Fight breeds of dogs: a review with names and photos


Fighting breeds of dogs are gaining more and more popularity, but before choosing such a puppy, it is better to immediately determine the treatment rules and the criteria of qualities so that the dog will respect you, listen to and execute commands. We'll have to make a lot of effort, but training and attention will allow to raise an intelligent pet, even with a small fighting dog.

The future owners of fighting dogs

We will immediately determine what breeds of dogs belong to the fighters, because these are the ones that can or are involved in dog fights.

Important! We are talking not only about those who already do this, but also about those who have a battle based on genetics, they have certain qualities of character and body structure.

The basic rules of behavior with such pets are:

  • immediately decide whether the dog will participate in battles or not,
  • in case of possible fights, you will have to devote time for training and training,
  • Start with elementary commands: bring, face, sit,
  • for training you can use big sticks of trees, rubber tires and special toys,
  • it is better to get additional advice from a dog handler who will give recommendations based on the breed and purpose of your dog,
  • you must immediately show that you are the master and you will have to obey faithfully.

There are rules of conduct fighting dogs for a walk, in contact with other animals:

  • walking the dog is better in the muzzle and on a short leash,
  • in the event of clashes with other animals, you must immediately take the dog by the collar and put it aside. But stroking the head and giving a treat - not worth it, the dog can bite you,
  • during clashes, the dog must be dragged by the tail and lower torso,
  • don't beat the dogs,
  • Do not give your puppy a personal toy to another dog, otherwise it will provoke a fight.

Important! To avoid such situations at all, you need to pay your pet's training for at least an hour and a half every day. It is better to do this in open areas, but without other people and other animals. Respect the dog, do not hit it and encourage the execution of commands.

Top 20 best fighting dogs

  1. English Mastiff is the largest dog, has long been famous as the winner of fights among dogs and even people. Now it possesses such features as a gentle disposition, precise command fulfillment, tolerance, affection, obedience and protection of people. It can be aggressive animals, therefore, requires training.
  1. The American Staffordshire Terrier has a sharp mind, ingenuity, can be stubborn, persistent. Combines the love of children, peace of mind. Requires mental and physical stress. Easy to learn, aggression to people is no different. If properly educated - love children and surrounding animals.
  1. The American Bulldog had previously driven, killed cattle on farms. Also often participated in dog fights, but after the ban on such events, the dog was changed with the help of selection with a pug. Therefore, the dog was faithful, intelligent, hardy. Possesses hunter instinct, can be aggressive, sensing the smell of blood.
  1. English Bulldog previously participated in battles, was popular in Europe, often won due to physical indicators. Renowned for perseverance, resentment, can be impatient and impatient. Almost lost fighting qualities, requires constant physical training and training teams.
  1. Japanese Akita Inu known for many centuries, as a fighting dog. Previously, they were used in hunting, in battles. Differs in aggressiveness to strangers, other animals. It is difficult to learn, it is too independent, but loyal to the owner.
  1. The bull terrier is known all over England as a fighter and guard. It can be aggressive, suspicious, it becomes hazardous with the smell of blood. These qualities are inherent in him from birth. Differs restraint, loyalty and humility.
  1. Bordeaux dogs are those dogs whose grandparents participated in gladiator battles, tracking down large animals and have been at war. Aggressive, fearless, persistent. They can not only grab a dog or a small animal, but also tear them to death.
  1. Bandog is a selection from the Pit Bull Terrier and Neapolitan Mastiff. Previously participated in hunting and protection. Differs in attentiveness, devotion, fearlessness, endurance and malice towards strangers.
  1. Spanish Alano is now almost never encountered, is considered an extinct breed, which is trying to recover. Refers to hunting dogs, is known as a persistent and invincible fighter, hard to train, famous for ingenuity.
  1. The Staffordshire bull terrier has not been used in fights for a long time, but at the sight of blood or a fight a dog can easily rush into battle. It is quickly trained, it is trained in new teams, it can be cruel and bite the opponent.
  1. Caucasian Shepherd is used not only in battles, but also in protection. Suspicious, intelligent and well-trained, can easily push a person or another dog into a trap. It requires constant physical exertion, training and discipline, otherwise it may rush to the owner.
  1. Dogo Canaria (Presa Canario) is a popular, large-sized fighting dog bred in the Canary Islands. Differs in devotion, attentiveness, aggression to strangers, possesses excellent security qualities. Can participate in battles only after long workouts.
  1. Cane Corsa is famous for being an excellent guard and ranger when training - it will become a real killer. Fight qualities depend not only on education, but also on genetics. If the parents were fighters, then a minimum of training, discipline, and you will get the same.
  1. Neapolitan Mastiff Shorthair is now used as a guard and protector in the family, different jealousy, which translates into aggression. For fights and bouts requires a long training, rigid discipline and constant physical exertion. Inherent devotion, attentiveness, affection and care for the owner.
  1. Pitbull (American Pit Bull Terrier) is considered the most dangerous fighting breed. Differs loyalty, devotion, good memory. Will become a fighter and a murderer only with the appropriate education. Easy to train, can be aggressive to children.
  1. Tosa Inu is a type of Japanese mastiff that was bred specifically for fighting. When training follows clear rules, the technique of warfare is genetically embedded. This is a powerful and hardy dog, which more often than others becomes a winner. Because of stubbornness, it requires hard dressing, discipline, and is aggressive towards other dogs.
  1. The Big Tibetan Mastiff was bred for the protection and defense, is almost not aggressive, but does not like strangers, is distinguished by independence with respect to the owner, therefore, requires constant education. Without dressing becomes aggressive, and communication with other dogs in an enclosed space is better to limit.
  1. Fighting French Bulldog - different cheerfulness, friendliness, devotion, has excellent defender qualities, does not really like other animals. Fight qualities need to be educated, much depends on the gene pool, aggression does not differ.
  1. Fila Brasileiro is a large dog that has been grafted with childhood aggression and owner protection. It is difficult to control in public places, it requires constant training and education. The dog is ready to constantly protect the family and owner, does not like other animals, in battles the advantage is considered to be a massive size.
  1. Shar Pei considered one of the oldest fighting dogs, can be a good guard. Differs independence, love of family, devotion. Aggressively treats others, can attack them. In order to avoid skirmishes and fights, a pet must be constantly trained, it is difficult to train. To participate in battles, you need to establish certain qualities from birth, since anger and endurance in a fight are not inherent in them.

There are other breeds of fighting dogs, but they all equally require attention, care, training and discipline. Since the lack of education leads to injuries of other animals and the owners themselves.

Alabai (Central Asian Shepherd)

It has excellent working qualities, mainly used for protection and guarding. These dogs repulse any enemy, they have a bold character, but you should not consider them as wolfhounds.

Before the final decision on the acquisition, mandatory tests are carried out - battles between alabay in accordance with clear safety rules, which exclude damage and the more death of the animal.

Attention. Not all representatives have fighting and security qualities - they are transmitted by genes.

American Pit Bull Terrier

The list of fighting dogs with photos should be continued with the description of this particular breed, because many dog ​​breeders put the pit bull in the first place of such ratings. He has excellent fighting qualities, fearless, stubborn temper.

However, it should be borne in mind that the dog is not suitable for novice lovers - its education and training should be carried out only by an experienced breeder.

American bandog

This is a guard dog that was originally bred for gladiator fights between different breeds. Therefore, representatives are distinguished by a very courageous, enduring character and perfectly perform the task of a personal bodyguard.

Pet training requires constant attention from the owner, his ability to correctly recognize the dog's behavior and correct it in time so that the dog always knows a clear hierarchy. Thus, only an experienced dog breeder can acquire a representative of this breed.

American Staffordshire Terrier

Possesses pronounced qualities of the defender - saves both the owner, and all his family. Before the danger does not recede and stands until the end, until the enemy is completely neutralized. The main condition for education is early socialization: the sooner the puppy realizes who his family is, the faster he will show himself as a loving and devoted pet.

English Mastiff

This is the largest representative of the mastiff, which has long been used in baiting bears. The character is rather stubborn, it requires a long education and socialization from the very first days of the puppy's stay in the house.

The dog has a calm, calm character. However, these qualities do not appear immediately, but as a result of professional training and competent education. If you do not take care of the puppy's training, a rather aggressive and somewhat unpredictable animal will grow up. Preferred for experienced owners.

Dogue de Bordeaux

It has very large, somewhat frightening dimensions. It has the qualities of an almost perfect fighter, as well as a defender and a hunter. Despite its brutal appearance, it has a very calm and friendly character.

Dog is very devoted to the owner, loves the whole family, gets along with children, as well as with pets. Interestingly, the representatives of the breed have a strong instinct to protect the weaker.

Read about dog breeds in the full article.

Bull terrier

Despite the common opinion, the bull terrier has a very friendly and even affectionate character, but only if the owner brings up the pet with tenderness and care. The character is quite capricious, so a rude attitude can only lead to harm from the animal.

Attention. It is strictly forbidden to tease a bull terrier - in an enraged state, his behavior is unpredictable. Keeping an animal together with cats is also not recommended.

Learn more about Bull Terrier Dogs from the full review.

American Bulldog

This is a very friendly dog ​​that gets along well with children. He likes to work, manage the situation, often shows stubbornness. A born fighter who in principle does not retreat in front of danger.

It is better to buy such a dog to an experienced breeder, because the upbringing can take a long time. It is very important to socialize with strangers, but this should be done gradually and carefully.

English bulldog

The dog has a serious character and is characterized by a pronounced devotion, a constant desire to please the owner. They can think about the team for a long time before the performance, but the reason is not laziness, but a balanced temperament, unwillingness to hurry.

It is very important to socialize the dog as early as possible, otherwise it may become a little aggressive, which is especially important for non-casted males.

More information about dogs English bulldog in the full article.

French Bulldog

Pretty jealous breed of dogs that prefers to be the only pet in the family. They love to play very much and need constant attention, otherwise they risk falling behind in development. The sense of territory is well developed - the bulldog is always on the lookout and is distinguished by heightened vigilance. Always give a voice if someone is waiting at the door.

We offer to read a full review of the breed of dogs French Bulldog.

This Japanese dog is distinguished by courage and at the same time nobleness. Very loyal to the owner and, despite its impressive size, suitable for maintenance in a city apartment.

He will not retreat in the face of danger, will never abandon his master in the lurch, is distinguished by care, fearlessness and even self-confidence. He is rather wary of strangers, and often demonstrates an aggressive attitude towards strangers.

Attention. If a puppy is raised incorrectly, he will grow up aggressive and almost out of control. Such a dog is more suitable for experienced breeders.

Read about the features of keeping dogs of the Tosa Inu breed.

Fila brasileiro

Generally suitable for the protection of the territory, because it has a sharp mind and exceptional loyalty. The dog responds to a clear threat with merciless cruelty, therefore provoking it to aggression is extremely dangerous.

Fila can independently make a decision in a critical situation, so it can be stopped only before the intervention. Quite aggressive attitude towards strangers and especially dogs.

Intelligent, independent and in many ways noble dog. Devoted to the owner and the whole family, but prefers to dominate and occupy an exceptional position in the house. It is suitable for balanced and self-confident people, because otherwise it can claim to be the leader and even not completely obey the person.

He treats strangers with suspicion; he may show aggression to other animals.

This Japanese dog has a very calm temperament, it will give a voice only in cases where there are objective reasons. They need early socialization with other pets, otherwise they may behave very aggressively with them. has a strong will and independent character, great for protecting the territory. Akita Inu does not retreat before the danger and stubbornly defends the rights of his family.

Interesting. The dog has almost no smell of dog and is notable for cleanliness. Therefore, many breeders compare it with a cat.

Caucasian Shepherd Dog

This is a fairly large guard breed, which has long been used as a herding dog. Temperament balanced, character friendly, seasoned. May live at home, but preferably on the street.

Brave, resolute, does not trust strangers and feels perfectly his territory. At the same time, unreasonable aggression does not show - it can only pounce in critical situations.

Kangal Karabash (Turkish Kangal)

Very brave dog, able to make decisions independently and quickly respond to a changing situation. Behavior cautious, distrustful towards strangers, as well as animals.

In his circle is quite relaxed, friendly and generally calm. Never retreats before danger, they are very obedient and treat the owner with deep respect.

We offer to read an article devoted to dogs of the Kangali Karabash breed or the Turkish kangal.

Dogo Argentino

Representatives of this breed are distinguished by their courageous character and strong, athletic-folded body. The dog instills fear only by appearance and size. Moreover, the Argentine Great Dane is often called even the “killing machine”, the name in view of its harsh and aggressive nature.

In fact, friendly features prevail, and negative ones can only appear from a lack of upbringing and improper dressing. He feels the territory well, is alert to danger, serves as an excellent watchman. Enduring and loyal, but for normal development needs early socialization.

Representatives of the breed have a very calm, balanced temperament. Therefore, the dog is obedient and devoted to its owner. Interestingly, the nature of the pet for a long time remains a puppy who will never give up the opportunity to play and run.

Along with this calm canoe Corso with great passion protects the owner and his entire family. The dog is not aggressive, it is quite difficult to ruffle, but in critical situations it will never retreat before the threat, until it is completely neutralized.

Особенности дрессировки собак породы кане корсо в полном обзоре.

Южноафриканский Бурбуль

Это собака с довольно своеобразным характером, она подойдет для человека волевого и уравновешенного. Бурбуль – классический боец, выносливый, сильный и смелый. Никогда не сдается и не отступает перед угрозой.

Чтит только своего хозяина и только в том случае, если он правильно воспитал питомца. People of a soft nature does not respect - can begin to dominate.

Attention. Constant physical activity is a fundamental requirement for care. If the dog will often sit at home, she may experience bursts of unexplained aggression.

Choosing a real fighter, it is very important to assess your real capabilities. How much time you are willing to devote to your dog, how well you can bring up, whether you have experience of successful training, what kind of lifestyle you prefer - these are just some questions that need to be given specific answers in order to make the right decision.

Big Tibetan Mastiff

The breed was bred specifically for the protection and protection. The threshold of aggressiveness is very low. However, in relation to strangers and other dogs, these animals are extremely cruel. Mandatory condition - strict training. In case of behavioral disorders, work with a professional canine is recommended.

Looking at the small puppies of Shaprpeys, it is difficult to believe in their aggressiveness, but this is so. Breed is considered one of the ancient fighting. If we consider that the malice and rigidity in the selection process were lost, it is not by chance that experts say that it is necessary to prepare Sharpey for participation in battles from an early age. Otherwise, the dog will not be able to demonstrate courage.

Spanish Alano

Breed dogs for participation in fights, which almost disappeared. Today, work is underway to restore it. Despite the difficulties in the process of training, dogs are distinguished by ingenuity, perseverance and innate courage. Alano is also considered a hunting dog.

Staffordshire Bull Terrier

The ban on conducting dogfights excluded the use of representatives of this breed in such actions. However, there are still underground fights, where at the sight of an opponent and blood, the bull terriers demonstrate aggressiveness and bloodthirstiness. Fighting to the last drop of blood is about them. In this case, dogs are well and quickly trained.

The best fighting breeds of dogs

In different parts of the world their preferences. In the Land of the Rising Sun, the rates (literally and figuratively) are made on the home-grown Tosa-inu breed, in Pakistan Bully Kutta (Pakistani mastiffs) are vented, wolfhounds and American pit bull terriers are usually drafted in Russia and dogo argentino.

Bully kutta

Pakistan is considered the birthplace of the mastiffs, although disputes about the origin have not yet subsided. According to one of the versions, the dogs got here with the Persians, who forced the ancestors of the bully kutta (approximately 486-465 BC) to guard the slaves. When the Persians were knocked out of the country, the dogs remained here as fighters and guards.

Over time, the breeders improved the exterior, slightly reducing the growth of bully kutta (up to 85 cm at the withers) and weight (up to 65–95 kg): this helped add to his speed and endurance.

The breed is famous for its bloodthirstiness, territoriality and ferocity. It is not surprising that Pakistani mastiffs were and remain excellent warriors in dog fights, banned, but nonetheless often held in rural areas of Pakistan and India.

Dogs are extremely loyal to the owner, but dangerous for children and do not tolerate other dogs nearby (often killing the latter in conflicts over territory). Bulli Kutta, angry, energetic and huge, unsuitable for maintenance in the city. Usually they are kept outside the city, in closed courtyards and give increased physical activity.


A native of Great Britain, the forefathers of which are called Mastiffs (the breed inherited invincible force from them) and the Bulldogs, who endowed him with a death grip.

These are mighty dogs of high height (63–68.5 cm) with a mass of from 50 to 59 kg. They have strong muscles and a broad chest, short shiny hair. Terrible appearance is supported by a heavy head with a characteristic black mask.

The bullmastiff was displayed as a “hunter's night dog”, catching poachers. Breeders appreciated the large, patient, brave and silent dogs. One of the cultivated traits was ferocity. Breeders assure that now especially vicious puppies are rejected, and breeding work is aimed at getting a companion dog.

The owners are grateful to their pets for their ability to adapt to the pace of human life: dogs enthusiastically follow them during their runs or calmly walk through the park (if the owner is aged). Nevertheless, the current bullmastiffs are still in demand as security guards - they are very good at guarding banks, cottages and offices.

Another native of Assyria, whose ancestors fought in combat armor, has not yet been recognized by the International Cynological Organization. A lot of breeders are called burbulya half-blood, tailless or designer mastiff, denying the right to usefulness.

Be that as it may, the South African burbuli exist and are always respected among fans of fighting dogs. These are powerful mastiff-like dogs, reaching 65–70 cm at the withers and weighing 60–90 kg.

It is interesting! Boerbools trust their instincts and constantly monitor the situation, making independent decisions in a second. Fineness is organically combined with dexterity, plasticity and lightning reaction, and strength - with a high running speed.

Boerboel tends to dominate and may even contradict the owner, the only one who has real power over him. These complicated dogs must be physically exhausted both to maintain health and to use stored energy.

Otherwise, tension translates into spontaneous aggression, both in relation to people and to other dogs.

Dog to fight

Dogs for illegal fights (and in Russia they are mostly pit bull terriers) are bred in special kennels from their parents, who distinguished themselves in fights. In such a nursery you will get only on the recommendation. Buyers immediately take a pair of puppies (female and dog) for further breeding.

They start training when the dog is 9-12 months old. Each owner has a company secret of training a fighting dog, which he keeps in secret. Usually the training process consists of:

  • work on power simulators,
  • treadmill use,
  • exercises for the grasp (the dog is hanging, clutching his cowhide with his teeth),
  • many kilometers of runs.

It is interesting! Many owners focus on proper sports nutrition and make up the protein diet, part of which, for example, is milk with calcium.

Connoisseurs warn that participation in dog boxing is a rather expensive exercise. So, in 2013, each participant paid 1 thousand rubles for renting the ring, 2 thousand each - to a veterinarian and a judge. Total 5 thousand rubles only for entering the ring.

But the game, as they say, is worth the candle. At least 30-40 fans come to watch the fight, and the amount of the prize fund starts from 100 thousand rubles. In the form of rare exceptions, cars and apartments are on the line.

By the way, the organizers of the underground battles claim that the myth of the frequent death of dogs from the teeth of the enemy is complete nonsense. Neither the owners nor the judges will ever allow this, as they love their pets very much.

Dog for home

Such a dog should be socialized early and competently, training at least one and a half hours daily.

Fight breeds are advised to take a course in protective-guard service (ZKS), where the trainer will evaluate the animal's psycho-type and the degree of its excitability during protection. It is believed that the caudate bodyguard should desperately rush to the source of danger, stopping at the first shout of the owner.

If you train the dog yourself, do it in open space (preferably in the absence of people and other dogs). Respect for your pet implies severity, but not cruelty, and even more so, not physical punishment.. For the implementation of the command dog is always encouraged.

There are immutable rules for walking fighting dogs:

  • allowed to walk on a short leash and in a muzzle,
  • In order not to provoke a fight, do not give a toy belonging to your dog, a foreign dog,
  • if a skirmish has arisen, the pet is put aside, taking the leash (an angry dog ​​is neither stroked nor treated: it can bite),
  • in case of conflicts, the animal is also dragged behind the lower torso and tail.

Important! Fighting dogs, like no other, require intense physical discharge (relieving internal stress). Jumping, running and playing an aport is a very weak load. These powerful dogs need sports such as agility, weight pulling, bike and skijoring.

Do not forget also to weight the dog's ammunition in order to give a beautiful relief to the muscles and make the training more effective. Help to defuse tension and long walks of 5 km, preferably twice a day.

Evil Glory of Fight Dogs

The bad reputation of fighting breeds arose thanks to careless owners who did not know how or did not want to bring up their four-legs.

Cynologists are convinced that all attacks (on outsiders and on the owners themselves) are caused by a lack or complete lack of proper physical exertion. The energy, which did not find a way out, translates into hyperactivity of the dog and further into unmotivated aggression.

And it’s good if the furniture and things become the object of disproportion. It is much sadder to read notes about bitten and torn people from time to time.

There is only one conclusion: if there is no desire, knowledge, time and character, in order to bring up a fighting dog, do not undertake this difficult and extremely responsible occupation. Buy a puppy easier, for example, a toy terrier.

Features fighting dogs

Dogs for fighting evolved from stocky and medium-sized quadrupeds. Their distinguishing features were a massive head and a menacing barking. Above all, the ancestors of fighting dogs were developed, respectively, fighting instincts. In ancient times, they had to kill lions, tigers and bears - they certainly took part in the hunt for large and dangerous animals. The prevailing instinct is preserved in modern fighting dog breeds.

Courage, perseverance, a sharp mind and a strong constitution, as well as instant reaction and deadly grip - this is how animals that are on the list of fighting dogs characterize. Awesome features, right? That is why fighting dogs are considered to be real killers. And this is a serious misconception: with a healthy mind and proper upbringing, the four-legged fighting men remain the most loyal creatures who can be trusted with their lives and the lives of loved ones.

Large fighting breeds

A classic example of a dog created for fighting is a big fighting dog. Large dimensions alone induces fear and horror. What breeds of fighting dogs are the most popular, if we talk about large quadrupeds? So:

  • alabai. Hardly representatives of this breed can be called appeasable. But those who win their authority will be lucky. The owner will be under the safe protection of a durable and fearless creature. Alabai are not afraid of either heat or cold, they easily adapt to any conditions, but they require serious training,
  • english mastiff. The giant ancestors of these dogs served Julius Caesar himself. Mastiffs played the role of guards and shepherds, but more often they were turned into gladiators — they were dressed in armor and set off with large and dangerous animals. Modern breeders have managed to smooth over aggression, which is a legacy of the past. These are the most obedient guards and bodyguards, ready to defend the property entrusted to them and the owner until the last breath,
  • Cane Corso. Another kind of four-legged, who took part in gladiator fights. But today, Corso is regarded as a working “horse.” A big plus is that these beauties (see photo) can distinguish the game from the real danger. Therefore, it is unlikely that the owner or the surrounding people can become an accidental victim of unbridled aggression,
  • Dogue de Bordeaux. The share of the ancestors of these dogs fell part in great wars, and, of course, participation in battles. Bordeaux Great Danes did not give up in a fight with bears, bulls and even donkeys ... It's hard to believe, but donkeys were considered the most dangerous animals. They were highly resilient and could cause serious injuries to their hoofs. How to properly educated dogs? They are unhurried, even slightly lazy and sometimes apathetic. But this does not negate the fact that they serve as excellent nannies for the children and feel the owner well.

Here they are - huge dogs with a fighting character. What will your dog be: a reckless and dangerous creature or a strong and reliable protector? It all depends on how much effort you put into the education of your four-legged friend.

Small fighting dogs

“Mal da darning” - that's what they say about small fighting four-legged ones. Despite the size, they are distinguished by resourcefulness and courage, which sometimes grows into recklessness. Which fighting dog breeds are considered the most popular when it comes to small quadrupeds? Among them:

  • american staffordshire terrier. Flexible and nimble dogs are recognized as the strongest fighting dogs in the world. Why? Their elegant dimensions make it possible to harass large opponents and take them with their dexterity. However, their true vocation is to take care of children and faithfully serve their masters,
  • bull terriers. Are among these dogs the most agile fighters? Yes and no. It is hardly possible to call this variety truly aggressive. Yes, they have enormously powerful jaws and their grip is called dead. But anger is not an innate quality. Initially, the breed was used to hunt bulls and boars, and today the bull terriers are the most loyal friends. In the host, they see the leader and are ready to obey him until the end of life,
  • shar pei. These cutest creatures belong to the fighting dog breeds - incredible, but true. The variety appeared more than 3 thousand years ago, and all this time Shar Pei took part in fights with congeners. Folds on the skin, bristly wool and strong jaws, and also a cocky character - this is proof that they can “give heat” to the enemy.

After reviewing the large, medium and small breeds of dogs for fighting, you must understand - dangerous breeds simply do not exist. There are irresponsible breeders and careless owners. Dogs become aggressive in several cases: in the presence of mental trauma and in the absence of proper upbringing.