By the artificial conclusion of queens, we understand the phenomenon (reception) in which the bees take out the queens with the help of a beekeeper (by human intervention).
The reason (s) for this may be:
- For some reason, the bee colony has lost its uterus, and it has no brood left at the age of less than four days. And the beekeeper does not have spare queens (cores).
- When a beekeeper needs large amounts of uterus: to replace old queens, to form new families and nucleuses, for sale.
Bees at death (loss) of the uterus, if they still have brood (only bee) at the age of no more than four days, themselves, without the intervention of the beekeeper, will bring out the uterus, laying the so-called fistulous queen cells. If the bees do not have such brood, then they will not be able to remove the uterus without the help of the beekeeper (almost not). This help, can be considered, as an artificial conclusion of a uterus. It must be borne in mind that the uterus bred under these circumstances will be fruitful if there are drones in the apiary at this time. Uterus bred in fistulous queen cells, as a rule, are worse than swarms (and in swarm queen bees they bring out queens only during the swarming period and during the "quiet" change of queens).
The first simplest method of artificial hatching will be like this.
A beekeeper in the best (breeding) family takes a frame with young brood and even eggs. In the middle or on the sides of the cell (but in its upper third) it cuts a quadrangular opening of size: 30 mm in height, 40 mm in width, so that the necessary larvae (which are not more than 12 hours old) have the upper cut. The lower walls of the outermost cells are cut off, and two larvae are left on the entire 40 mm section, on which the bees will lay the queens. If this is not done, the bees in this neckline can lay many queen cells, which will have common walls. This will prevent the beekeeper from cutting out extra queen cells without damaging them.
The frame prepared in this way is placed in the middle of the nest of an matte-free family, is well provided with fodder and is insulated with nest. After 3-4 days inspect the tab of the queen cells. If the bees have laid, in the holes cut out by the beekeeper, the necessary number of queens, then all the stuffed fistulous queen cells are destroyed. And if the family has not laid a single queen cell, it will mean that she has a queen (but a sick one that does not worm) or that the family has got tinder bees.
When a beekeeper needs a queen beetle only for this non-maturing family, you can leave it with all the laid down queen mothers, the bees will elect themselves and leave for themselves, and the rest will be destroyed. And if the beekeeper withdrawn uterus will be needed, then 1-2 days before their release, all the queen mothers, except for one, must be cut out and placed in the uterine cells, which should be left until the queen output in the same family. When they come out, they are used according to the plan of the beekeeper. When working with sealed queen cells, they should not be shaken off, laid flat, rolled and turned upside down.
THE SECONDEST SIMPLE METHOD of artificial hatching is used when it is necessary to remove at least five to ten queens. With this method act so. In the tribal family, the uterus is found and placed in a two-frame insulator; one frame of mature brood and one light brown honeycomb with bee cells for egg laying are also placed there. From above, the insulator is covered with rails so that the uterus cannot get out of it. The isolator is placed in the middle of the nest of the same family (between the frames with brood). In the nest of this family there should be at least 8-10 kg of feed and it is well warmed.
After four days from this family, a nucleus is formed on three frames (one with honey, one sushi and one with brood, which was given to brood in an insulator). Bees are also shaken off another 2-3 frames, put it in its place. All bees and an uterus are moved there from an insulator. A frame with fresh brood is carried in a well-heated room with a temperature of 25-30 °. Here in the room they find the lower border, where the larvae began to appear. The entire lower part of the cell is cut off along this row of cells. It is better if this cut is 1-2 cm below, or 3-4 cm above the bottom wire in the frame. There is nothing bad if there are partially eggs in the remaining bottom row of cells. At the bottom row of whole cells, the lower wall of the cells is cut off (destroyed) and the larvae (eggs) are removed every 3-4 cells. So that later there would be no connected queen cells. The frame thus prepared (wrapped with a towel) is carried into the maternal family and placed where the insulator was. After that, they bring the nest of the family in order and warm it well. In the nest should be good stocks of feed (8-10 kg). After 3-4 days check the tab of the queen cells. If fistulous queen cells are laid, they should be removed.
1-2 days before the queen comes out, it is necessary to cut all queen cells and put them into cells, and put all cells with queen cells back into the mother's family for maturation. When working with queen cells, care must be taken (see the first method). The frame from which the queen cells were cut out is put back into the maternal family.
When all the uterus comes out, they must be urgently (within a day) placed on the cores (layers), and the maternal family should be left with one of them or returned to her old uterus from the nucleus. If the old uterus returns, it must be returned according to all the rules for replanting queens, since it is now already alien to the family.
Requirements for bee families
They should be thoroughly reviewed. If you are interested in breeding bees, then you definitely need to study a specific scheme. The whole process begins with the selection of families. From the quality of parents, queens and drones will depend on the characteristics of all offspring. Juveniles are responsible for the productivity of families. That is why they are put in a priority position. Choose queens need of the most healthy, strong and high-quality individuals. Only in this case will be the result. Scientists who have been engaged in beekeeping for a long time say that it is possible to bring young queen bees on their own even on small apiaries.
Criterias of choice
It is necessary to highlight the main ones:
- In the first place is the honey productivity of the family.
- Cold tolerance.
- The family must be strong and resilient.
- Good good health of bees and high resistance to disease.
Data on each family in the apiary can be found on the log book. Such a document should be in every responsible beekeeper.
How to start?
Bee families need to be cooked about a year before the time of hatching. During this period, you can further increase the strength of the family before hibernation. It is also necessary to carry out a number of preventive measures: check the quality of the honey produced by the family, clean and sanitize the hive, give the bees a stimulating feeding and thereby protect it from Nosema, and also give food that does not crystallize.
It is said that a person can get more than one honey from bees. Today, bee products such as wax, propolis, perga, royal jelly, bee venom are widely used. In the spring, before breeding young queen bees, it is necessary to replace the old individuals who have completely overwintered with new bees. Thus, you can carry out the withdrawal of young queen without family orphaned.
Complete the replacement process with the onset of the last month of spring. If insects are further stimulated by a special feed consisting of proteins and carbohydrates. You can also improve the living conditions of insects. Still it is worth installing protection against wind or to warm a beehive. In addition, it is necessary to expose the bee house early from the wintering place. When you completely replace the old queens with young and get sealed brood, you need to start forming families. In the future, they will be engaged in the education of young larvae. According to experienced beekeepers, the new family should include at least 2.5 kg of bees, 11 kg of honey and 4 frames with perga.
How to bring the drones?
Breeding bees necessarily involves the process of withdrawing drones. Beekeepers usually do this process in the very first days after moving hives from the wintering place. Somewhere within a month, the puberty of individuals takes place. For the withdrawal of drones, it is recommended to choose the best families from the entire apiary. The nest in such a family must be narrowed down to the minimum size. In the hive, only those frames are left that are occupied with perga and honey. As a result, the queen will not be able to fully lay eggs. After that, it is necessary to place the drone honeycomb in the center. In apiaries, where they are systematically engaged in breeding, special cells with insulators can be used. Usually they are put on each frame. Drones should be placed in an insulator when it is in the center of the nest. Approximately 4 days after this, the uterus will lay eggs. Then the isolator should be transferred to the community nest and new cells should be installed. Every day, the family in which the drones are brought out must be fed up with sugar syrup and honey honey. Periodically it is necessary to strengthen the seven frames with brood.
Removal of queens: step by step instructions
In this process, you must adhere to certain recommendations. Before withdrawing queens from scratch, an inexperienced beekeeper must study the instructions. The whole process begins with the excavation of the block, which is separated from the main family by the Ganeman lattice. Then there you need to move the frame with the queen. In this block there should be about four frames, two with open brood and one pair of opaque. The queen should be left there for a while so she can rest. A week will be enough. After that, four more frames with the brood of other families are placed there. The resulting family, when young bees are released from the brood, will make a large number of queen cells. It will happen in about 9 days.
After another five days, other families are also divided into two equal parts using a partition with a Hahnemann lattice. This unit for 9 days should be used as a layering. All this time, the open brood will be sealed. After that, an insulator is made for the first frame. For some time, from the ground one should prepare a new dry. It is not necessary to fill it with lure, just enough to move it into this frame.
A week after the rest, the queen can be transplanted into this empty frame. Place a ganeman grill on the edge. After that, leave in the maternal family an empty frame with the queen. On one side in the next couple of days many eggs will be laid. Four frames must be delivered from the mother hive to the spare. Then it will be possible to transplant the queen from such an isolator into such a hive. Usually, brood with bees and half a liter of water are added to the honeycomb for hatching. From the insulator, the cells are transferred to a room with a high temperature. After that, it is cut into strips. You must crush every two eggs. Every third should be left. Thus, the mother liquor is thinned out.
Next, you need to take a special vaccination frame. Honeycombs pre-cut into strips are attached to their slats. These frames must be distributed in such a way that they alternate with the ordinary ones in the maternal family. To complete the growth of insects, it is necessary to place three frames from the queen cell into previously separated hives. There are no eggs in them, since the queen was moved beyond the partition. In each half of the hives placed grafting frame. After that, the family of bees will grow the queen mothers and bring them a sufficient amount of milk. One of the vaccination frames must be left in the maternal family. In the empty beehives at the end, you will place the layering. They can be transferred to an open area 11 days after the queen is placed in an isolation ward. Each cell should be attached cell. To empty beehives it is necessary to attach the closed queen cells. Parent families should be placed on two layers. Royalties should be left as a spare material.
Withdrawal of queen bees can be carried out in a natural way. This is the easiest way. It is necessary that the insect family is in swarm condition. If you provide comfortable conditions for the family, this process can be significantly accelerated. It is necessary to place three frames with brood in the hive and cover the tray. There should be no non-syrup structures at all. It remains only to wait until the queen mothers are laid. On the new framework, it is necessary to form the layouts. The disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible to correctly predict the laying of queen cells. You can not say anything about their quality.
Use of fistula insects
How else can uterus be removed? The methods may be different. The use of fistula bee mats has become widespread. The main advantage of this method is that insects can be bred by a specific date. Currently, this method is very popular among beekeepers. For its implementation, insects are forced to postpone fistula queen cells. To do this, you need to choose a strong enough family, find a uterus in it and transfer it together with the brood frames to a new hive. Bees in him need to shake in several frames. As a result, you get ready layering. It can be placed in a separate hive. Without a queen bee, fistula queen cells are set aside. However, you need to ensure that they are only on mature larvae. The quality of the queens thus obtained is better than in the first method described.
This is quite an interesting way. How is the artificial withdrawal of queens with their own hands? It is necessary to pick up the frame with eggs and young brood from the strongest family. From above it is necessary to cut a hole with a diameter from 3 to 4 centimeters. All bottom walls of the cut must be removed. It is enough to leave only two larvae. Then put the frame in the nest. After a few days you can check the bookmark. Cutting fistulous queen cells can be started when the bees set aside the required amount. If you do not find them, then most likely something is wrong. Insemination of queen bees should pass without any problems. This method allows to obtain high-quality material.
There is one more way, using which, it is possible to carry out the conclusion of queens. It is used when you need to simultaneously get 5-10 insects. To do this, the queen should be placed in a two-frame insulator in a healthy bee family. It is also necessary to put a frame with cells for laying and brood. Cover all this construction from above with frames. So the queens will not be able to get out. Insulator should be put back between the frames and brood. Next, you need to form a nucleus. It consists of three frames with honey and land. There should be added individuals and put the uterus from the insulator. Take ram with brood into the house. After that, after a few days, you will need to check the tab and remove all fistulous queen cells.
Conditions for development
If you want to get a good queen for breeding insects, then you need to acquire it only from well-established beekeepers. Before breeding, it must be allowed to rest for several days, isolating it from active bees. A rested uterus will produce larger eggs. The temperature in the grafting frame should be at least 32 degrees, and humidity - 75-90%. Mother liquors are better distributed evenly between different families. This will allow them to grow and provide royal jelly. The process of growing is recommended to organize in half of the hives, which will then be used as layers.
How to choose the time for the withdrawal?
If you have chosen a particular method and have created all the necessary conditions in which the queen withdrawal is carried out, you will need a special calendar. Using it, you can determine when it is necessary to carry out this or that procedure. This will allow you to achieve maximum results.
What is the essence? Conclusion uterus method Kashkovsky allows you to achieve maximum results in a short time. In addition, it helps to solve the problem of swarming by annual change of queens. In addition, the method provides for a sharp expansion of the hives. Families prone to swarming are rejected. This method has received special distribution in Siberia.
In this review, we reviewed the main technologies of hatching. By creating favorable conditions for bees and observing all the requirements, it is possible to achieve an excellent effect. Experts recommend to pay special attention to the Kemerovo technology, also known as queen extraction by the Kashkovsky method. It involves the complete replacement of all queens. The effectiveness of this technology is confirmed by numerous scientific studies.