The female catfish hides in this shelter and spawns, which immediately falls into the net covered with tar. After spawning, adults are deposited. Grids can be removed so that the hatched fry can get out of the container.
Synodontis diseases and treatment methods
Like any other fish, catfish can get sick if they violate the basic conditions of detention. For example, if you overfeed a catfish, it becomes fat. In order for it to return to its normal state, you need to organize a catfish diet. It is impossible to put fish on hunger strike mode, but you can arrange fasting days (once a week). If the synodontic body is faded, it means stress. Such a condition can be caused by anything, for example, overpopulation of the aquarium. When the problem is resolved, the fish will return to normal.
If the bottom fish lay on its side and breathes heavily, it means that it lacks oxygen. It is necessary to check the aeration - saturation with air (possibly, the aerator is broken). When the oxygen content in the water becomes the same, the catfish will recover. We can not allow long lying pet at the bottom. There are a lot of microbes and organic deposits in the ground, because of this fish may have fin rot. Such a sore is treated with streptocide (you can make a half-hour bath). If you are afraid to harm the water pet, you can contact your veterinarian.
Synodontis are beautiful and unpretentious soma. Such fish are omnivorous, peaceful and calm. Ideal for novice aquarists, if they have not yet bred smaller fish. Catfish, small in size, can be eaten during a night hunt. The rest of the soma will not bring trouble.
The origin of catfish synodontis
Sinodontis - an attractive catfish, arrived to us from Africa
The natural habitat of the synodontists are the reservoirs of the Republic of the Congo and Cameroon. They are found in the river Lecini and Malebo. The name of the soma was due to the special structure of the jaws. "Synodontis" is translated as "fused teeth." Sinodontis belong to the order of the somobriform, suborder somovidnyh and the family of mokhokidov. In Europe, were first imported in 1950.
Appearance, character and lifestyle of the aquarium dweller
Sinodontis - benthic inhabitants active at night
There are several types of synodontis. Each of them has its own differences, but there are external qualities that are characteristic of all catfish. The torso of the synodontis is oblong and thickened on the sides. In the back there is a pronounced bend. The skin is thick, covered with a mucous layer. Eyes bulging. The mouth is located in the lower part of the head, three pairs of antennae are placed near it. They serve as a guide. Thanks to these antennae, catfish can freely swim in the dark.
Coloring depends on the type of synodontis. But all individuals are necessarily covered with characteristic spots. The color on the abdomen is lighter than on the back. The tail fin of the catfish is V-shaped, the pectoral fins are elongated, the dorsal is similar to a triangle.
Gender differences are in size and build. So, the male is much smaller and slimmer than the female. There is no difference in color and behavior. Life expectancy of synodontis reaches an average of 10 years.
Synodontis - peace-loving creatures. These somas are most active at night. During the day they are in shelters or lie on the bottom. With the onset of twilight, the synodontists swim out of the shelters and begin to search for food. To this end, they break through the soil in the aquarium, so it is not recommended to use sand as a substrate. In the wild, catfish lead a pack life. In the aquarium, it is desirable to contain 4-6 individuals.
Photo gallery: types of catfish
How to equip an aquarium?
A catfish aquarium needs to be planted with plants and shelters
Capacity for synodontis should be selected according to their size. Individuals 10 cm long are launched into an aquarium with a volume of 50 liters, with a length of 13–15 cm - 80 l, and 20–25 cm - 150 l.
Soma requires the following water parameters:
- temperature 23–28 ° С,
- stiffness 10–20 °,
- acidity pH 7–8.
In the aquarium you need to install an aerator and filter. Replace ¼ part of the water volume weekly. Somam has enough natural light, there is no need to install additional devices. At the bottom of the aquarium, place the stones, snags, pots, which synodontis use as shelters. They must be cross-cutting so that catfish can turn around and swim out.
Important! The aquarium is placed as many shelters as it contains synodontis.
Also, these fish require vegetation. Anubias, cryptocoryne, echodorus will do. To the inhabitants of the aquarium did not damage the root system of plants, plant flora in pots. The best soil for synodontis will be small-fraction stones up to 5 mm in size. The substrate is filled with a layer thickness of 7 cm. But before it needs to be washed and doused with boiling water.
Important! Do not clean the soil with detergents. Chemical compositions are very difficult to wash out.
The main rules of healthy eating
Both ready-made feeds and live food are suitable for the Synodontes.
Synodontis are omnivores, they consume both animal and plant food. Som are fed with insects, snails, cod, moth, daphnia, coretroy, bread crumbs, dandelion leaves or lettuce, and peas. They are also given oatmeal, but they are pre-scalded with boiling water. Somam fit and mixes for fish - Biovit, Tetra, Aqua Medic, AquaVital.
Food is given at twilight time, as a rule, 2-3 hours before dark. With this feeding schedule, optimal nutrient absorption occurs. Catfish eat once a day, while having a good appetite. The amount of food should be such that they eat within 2-3 minutes. Leftovers should then be caught to avoid contamination of the aquarium.
Other interesting facts
One of the most popular types of synodontis is the shifter. He is distinguished by an unusual manner of swimming, moving his belly up. At the same time, for the first 2-3 months of life, the catfish swims in the usual position, then turns over. Ichthyologists cannot explain this peculiarity of this synodontis. Veil specimens can often be seen floating upside down.
Diseases and treatments
Synodontis are obese. To bring the weight of the catfish back to normal, arrange a fasting day for it every week. Also, when feeding, follow the recommendations regarding the amount of food. If the color of the synodontis has changed and the fish has become pale (brightened), this indicates stress. First you need to find out the cause of this condition, and then be sure to eliminate it. Overcrowding, violation of water parameters, lack of shelters, uneven distribution of food can provoke stress, which makes catfish fight among themselves for food.
If the catfish has convulsive breathing, while it turns over on its side, this indicates that it cannot receive the required amount of oxygen. Check aeration in the aquarium. Because synodontis is held in the lower layers of water, fin rot can develop. To heal the fish, you need to add to the aquarium streptotsid. Soma is placed in this solution for 30 minutes.
For synodontis it is important that water meets certain parameters. Their violation adversely affects the health of the fish and can cause various diseases. Otherwise, these somas are unpretentious. They are omnivores and get along with most fish.
Description, character and lifestyle of the Synodontis Dalmatian
Originally from Synodontis from Central Africa, where it lives in the Congo Basin. First introduced to Europe in the middle of the twentieth century.
Dalmatian has an oblong body, thickened on the sides with a bend on the back. Catfish thick-skinned, covered with mucus. The eyes are large, bulging. The mouth is located on the lower part of the head and is surrounded by three pairs of antennae, which play the role of a guide. Dorsal fin triangular.
The color is light with dark spots; there is a blue border on the tail and fins.
On the dorsal and pectoral fin are sharp spikes. With their help, cat cuckoo protects itself from enemies. It becomes a problem when catching a net.
Dalmatians are excellent attendants of the aquarium. They “siphon” the ground and pick up everything that lies badly. Sometimes they swim for feeding and in the daytime, driving away the rest of the fish from eating.
Synodontis Dalmatian is nocturnal, preferring to hide in dark areas of the aquarium, shelters or plants during the day. But with a decrease in lighting, they become full owners of the aquarium.
Som cuckoo is nocturnal, and the day hiding in the shelter
Content catfish cuckoo at home
In the content of somiki unpretentious. The volume of the aquarium from 100 liters with a water temperature of 22-28C, dGH 8-20, pH 7-9. Illumination is moderate. Recommended luminaire power 0.5 watts per liter.
- good aeration
- regular water change
In the aquarium, you must install shelters, and plant vegetation.
Plants fit broadleaf, such as echinodorus, cryptocoryne. Мелколистные растения лучше не сажать — они нуждаются в мощных светильниках, а далматины, наоборот, предпочитают затемненные участки аквариума.
Грунт лучше подбирать средней фракции без острых углов. Но даже при не выполнении всех критериев, рыбка не очень расстроится и будет нормально себя чувствовать в более или менее нормальных условиях.
Не рекомендуется использовать аквариумный грунт мелкой фракции. Somiki dig it in search of food.
Synodontes Dalmatians - one of the few fish that can produce distinct sounds. She does this with the help of a special body. Well heard at night, during the most active.
Synodontis Dalmatian - Schooling Fish
Somik small fish, it is desirable to contain from three pieces.
The tank should be covered. Dalmatian can jump out.
Compatibility with other aquarium fish
Dalmatian is very peace-loving fish and it has good compatibility with other species. It is not advisable to settle catfish with small fish. Synodontis may not notice them and just eat them. Predators Dalmatians do not touch because of the large size.
Perhaps intraspecific conflicts. Often they arise for a more secluded asylum. They do not pose any particular danger to the fish. More often, somas injure themselves, clinging to the sharp corners of the decor or the ground.
Feeding Dalmatian catfish
We can safely say that synodontis Dalmatian is omnivorous. With pleasure eats dry, lively (bloodworm, tubule, etc.), frozen food, as well as everything that can be found in the ground.
Somik Dalmatians are omnivorous, but you can easily overfeed and cause obesity
Somics will not give up:
- lettuce leaves
- bread crumbs
In the natural environment consumes insects and shrimp. Will not give up on the snails that inhabit the aquarium.
Somiki are obese. Once a week you need to arrange a fasting day.