The appearance of spiders is associated with the legend of the beautiful weaver Arachne, who challenged the goddess Athena, supposedly an earthly woman surpasses her in her mastery. The ancient Greeks associated the myth of pride and its consequences with the skillful ability of spiders to weave their webs.
In fact, these insects existed long before Ancient Greece and people in general. Their history of existence has more than 300 million years of evolution.
Features of the structure of spiders
Today, there are 42,000 species of spiders, ranging from the smallest specimens (the size of a pinhead) to huge ones that do not fit on two palms. Fossil arachnids are represented by more than 1000 species that have either become extinct or evolved. A feature of most spiders is their ability to weave a web.
The type of arthropod invertebrate animals, to which spiders belong, differs from insects by the presence of 4 pairs of legs, which is 2 more than that of insects. Almost all arachnids are predators, and their structure is identical, regardless of size and type.
Their body consists of two parts, one of which is called the cephalothoracic department, and the second - the belly. Between them there is a jumper (pedicel). All spiders (land and water species) are the main organs for vital activity in the cephalothoracic department - these are the brain and muscles responsible for movement, the stomach and chelicera (the jaws with which it bites its prey or is protected). Also here are 4 pairs of eyes.
Despite the fact that all species of spiders have so many eyes, their vision is rarely good. Rather, they get the necessary information through the finest hairs on their paws, which are able to catch even the most insignificant whiff of air or the movement of a web thread.
We continue the story about the type of arthropods. How many species of spiders, the same variety of their methods of hunting, mimicry and habitat. There are arthropods, similar in their habits to crabs and at the same time changing colors in the manner of chameleons. This is a spider crab.
He doesn’t have to stretch his web to catch his lunch. It is enough to choose a flower of any color, climb it and accept the color of its petals. Unsuspecting insects fly in to eat nectar, and become food themselves.
The tarantula, known to many people, became the cause of the tarantella dance, because the doctors of the Middle Ages believed that it was precisely by dancing and turning over with their feet that the spider's poison could be removed from the body.
At the same time, they sincerely believed that the tarantula bite was not only painful, but also fatal. This is not true, and the poison of this spider is no more dangerous than the bee, unless the person is allergic to it. Tarantulas live in minks and do without weaving webs, creating only a few signal threads around the hole. As soon as the thread gives the signal that it was touched by an insect, the tarantula jumps out of the hole and grabs the prey.
The largest in the world are considered to be the species of tarantulas, the paw span of which reaches 20 cm or more. They are all poisonous, but only some of them can harm a person, and that is not fatal. If you do not show aggression and do not make sudden movements, tarantulas rarely attack people and even less often bite. They most often become the favorite inhabitants of domestic terrariums. In nature, their food is insects, small frogs, fish and even birds, but, despite their name, the organism of tarantulas is not adapted to the constant consumption of meat.
There are so-called home spiders. Their kinds are numerous. Some of them prefer to weave a web in the corners of the room, while others live in the bathroom and frighten those who like to soak up the foam with their presence.
Domestic species of spiders (photo confirms this) usually settle in places where they are difficult to see and avoid people.
You can learn about their presence only by the presence of a web, and even then, if it is very dense. They remain living indoors only on the condition that there is enough food (insects) there.
Types of domestic spiders are very diverse: from the smallest (for example, grass-cutters, whose body size varies from 2 to 10 mm) and those that immediately catch the eye (gray and black spiders from 14 to 18 mm). Haylings usually settle on the windows and weave a curled web. Gray and black spiders love the corners of rooms, and their cobwebs are neat and tidy.
Measures for the prevention and destruction of domestic spiders
Into the rooms, species of domestic spiders fall through the cracks in the windows, or when they are open and not protected by a net.
To get rid of spiders, it is required to fulfill a number of conditions.
- Remove their food source. If cockroaches live in the apartment, flies live or moths often fly in, it is necessary to get rid of them.
- After that, it is enough to remove the web with the spiders with a broom or cloth, and the apartment will be cleaned, and the spiders will not return to the “hungry” place.
- A good measure to prevent the migration of spiders from the street or from neighbors will be the closure of cracks in the baseboards and the tension of the nets on the ventilation holes.
- It is possible to treat the intended places of settlement of spiders with special means (corners, sewer pipes, plinths or ventilation grilles). It is desirable to do this after the general cleaning.
- Check the back walls of cabinets and shelves where spiders attach eggs with eggs. One clutch can hold up to 100 eggs.
The above precautions will not work if the first item is not fulfilled - getting rid of the spider's food source.
Separately in the list of arthropods are water spiders. Their species are not as numerous as the “earthly” ones, but there are unique individuals among them. For example, dolomedes trimmed.
These spiders build small rafts from leaves or twigs on the surface of the water near the shore and “moor” them with their web to the ground, dropping the other end into the water. As soon as a careless insect falls on the surface of a river or lake, the spider catches the fluctuation of the water and hurries after the prey. Having injected poison into the victim, the predator transfers the prey to the “raft”, where it eats it.
In the event that the victim resisted or was stronger and more than its invader, the spider without thinking twice dives with her under the water. His rescue "spacesuit" are air bubbles that form on the hairs of the paws. This air is enough to stay under water for up to 10 minutes, during which the obstinate victim dies.
Each species of spider is characterized by a characteristic feature of hunting only, which can be observed in their habitats.
Depending on the habitat and the individuality of the structure, representatives of arachnids hunt completely differently. If arthropods are classified according to the method of hunting, then they can be divided into several species.
- Tenetniki, who weave the network and wait for the prey itself will fall into them, or those who build a web of lasso and throws it on the victim.
- Spider-wolves, which are characterized by chasing the "dinner". Their feet are literally fed.
- Those who prefer to sit in wait and overtake unsuspecting prey from shelter. They often use mimicry or traps.
- Those spiders that hide in their burrows and wait for the prey to appear within reach.
Among the predatory arachnids, there is a type of vegetarians who were able to survive and adapt to the harsh conditions among carnivores. For example, the spider Bagheera Kipling adapted to live on acacias, which are loved and protected by ants. This tree produces nectar, and its leaf sprouts are rich in proteins and nutrients that feed the horse spider, as it is called by the people. He is very agile, perfectly jumps and can coexist alongside his enemies (ants) without being caught by them.
Dangerous species of spiders
On the planet, besides arachnids safe for humans, there are species that, by their bite, can cause irreparable harm to health or be fatal.
Poisonous species of spiders in Russia, for example, are such arthropods as karakurt, the bite of a female which is not only very painful, but also deadly, if not provide medical assistance in time.
Reproduction of spiders is carried out by pairing, which may be preceded by a prelude in the form of a dance or a tasty offering from the male to the female. For all predatory species of arachnid males, it is important to escape from the female in time so as not to become her dinner, which often happens.
Spiders (species both predatory and not) lay eggs. Their number in the clutch depends on the individual spider: from 50 pieces in small spiders and up to 1000, for example, tarantulas.
Spiders never attack humans first and even bypass them. To avoid a collision, especially in tropical areas, just look around yourself and under your feet. The first security measure for a bite is a cauterization of the wound. The poison of the spider enters the skin layers first, and after a few minutes into the blood. Under the influence of high temperature, it is destroyed, which helps to avoid fever, severe pain or death.
On the planet, the tarantula is found in places with a warm climate: South America, Africa, Australia and Oceania. On the European continent, they live in Portugal, Italy and Spain.
Some arthropods love the humid climate and live in equatorial thickets, while others have chosen the semi-desert. So, before you get shaggy miracle, you should know the conditions in which it will be comfortable.
Spiders, which feel great in captivity, are unpretentious and, most importantly, have extravagant appearance, are very popular:
- Curly-haired Bird Spider or Brachypelma albopilosum. Night ambush spider. For those who first purchased a home spider, this species will be the most optimal. They are large and have a calm disposition, as well as an interesting appearance due to the long hairs with black and bright tips. Pet dim, brown. The size of paws is 15-18 cm. Body length is about 90 mm.
- Acanthosurria Antillensis or Acanthoscurria antillensis. The species belongs to the family of tarantulas real. Found on the Lesser Antilles. This is an energetic wonder of nature, is in its shelter during the day and eats insects. The body size is 60-75 mm, the paw span is 15 cm. The color is dark brown, on the carapace there is a small metallic glimpse.
- Chromatopelma Cyaneopubescens or Chromatopelma cyaneopubescens. This species is very popular. He is very beautiful and hardy. The belly is red-orange in color, green carapace and bright blue limbs. Without food, such a spider can live for several months.
The risk for health and life is represented by the red-spider. At home it can not be maintained. This is the Black Widow, the most dangerous member of her family. It secretes a neurotoxic poison. Anyone who dares to keep this dangerous creature in their possession should acquire an antidote.
There are many domestic tarantulas. Each genus of spiders is interesting in its own way and has several dozens of species. Some species of tarantulas have not yet been studied. Therefore, acquiring a shaggy creation, you should be careful.
Tips on choosing a spider
I want the tarantula to be beautiful, to enjoy the hosts with a large and long stay. You should consider some of the nuances when buying a home spider:
- Arthropod activity. All the time lying and picking up the legs of a spider can be very sick. A healthy spider is in an excited state, the body is kept raised. Reacts to touch, clumsy "wool", raises front paws, attacks or runs away.
- The abdomen of a spider should be smooth and rounded. Some species are brought from tropical rain forests and have a wrinkled belly with a lack of water. From the purchase of such better to refuse.
- Sometimes you can see broken legs - this is not a defect. After a few molts, they grow back. But if there are open wounds on the extremities, then it may not be just a trauma, but a fungus or a disease.
- If you don’t have a goal to breed spiders-tarantulas at home, then you shouldn’t acquire a male. They do not live long. The attention of the buyer can attract very large individuals, but most likely, they are already in old age.
Choosing a pet, it should be well examined. It usually has a furry belly, but if it is damaged or under constant stress, it loses hair. A shaggy wonder is combing them with its hind legs. Some species erase hair on the ground or interweave into the web.
For certain species, the absence of hairs in some areas is not a sign of old age or illness. After molting, the pet will become fluffy again.
Arthropods caught in nature often have broken limbs. In females after a while they will definitely recover, and in males it is not always.
Spider content features
Before you bring a spider into the house, you should find out which subspecies it belongs to and create suitable conditions. A spider in a can is a mockery of a living creature.
From what subspecies the future family member belongs, its content depends. Bird spiders are:
- Ground. For such individuals, the bottom of the terrarium is covered with crushed coconut bark or soil of about 10 cm. The height of the dwelling must be at least 30 cm. It is necessary to change the coating every 3 months. If the spider is young, then once a month. For the ground view requires mink where you can hide. Otherwise, the spider will be in constant tension and become aggressive.
- Norse. The bottom of the terrarium is best littered with ordinary earth and give the pet a house where he will spend more time. Mink can serve as a cup or earthen flower pot with broken edges, which, when turned upside down, will serve as the entrance to the apartment. Such spiders spend a minimum of energy, because they are inactive, hence the poor appetite.
- Woody. In the terrarium there must be a piece of tree trunk, snag or thick bark. At the bottom of an impressive layer of soil.
Often the tarantula changes its habits. If he used to dig minks, over time he may prefer the “flat” in the bark.
Having mastered the new home and calmed down, the eight-side wonder of nature looks like home. Man and spider may well coexist together.
These predators are omnivores. Anything that moves and is smaller in size will surely be tasted. Domestic spiders eat a third-sized portion of their bodies. Young individuals are fed 2 times a week, and adults once every 7–10 days. The menu includes various types of insects: cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, small frogs.
Continuing its kind of tarantula at home can without any problems in the presence of a partner of the same species. First performed ritual dance. During mating, seminal fluid placed on a web specially woven by the male is transferred to the female.
At the end of the process, if the male "gape", it will be safely eaten by the female. Therefore, immediately after the mating games of the spider should be deposited.
In a few months, the female will have a cocoon with eggs. She will protect him in every way. The number of eggs can reach up to 200 pieces. A week later, nymphs are born, they move to their backs to their mothers and stay there for a while, and then crawl away.
How to determine who is more in the offspring - boys or girls? For this it is necessary that the spiders grow older. Adults are examined through a magnifying apparatus. Examining the abdomen of a male in the epiginum area, one can see special spider glands. There are no such females.
Do not forget, the domestic tarantula is still poisonous. Therefore, when contacting him, it is better to be careful. Poison, entering the human body, causes fever, cramps and pain. If you experience a severe allergy, you should hurry to the doctor.
The content of poison in tarantulas is also observed in hairs. In bad conditions, it can be stressful and lose hairs that, if it comes into contact with the skin, nasal mucosa or eyes, cause itching and irritation. And if it enters the lungs, suffocation. But it all goes away in a few hours.
The hardest period in the life of domestic spiders is molting. There is a replacement of the old exoskeleton with a new one. Before molting, the spider stops eating and almost all the time lies on its side or on its back. At such moments it is better not to touch it. Juveniles molt regularly, and mature individuals once every few weeks.
The new exoskeleton is soft and easy to damage. To preserve the health of a spider, moisture should be sufficient to prevent dehydration. Sometimes the old “skin” is hard to shed, and this leads to wounds and diseases. Often, such individuals cover is not completely discarded, which leads to death.
Паук на руках
Домашние пауки на фото выглядят хоть и устрашающе, но очень притягательно. Многие хотели бы их потрогать. Не следует забывать, что это не пушистый зверек, как кошка или собака, это совершенно другое существо. И относиться к нему надо подобающе. На руки паука берут только после того, как его приручили. В противном случае это вызовет у него стресс, паук дома начнет обороняться и атаковать.
Приручать его нужно сразу же после приобретения. At first, the spider is gently stroked on the back. Over time, he will realize that no one threatens him, he will go to his hand and start crawling over it.
Now the main task is to ensure that the tarantula does not run away. Otherwise, it will disappear in an unknown direction, and it will be very difficult to find.
This kind of tricks prone spiders woods. Main reasons:
- Opening the terrarium when the spider is not in the nest.
- When touched, quickly withdraws the legs.
- During feeding, the spider makes a full body cast in any direction.
- Recent molt.
- The terrarium is too large for lunch.
If the spider escaped, do not panic. It is better to carefully follow where he will go. When the spider stops, it is necessary, without delaying, to cover it with any large container (basin, bowl, pot).
Under the container a sheet of cardboard is carefully placed. Then the fugitive is transferred to the terrarium.
The bird spider is very beautiful and interesting. It is not difficult to keep him in the apartments, but one should not forget that this is a poisonous predator, and communication with him will always keep the hosts in good shape.
Spider - description, features and photos.
The body of arachnids consists of two parts:
- Head covered with chitin shells, with four pairs of long articular legs. In addition to them, there is a pair of pedals (pedipalps) used by adult specimens for mating, and a pair of short limbs with poisonous hooks - chelicerae. They are part of the oral apparatus. The number of eyes in spiders ranges from 2 to 8.
- Abdomen with respiratory openings located on it and six spider wart for weaving cobwebs.
The size of the spiders, depending on the type, varies from 0.4 mm to 10 cm, and the span of the limbs may exceed 25 cm.
Coloring and drawing on individuals of different types depend on the structural structure of the scales of scales and hairs, as well as the presence and localization of various pigments. Therefore, spiders can have both a dull monochrome and bright color of various shades.
Where do spiders live?
Spiders live everywhere and are distributed in all corners of the globe. They do not live only in areas where the surface of the earth is hidden all year round under the ice shell. The number of species in countries with a humid and hot climate is greater than in temperate or cold. With the exception of a few species, spiders are land dwellers and live in built nests or minks, showing activity at night.
Bird-eating spiders and other species of mighalomorphic spiders live in the crowns of equatorial trees and shrubs. "Drought-resistant" species of spiders prefer burrows, crevices of the soil and any shelters at ground level. For example, excavator spiders (atypical tarantulas) live in colonies settled in individual minks located at a depth of 50 cm. Some species of migomorphous spiders cover their holes with special dampers made of soil, vegetation and silk.
Grassland spiders like to settle in wet, dark caves, in abandoned dens, cellars and old barns. In apartment houses, centipedes are found hanging upside down on warm, southern windows.
Horse spiders live in a wide variety of places: in forests, deserts, highlands, and they also build cobwebs on the stone and brick walls of houses.
Karakurts live on the banks of artificial irrigation canals, on the slopes of stony ravines, as well as on wormwood fields and wastelands, where sheep and pig flocks are often mercilessly trampled.
The bokhoda spiders (crabs spiders) spend most of their lives sitting on flowers in anticipation of prey, although some members of the family can be found on the bark of trees or forest floor.
Representatives of the family of funnel spiders have their webs on high grass and branches of bushes.
Wolf spiders prefer wet, grassy meadows and marshy wooded areas, where they are found in abundance among fallen leaves.
A water (silver) spider builds a nest under water, attaching it with the help of cobwebs to various bottom objects. He fills his nest with oxygen and uses it as a diving bell.
Water spider Argyroneta aquatica builds a nest
What do spiders eat?
Spiders are pretty original creatures that feed very interestingly. Some species of spiders can not eat for a long time - from a week to a month or even a year, but if they start, there is little left. Interestingly, the weight of food that all spiders can eat during the year is several times greater than the mass of the entire population living in our time on the planet.
How and what do spiders eat? Depending on the type and size of the spider, they harvest food and feed in different ways. Some spiders weave a web, thereby organizing ingenious traps that insects are very difficult to notice. Digestive juice is injected into the caught prey, which eats away from the inside. After some time, the “hunter” draws the resulting “cocktail” into the stomach. Other spiders during the hunt "spit" sticky saliva, thereby attracting prey.
The basis of the diet of spiders are insects. Small spiders with pleasure eat flies, mosquitoes, crickets, butterflies, meal worms, cockroaches, grasshoppers. Spiders that live on the surface of the soil or in minks eat beetles and orthopterans, and some species can drag a snail or a earthworm into their dwelling and eat them calmly.
The queen spider hunts only at night, creating a sticky web bait for unwary moths. Noticing an insect near the bait, the queen spinner with her paws quickly swings the thread, thereby attracting the attention of the victim. A moth happily hovers around such a bait, and touching it, immediately remains on it to hang. As a result, the spider can easily attract him and enjoy prey.
Large tropical tarantulas hunt small frogs, lizards, other spiders, mice, including bats, as well as small birds with great pleasure. And such a type of spider, like Brazilian tarantulas, can easily hunt for medium-sized snakes and snakes.
Water species of spiders obtain their food from water, catching themselves with the help of tadpoles' web, small fish or midges floating on the surface of the water. Some spiders, which are predators, due to the lack of prey, can be saturated with vegetable food, to which pollen or plant leaves can be attributed. Grasshopper spiders prefer cereal grains.
Judging by the numerous notes of scientists, a huge number of spiders destroy small rodents and insects several times more than the animals living on the planet.
How does a spider spin a web?
In the back of the abdomen spider is located from 1 to 4 pairs of spider glands (spider wart), of which stands out a thin string of spider webs. This is a special secret, which in our time many people call liquid silk. Coming out of thin spinning tubes, it hardens in air, and the resulting thread is so thin that it is rather difficult to see with the naked eye.
In order to weave a web, the spider spreads its spinning organs, after which it waits for a light breeze, so that the spinning web will catch on the nearby pedestal. After this happens, he moves back down the newly created bridge and begins to weave a radial thread. When the base is created, the spider moves in a circle, weaving into its “product” transverse thin threads that are quite sticky.
It is worth noting that the spiders are quite economical creatures, so they absorb the spoiled or old web, and then re-use it. And the old web becomes very fast, as the spider weaves it almost every day.
Types of cobwebs.
There are several types of web, differing in form:
- Round web - this is the most common type, endowed with a minimum number of threads. Due to this weaving, it turns out unobtrusive, but not always sufficiently elastic. From the center of such a web diverge radial spiderwebs, connected by spirals with a sticky base. Usually, round spider webs are not too large, but tropical tree spiders are able to weave similar traps reaching two meters in diameter.
- A web in the form of a cone: a funnel spider weaves such a web. Usually he creates his craving funnel in the tall grass, while he hides himself in its narrow base, waiting for prey.
- The zigzag web is its “author” spider from the genus Argiope.
- Spiders from the family Dinopidae spinosa weave a web directly between their limbs, and then just throw it on the approaching victim.
- Spider Bolas (lat. Mastophora cornigera) weaves a web thread, on which there is a sticky ball with a diameter of 2.5 mm. With this ball, soaked with the female pheromones of the moth, the spider attracts the prey - the moth. The victim falls for the bait, flies closer to her and sticks to the ball. After that, the spider calmly pulls the victim to him.
- Darwin spiders (lat. Caerostris darwini), living on the island of Madagascar, weave giant cobwebs, whose area ranges from 900 to 28 000 square meters. cm.
A web can be divided according to the principle of responsibility for its weaving and type:
- household - from such a web spiders make cocoons and so-called doors for dwelling,
- strong - its spiders are used for weaving nets, with the help of which the main hunt will be held,
- sticky - it goes only to the preparation of jumpers in trapping nets and is so strongly attached when you touch it, that it is very difficult to remove.
Popular types of home spiders
The category of the most popular species includes spiders, which are perfectly adapted for keeping in captivity, are completely unpretentious, and also have an unusual appearance:
- Curly-haired Bird Spider or Virusfish Alborolosum - an unpretentious ambush spider. An ideal variant of exotic for beginners, thanks to its original appearance, rather large body size, as well as amazing calmness. It does not have a bright staining, and an unusual appearance is due to the presence of fairly long hairs with black or white tips. The main color of the spider is brown or brownish black. The average body length is 80 mm with a paw size of 16-18 cm. The cost of an adult reaches four thousand rubles,
- Akantosurriya Antillensis or Ascnthososurria antillesis - the spider is from the Lesser Antilles. The species belongs to the family of tarantulas real. This is a fairly active spider, which during the day hides in a shelter and eats various insects. The body length reaches 60-70 mm with a 15 cm leg span. The main coloring is represented by dark brown shades with a slight metallic luster on the carapace. The average cost of an adult reaches 4.5 thousand rubles,
- Chromatomelma Cyaneobubescens Chromatorelm sieneorubessens - a popular and very beautiful spider-tarantula, which is characterized by a body length of 60-70 mm, as well as leg span up to 14-15 cm. The main coloring is represented by a combination of reddish-orange abdomen, bright blue limbs and a green carapace. Hardy looking, able to do without food for several months. The average cost of an adult reaches 10-11 thousand rubles,
- crassisrus lamani - a species safe for humans, characterized by the presence of extended joints in the fourth leg area of females. The main coloring of an adult male is black. The body size of the male is up to 3.7 cm and the carapax is 1.6x1.4 cm. Mature females are much larger than males and their body length reaches 7 cm with a 15 cm leg span. Adult females are painted mainly in brown tones. The average cost of an adult reaches 4.5 thousand rubles,
- cyclosternum fascium - one of the smallest in size, tropical species of tarantula from Costa Rica. The maximum leg span of an adult individual is 10–12 cm with a body length of 35–50 mm. Body color is dark brown with a noticeable reddish tinge. The area of the cephalotomy is colored reddish or brown, the belly is black with red stripes, and the legs are gray, black or brown. The average cost of an adult individual reaches 4 thousand rubles.
Also popular with fans of domestic exotics are spider species such as Cyriocosmus berthee, Grammostola gold-striped and pink, poisonous Terafoza blondy.
Important! It is categorically not recommended to keep at home a spider that is known to many as the “Black Widow”. This species is considered the most dangerous of the spiders of Australia and produces a neurotoxic poison, so the owner of such exotic must always have an antidote on hand.
Where and how to keep a domestic spider
Keeping spiders safe for humans at home is easy.. When buying such an exotic, you need to remember that a healthy spider always maintains sufficient mobility, regardless of age.
Sedentary spiders with a lack of characteristic roundness in the abdomen, most likely, are sick, malnourished or suffer from dehydration. In addition to exotic, you need to choose and purchase a terrarium for its maintenance, as well as the most important accessories for filling your home.
We select a terrarium
For the maintenance of small spiders, regardless of the type, it is advisable to use special plastic, hermetically sealed containers of suitable sizes.
In too voluminous terrariums filled with a large number of decorative elements, such an exotus can easily be lost. It is also important to remember that many species are unable to get along with their neighbors, therefore, for example, tarantulas are desirable to keep alone.
Cozy for the spider will be a house-terrarium, the optimal dimensions of which are two lengths of maximum leg span. As practice shows, even the largest specimens feel great in a dwelling with dimensions of 40 × 40 cm or 50 × 40 cm.
According to their design features, terrariums are horizontal for land species and burrowed exotic animals, and also vertical - for wood spiders. In the manufacture of terrarium, usually used tempered glass or standard plexiglass.
Lighting, humidity, decor
Creating optimal, comfortable conditions for the spider is the key to preserving the life and health of the exotic when it is kept in captivity:
- A special substrate in the form of vermiculite is poured onto the bottom of the terrarium. The standard layer of such filling should be 30-50 mm. Also very suitable for these purposes is coconut dry substrate or regular peat chips, mixed with sphagnum moss,
- The temperature inside the terrarium is also very important. Spiders are classified as very thermophilic pets, so the optimum temperature range will be between 22-28 ° C. As practice shows, an insignificant and short-term decrease in temperature is not capable of causing harm to spiders, but one should not abuse the stamina of such exotics,
- despite the fact that spiders are predominantly nocturnal, they cannot be limited to light. As a rule, to create a comfortable environment, it is enough to have natural light in the room, but without direct sunlight on the container,
- As a shelter for burrowing spider species, special “houses” made of pieces of bark or coconut shell are used. Also, for the purpose of interior decoration, different decorative snags or artificial vegetation can be used.
Moisture inside the spider’s home requires special attention. Providing optimal performance allows the availability of drinkers and the correct substrate. To control the level of humidity you need with a standard hygrometer. To increase the humidity, the terrarium is irrigated with water from a domestic spray bottle.
Important! It should be noted that overheating of the air inside the terrarium is very dangerous for a well-fed spider, since in this case rotting processes are activated in the stomach and uncooked food becomes the cause of exotic poisoning.
Terrarium for a spider must be completely safe, both for the most exotic pet and for others. It is especially important to observe the safety rules for the maintenance of poisonous spiders.
It should be remembered that spiders are able to move dexterously enough even on a vertical surface, therefore the main condition for safe keeping is to have a reliable cover. You can not get too high capacity for terrestrial species of spiders, because otherwise the exotic can fall from a considerable height and get a life-threatening gap of the abdomen.
To ensure sufficient ventilation for the spider's life, it is imperative to make a perforation in the form of small and numerous holes in the lid of the terrarium.
What to feed domestic spiders
In order to make the process of feeding and caring for the home spider as convenient as possible, it is recommended to purchase tweezers. With such a simple adaptation, insects are given to the spiders, as well as the remnants of food and polluting products of life are removed from the terrarium. The diet should be as close as possible to the nutrition of the spider in natural, natural conditions. Стандартный размер порции составляет примерно треть от размеров самого экзота.
It is interesting! Поилка устанавливается в террариумах у взрослых особей и может быть представлена обычным блюдцем, немного вдавленным в субстрат на дне контейнера.
Продолжительность жизни паука в домашних условиях
Средние показатели продолжительности жизни экзотического питомца в условиях неволи могут сильно варьироваться в зависимости от вида и соблюдения правил содержания:
- aсаnthоsсurriа аntillеnsis – около 20 лет,
- chromotopathlma sánéorubéssens - males live on average 3-4 years, and females - up to 15 years,
- tiger spider - up to 10 years,
- red spider - 2-3 years,
- argiope ordinary - not more than a year
Among the long-livers among spiders, the Arnorelm tarantula females, whose average lifespan is three decades, are deservedly deserved.
Also among the record breakers in life expectancy are some species of spiders from the family of tarantulas, which are able to live a quarter of a century in bondage, and sometimes even more.
Safety and precautions
The most difficult in terms of home maintenance are poisonous and aggressive spiders, which include such species as:
- Rhormistorus Antillinsis,
- Rhormistorus auratus,
- Роcrmісtorus sеnserides,
- Thearorhos arp,
- Thioremma oscérti,
- Latródestus Hаssеlti,
- Ltrоdodestus trеdsimguttatus,
- Macroyle gigas,
- Stromatorlma salseatum.
One of the most nervous, rapidly excitable and aggressive species are many Tarinauchenius spiders, whose bite is extremely toxic to humans. Caring for such exotics involves full compliance with safety rules.
Such pets can not be taken into the hands, and when performing cleaning in the terrarium, such spiders must be deposited in a special, tightly closed container.
What if the spider escaped
Most often, wood spiders leave loosely closed home terrariums. There are several reasons for the sudden escape of exotus:
- finding a spider out of its nest when opening a terrarium,
- sharp jerking of the paws when touched,
- jerk almost the whole body in any direction when performing feeding with tweezers,
- the presence in the terrarium of a disproportionately large feed object,
- recent molt.
If the spider did leave its home, then you need to carefully observe its movement, without making any sudden movements. At the time of stopping the spider it should be covered with any sufficiently wide capacity.
Then, under a container with which the spider is covered, a piece of thick cardboard is placed, and the exot is carefully transferred to the terrarium.
What if a spider is bitten
Most often, at home, there are species of spiders that are not dangerous for humans, and if they are bitten, the symptoms presented are:
- pain at the site of the bite,
- redness and swelling,
- general malaise.
In this case, it is sufficient to use conventional analgesics and antipyretic agents, as well as to treat the bite site with Asterisk balm or Fenistil gel. If the bite is caused by a poisonous spider, then it will be necessary, as soon as possible, to provide the victim with emergency medical care in a hospital.
In general, all types of safe spiders are almost perfect and problem-free exotic pets that do not require frequent feeding, do not emit allergenic wool, do not mark the territory and take up very little space. This exotic will be the best option for keeping busy people who do not have the opportunity to devote a lot of time and energy to the pet.
Adult body: 7 cm
Leg swing: 14−16 cm
Duration of stay: Female - 12 years, male - 3 years.
Natural lifestyle: The white-tinted tarantula is one of the most tranquil species, freely allowing you to pick yourself up. Avoid close contact only with hungry spiders, in order to avoid being bitten. The spider dweller of tropical forests lives in a dug hole in the roots of trees.
Protection: It sticks out the chest and sheds the hairs from the abdomen, which, once on the mucous membrane of the eyes or the surface of the skin, cause discomfort.
Content at home: Tarantulas should be kept in a glass or plastic container of at least 5 liters. The terrarium should always be closed, as the spiders move well along the surface of the glass.
Vermiculite, lichen, coniferous sawdust, sphagnum moss will be suitable as a litter. In the litter, you should add pieces of bark or coconut shell, for arranging the hole. The substrate is applied with a layer of at least 5 cm.
Every individual of this species should be kept separate, cannibalism is peculiar to hungry spiders. For young individuals, feeding is done 2 times in 7 days, for adults once a week. The menu serves newborn mice or insects of the appropriate size.
Air temperature: from 23 ° C to 28 °.
Shedding: A poultry meal during a molt or in front of it may limit itself to eating, sometimes to complete failure. Shedding is critical. The spider stops moving and lies on its back. The gap in an adult individual ranges from 2 months to 1 year. In young process
Adult body: 9–10 cm.
Leg span: 20−25 cm
Duration of stay: 12 years at the female. Males are often eaten immediately after the mating process.
Features: Lives in the rainforests of Brazil. Females are larger in size than males. The color is two-tone: reddish brown or grayish black. A sedentary individual, often spends its time near the hole.
Protection: Hind legs shakes off the hairs located on the abdomen. The hair can cause an allergic reaction.
Content at home: Terrarium - 30 × 30 × 30 centimeters. Laying - 5 cm. Use peat or coconut substrate. Feeding is done 2–3 times in 7 days, as giant tarantulas prefer to eat well. When deciding to take an individual on your hands, you should be extremely careful, the poison is not highly toxic, but it is aggressive in its effects.
The temperature in the terrarium: 22 ° C - 26 °.
The body of an adult individual: 7−8 cm
Leg span: 15–16 cm
Duration of stay: Males - 4 years, females - more than 20 years.
Natural lifestyle: The two-colored tarantula is one of the calm in nature individuals. Poison from the bite can be compared with bee venom. When buying this type of spider should be extremely careful with close contact, the bite can cause allergies.
Protection: Does not hesitate to use itchy hairs on contact with the body.
Content in the home: Terrarium standard sizes with a litter of 5 cm. Coconut species is more suitable as a substrate. Feeding is done 1 or 2 times in 7 days. Large-sized forage insects are served as food.
Temperature: 24 ° C-28 °.
Red legged mexican tarantula
Body of an adult: 6–7 cm.
Leg span: 15–16 cm
Duration of stay: More than 25 years
Content at home: The inhabitant of the semi-desert regions of Mexico. Spends most of his life near the hole. Character calm, can be a friend of a novice in the content. Substrate poured from 5 cm and above, the individual is accustomed to digging holes. The red-legged Mexican tarantula will be glad to have a shelter and a cup of clean water in the terrarium. As a feed use habitual insects, mode 1 time per week. Young individuals are given food 2–3 times in 7 days. The bite of this domestic spider can be harmful only to those who suffer from allergies from the bite of a bee or a wasp.
Protection: Use irritable hairs.
Temperature: 25 ° C-28 °
Adult body: 9–10 cm.
Leg swing: 20 cm
Duration of stay: Up to 15 years (females).
Content in the home: Temperament is individual for each individual, from good revelers along the hands, to the malicious nature of the spiders. The domestic spider has a rather good appetite and rarely refuses to eat. He prefers everything that they give. Feeding made 1-2 times in 7 days for adults and 2−3 times for kids. The terrarium is suitable horizontal with dimensions of 40 × 30 × 30 cm. As a substrate, greater preference is given to the coconut substrate. The poison is not fatal.
As feed suitable:
- Larvae beetles.
Protection: Combing allergenic hairs at every opportunity.
Temperature: 23 ° C-27 °.
Adult body: 6 cm
Leg swing: 15 cm
Duration of stay: 15 years or more.
Content at home: This domestic spider is native to East Africa and has 1 horn on the cephalothorax. He leads an active life position, especially at night. The horned tarantula is not advised to start up for beginners, as a representative of this species is very aggressive in nature.
Stag beetle can freely bite thatwho dared to disturb him. Although poison is not fatal, he is quite capable of inflicting health problems. The individuals are very nimble, they require good observation. The terrarium will fit cubic with litter up to 10 cm in height. Spider refers to the normal type. There is no sense to install the drinking bowl and the scenery; the inhabitant of this will quickly bury or bind with cobwebs.
Temperature: 26 ° C-28 °.
Adult body: 9 cm
Leg swing: 25 cm
Duration of stay: Females up to 20 years, males 4 years.
Content at home: The blue tarantula is a native inhabitant of the monsoon forests of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia. Color bright blue shade. Lifestyle - Norik and Trembling. Equipping the terrarium is necessary to lay the ground and provide the spider with a tree (snag). The individual is suitable only for professional holders, since the stinging hairs of the domestic spider are absent, and its poison is very dangerous and has not been fully studied by the researchers. Temperament is very difficult. The terrarium is cubic, the underlay is coconut.
Temperature: 25 ° C to 27 °.
Adult body: 8 cm
Leg span: 15−19 cm
Duration of stay: up to 20 years
Content at home: Homeland - Eastern Brazil. Most of the life takes place in burrows under the roots of trees and shrubs. On the stomach there are stinging hairs, but the spider uses them very rarely. Character calm, sometimes nervous, active. The terrarium is suitable horizontal with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 30 cm.
Substrate - 5−10 cm, moss, peat, coconut. Drinking water is needed in the terrarium. Adult food once a week. In the menu insects with a suitable size. Bite infrequently, but the bite is toxic, care should be taken upon contact.