Black Widow (lat. Latrodectus mactans) - a kind of arachnids, which is found in many parts of the globe - from North America to Australia. The black widow spider can be found in Central Asia and in Russia. The spider deserves its name because of the unusual behavior of females after mating. Yes, and little spiders demonstrate a cruel attitude towards their brothers and sisters. Under a certain set of circumstances, an encounter with him may end for a person extremely regrettably.
Characteristics of the species
The Internet is replete with photos and descriptions of black widows, but it is possible to speak about appearance and other characteristics only by distinguishing between male and female individuals, because they look and behave quite differently. From the total they have only the number of legs. It will be interesting to compare males and females:
- The size is about 4 cm (with the legs extended), and the spherical abdomen is about 1 cm, or even larger.
- Brilliant black with a bright red or orange mark on the abdomen, resembling an hourglass.
- Lives from 1 year to 3 years.
- In comparison with the “classical” spider web, the web looks sloppy - it is horizontal and has several levels, but it perfectly copes with its purpose. The female spins her web throughout her life, without changing her place of residence. In the dense web of a black widow, even a mouse can get tangled.
- Less than 1 cm
- Pale yellow in color, on the back there are spots of red or pink color, the abdomen is oblong, the legs have an orange-yellow strip.
- Lives a few days.
- Does not spin a web, destroys the web of females for the purpose of further mating.
Representatives of this species prefer to live and hunt alone. Males and females are found only during the mating season. Males are almost impossible to see, because they live a little and are immediately eaten by females. Rather, you have to look for a female and set up an observation of her.
One of the interesting features of the spider is the bristles on its hind legs. They are designed to firmly pull the nets over the unwary victim. A characteristic feature of the legs - they are shaped like a comb.
Not all females have pure red markings. In females that have not reached puberty, the spot has a white “frame”. Despite the fact that, like all spiders, this species has eight eyes - they are arranged in two rows - the female cannot boast of good eyesightpreferring to rely on smell and touch. This task is helped by the hairs on the paws.
Of course, not all black widows are the same. In total, there are 31 species, which are characterized by different characteristics. The relatives of black widows include karakurt, other dangerous spiders.
The secret of the name and reproduction
The name of the spider was due to the fact that females eat males - intentionally or accidentally, taking for prey. Cannibalism is inherent in not all species, only two out of 30, but notoriety left an imprint on all species at once.
When mating time comes (puberty in females occurs at 6–7 months), the spider searches for the female according to the pheromones it emits. First of all, he tries to kill the smell of the female so that other males do not come close. He begins to bite through the web of his chosen one, destroying it. Then he entangles everything with his thin cobweb, whose sole purpose is to kill the smell.
He cautiously approaches the female, if the female is hungry, the visit is postponed, otherwise he may become prey. He defines the degree of satiety of the spider by “sniffing” the web. As he approaches, he performs a special marriage dance that creates a vibration. For this vibration, the female understands that this is not prey. Making sure that the female is not going to eat it, the male entangles it with its network. With the help of a pedipalp, he places his sperm in the body of a female. Sometimes the female can save the seed, and fertilization can occur in a few months.
When the act ends, he dutifully surrenders himself in the jaw of a friend. The female acts with him as with her other food. - wrapped in a cocoon and sucks. Females eat males, because their body contains the necessary for the development of spider protein. What makes a spider can be considered a sacrificial desire to take care of the offspring. In any case, he did not have long to live.
To save precious eggs, the spider weaves silk balls into which it places the clutch. The size of grayish balls can reach 1.5 cm in diameter. A clutch can contain from 2 to 9 hundred eggs.
About a month later hatching spiders. Of a few hundred, no more than a dozen or two survive, because small spiders are extremely aggressive, strong ones devour weak brothers and sisters while still in a cocoon. The spiders themselves are white, pale, but over time they become darker with each molt.
Predator and prey
This spider is an unconditional predator and maintains balance in nature. It mainly feeds on insects such as mosquitoes and flies. A widow can also help a person by exterminating pests that destroy crops. These include locusts, beetles and caterpillars.
When the prey is caught in the net, the spider recognizes this by the vibration of the web. She gets closer and injects poisonparalyzing the victim. Then weaves a cocoon of cobwebs. The enzymes of this spider literally turn the insides of the victim into a homogeneous, viscous slurry. Then the spider simply sucks the insides of the victim from the shell or keeps the cocoon in reserve, if not hungry.
A black widow can easily go without food for up to ten months. But the loss of the web is more likely to be fatal, because it is the most reliable refuge for the spider, and it takes too much time to weave.
The female herself can become prey. In nature, there are many insects and animals that threaten it. Spiders eat praying mantises, and a wasp can also sting her. Of course, birds also attack spiders, but ultimately they only get an upset stomach - the poison of these spiders is very toxic.
The poison of the black widow is 15 times stronger than the poison of a rattlesnake. The main active ingredient of the poison is alpha-latrotoxin. When the poison spreads through the lymphatic system in the body, a neurotoxin-receptor complex is formed. After a few minutes, the complex creates a channel for calcium ions, which fall inside the nerve ending, thereby releasing the neurotransmitter.
The bite is similar to a pinprick, so it can easily be overlooked. After the bite on the skin there are two small points - traces of the mandible. After some time, the abdominal muscles become hard and begin to contract. Bitten sweats and breathes with difficulty, it can feel sick. Severe stomach pain, cramps in the limbs. In men, priapism may occur.
The bite of this spider can be fatal to humans. Previously, when there was no antidote, 1 person out of 20 died from their bites. People with weakened immunity, children and the elderly are susceptible to their poison, but going to the doctor, of course, will save the life of the bitten. Perhaps the introduction of serum or therapy aimed at the treatment of symptoms. If timely help is provided, after about three hours the pain from biting subsides, but full recovery occurs only after a week. Otherwise, a three-hour incident may result in a deterioration of the condition up to a lethal outcome.
The basic rule of safety when meeting with arachnid is not to approach or take in hands. Spiders are not aggressive; they will never attack first unless they are in danger. The spider can bite on occasional contact, in the event of fright and protecting itself. Biting mostly females. Especially it is necessary to be afraid of their bites from the middle of April to October. When it gets cold, the spider can move to warm rooms, creating additional risks.
Unlike most other spiders, Cornbacks remain active year round. This is due to the fact that they come from the tropics, and therefore seasonality is not familiar to them.
On a note! The spider-haymaker networks with laid eggs can be found in apartments and basements even in the middle of winter!
Way of hunting
Hay spider hunts in a special way. This is due to the fact that their trapping network has no adhesive properties. However, the data spiders weave it very chaotically and as a result the network is obtained with an uneven pattern, it is confused and messy. Their untidy cobwebs are left everywhere: in the wet corners of caves, among the branches of trees and shrubs, in the grass, in empty animal burrows, in abandoned buildings and houses.
And what does the spider mate feed on? It eats mainly insects, among which are:
Thus, settling in apartments, centipedes regulate their numbers.
On a note! However, with the arrival of winter, when the amount of familiar food is noticeably reduced, “relatives” appear in the menu of the spider-haymaker, and often the closest ones are representatives of his own species!
Hunting spiders hunt mainly at dusk. The raft settles down in its web with its head down and freezes. In this case, to his foot, he usually fastens the signal thread. The victim falls into the network and in a matter of seconds very much gets confused in it. This contributes to the chaotic weaving. The spider, feeling the vibration, runs up to the prey and throws a few more threads on it.
The caught insect in panic begins to twist even more intensely and as a result the cobweb around it forms a dense cocoon.
The hunter makes a hole in the resulting cocoon, gets to the body of the victim and bites it. Then he injects gastric juices into the wound, which turn the internal contents into mush. After some time, the centipede eats partially digested food or takes the prey to a secluded place and leaves it in reserve.
On a note! Sometimes in the web there is too large an insect, with which the spider-seedlings cannot cope. In such situations, he bites off several holding threads and helps the victim get out. But more often, the centipede prevents the “unexpected guest” from becoming entangled - as the large individual approaches, it simply starts swinging its nets. As a result, the insect notices the web and bypasses or flips by its side!
In the cold season, when the number of insects is sharply reduced, it becomes quite difficult to catch someone with the help of nets. During this period, the spider mate is forced to look for food, moving around the house. And it is precisely at such moments that his long legs help him. He finds the web of his “relative” and pretends to be entangled in it. But when the disturbed spider approaches and is about to attack, the centipede immediately seizes the situation and turns from a victim into a hunter.
With his long legs, he captures the web host, entangles him in his own network and bites with lightning speed
It is worth noting that for a man, the spider mate is not dangerous. His jaws are too weak to bite through the skin, and the poison is very small - it only suffices to kill a tiny insect.
Upon reaching the year, the males become sexually mature. They independently stimulate the production of a secret for fertilization and only after that they go in search of the female. Getting close to the web of his chosen one, the male tries to draw attention to himself. He steps with his feet on the fishing net and begins to vibrate with his whole body. The female catches these movements and goes to their source. As soon as she comes close enough, the “boyfriend” lifts the first pair of legs and begins to feel the female with them, showing in such a way that he is not a prey.
On a note! This moment is very responsible for the male, because if he does not have time to show his intentions, then he risks being eaten!
In the future, the life of the male depends on his quickness. When mating is delayed for several hours and in order to fertilize the chosen one, the male makes several attempts, as a result he weakens, does not have time to retire, and eats him. But if fertilization occurs calmly and quickly, the male, as a rule, remains to live. He lives in the immediate vicinity until he is overtaken by natural death. During their lives, some males have time to fertilize several females.
This usually occurs a few days after mating, since the life of the males is 1 year, the females live 3 years
The eggs are laid by the female in a net woven from a web and carry it for a while in her jaws. Usually in such a grid is no more than 20-30 eggs. After a while, little spiders come out of them. Moreover, if among the hatched offspring are too weak individuals who can not even get out of the egg, the mother immediately eats them.
Soon, young hay spiders experience molting. They drop tight chitinous cover, after which their legs become short, and their body is almost transparent. In the process of growth, this is repeated several times. Moreover, young spiders are experiencing all molting, being close to their mother - she continues to carry growing young offspring in a silk net.
Over time, the spiders grow up, and as soon as they adopt the tactics of catching from the mother, she leaves them - the offspring enters an independent life
Methods of struggle
Dolgozhka - this is one of the most common spiders living in apartments. Most often, it can be found near the window or in a dry dark corner, where it hangs upside down in its chaotically woven web. And if the neighborhood with the spider-mate is unpleasant for you, then it is advisable to figure out how to get rid of it.
The work on the removal of millwings from an apartment is divided into two stages.
The first stage - cleaning
At this stage it is necessary to do the following:
- We fill all the cracks and close even the slightest holes through which this spider is able to get into the apartment. On the ventilation grilles and windows set the grid with small cells.
- Reduce the brightness of natural lighting - for this it is enough to hang blinds on the windows. This is unattractive to insects and, therefore, the spiders in the house will not appear, as the latter feed first.
- Every day we carry out cleaning in all corners of the apartment: we pass by a broom in the corners, under the ceiling, behind the cabinets, the pedestals, around the windows and under the beds.
- If you find a cobweb together with the host, then it is advisable to remove them at the same time - an ordinary mop with a wet rag does a great job with this.
- Periodically we carry out the prevention of the appearance of insects in the house, and if they are wound up, then we must immediately destroy them. Otherwise, the hay spider will gladly settle where there is a lot of food.
- We humidify the air in all the rooms in the house and at the same time ensure that there is no dampness.
The second stage - scaring
This will help us the simplest popular recipes that have been repeatedly tested by our grandmothers. They are able to cope with spiders-seedlings quite easily and prevent them from reappearing.
So, centipedes, however, like many other spiders, do not tolerate the sharp odors that some plants emit. Among those:
- Mint - it is known for its intense aroma, which, as it turned out, works well not only against insects, but also against spiders. In this case, both dry leaflets of this plant and its essential oil can be used: put the dried parts in the corners, add ether to the water and sprinkle in all rooms.
- Oranges, chestnuts and hazelnuts - a set of these products is also able to help in the struggle with centipedes. We crush or cut them into pieces and leave them in places where the spider web or the spiders themselves were discovered.
- Tea tree and eucalyptus - they are used in the form of essential oils similar to mint. Add a few drops in the sprinkler and process all hard-to-reach places in the rooms.
If you carry out the above procedures regularly, they will certainly bring a positive result.
A breeder is a spider that is known for its long (up to 9 cm) legs. These arachnid-like arthropods of Helicer are more than 6,000 species. Scientists have divided them into four sub-orders. In our region, there are about 60 species.
Externally, the breeder looks like a spider, but has significant differences from the representatives of this order. It is considered to be these arthropods as a consequence of parallel evolution. Haylings are more similar to insects: internal fertilization, developed tracheal breathing, eggs are laid in the thickness of the substrate, have the ability to chew coarse food particles and digest them. They do not weave web because of the lack of glands that produce such a secret. They hunt for small insects or eat plant food.
Most members of the class have a one-year life cycle. Winter eggs or young generation of autumn generation. The hatchlings hatching in spring pass through several molts and become sexually mature by the summer. In tropical species, two generations are possible. The maximum lifespan is two years.
The people of these arachnids are also called "kosynozhki." They got it because of the particular structure of the limbs. Дело в том, что оторванная лапка сенокосца еще некоторое время продолжает совершать движения. Отдаленно они напоминают процесс кошения.
Потеря конечности не смертельна. Считается, что сенокосец (паук) сам ее отчленяет, чтобы спастись бегством на оставшихся лапках от опасности. Ранка быстро закупоривается и жидкая внутренняя среда паукообразного (гемолимфа) не вытекает.
Такое поведение имеет и другой аспект. An attacker, staying with a twitching foot, will spend some time observing the “mowing” process, which will enable its owner on the remaining limbs to try to escape to a safe distance and have time to use additional means of protection.
Myths and confusion
Some people believe that the spider matinger is poisonous, meaning it is a kosynozhku. You can hear another version of the proposition that these creations of poison have the strongest, but they cannot bite through human skin. Is it really trying to figure it out.
Immediately attention should be paid to the definition. A breeder is not a spider. The kosynozhka belongs only to the order of arachnids. Another thing is the spider mate. It is also popularly called the centipede. This representative really belongs to the order of spiders. It has a distant resemblance to a haymaker, mainly because of the length of the legs, but it has a different way of life: weaving nets, catches insects in them, and has glands with poison, which it kills its victims.
Haymakers are spread all over the world. Most of them are found in southern and temperate latitudes, but there are species that live in climatic zones with low threshold temperatures. Some representatives climb the mountains to the borders of the eternal snows. They prefer to hunt at night, but some species are active during the day. Most of the grasslands are inhabited by forests, many of them in the meadows, they are typical representatives of urban landscapes. In the daytime, you can often meet haymakers, frozen with legs spread on the walls of houses.
At night, they are looking for food, moving on long limbs. The second pair of legs at the haymaker serves also for feeling the objects on the way. Sensing danger, the grasslinger quickly runs away, can jump from a height, spreading his limbs, playing the role of a parachute. And necessarily falls belly down and immediately continues to run.
What eats spider seedlings? Representatives of this order are predators. They settle in secluded places, looking for a suitable niche. To catch the victims build trap nets. The threads are not sticky, but they are randomly arranged, and small insects caught in them and trying to get out are often confused and become prey to the spider.
The diet of haymakers is more diverse than that of spiders. By and large, they are also predators, but, apart from caught animal food (beetles, caterpillars, flies, ants), they can eat carrion, do not disdain the remains of rotting plants, fungi and even animal excrement and bird droppings. Some species show selectivity and prefer to use snails and slugs.
Their oral apparatus is equipped in such a way that makes it possible to chew food, and then digest it inside the body. They tear off hard chunks, bring them to the mouth and chew on the processes that are adapted for this.
In contrast to the kosynozhki, the spider matinger has poison. He uses it to kill the victim, who fell into his trapping network. Before this, the spider entangles it with cobwebs, and then decides to eat immediately or leaves for later to hang in a cocoon.
In addition to the long legs mentioned, the breeder (spider) has a short (up to 1 cm) body. In some species, it can reach a length of 2 cm and have an oval shape. In the spider, the body is divided by a thin web on the thoracic and abdominal regions. Kosinozhki such features are deprived. Their body is also segmented, but the head and abdomen are connected by a rigid wide plate.
Body cover armored. On the head there is a pair of eyes (there are eight spat-eel spiders). Outgrowths may be present on top of the shell. The color is mostly dark gray, brown or black. Species that prefer to hunt during the daytime are painted more variegated.
In addition to long legs, grasslings have a pair of pedipalps. They grab arachnids and bring food to the mouth. The other pair is a chelator used as a jaw and serves to chew solids.
Leg extensors have no extensor muscles. Lifting the body and movement occurs on the hydraulic principle. The legs are hollow inside. They contain a liquid medium (hemolymph), replacing to a certain extent blood. Applying pressure, the breeches straightens their legs.
There are a couple of holes on the sides of the head. These are exits of odorous glands. Their seedlings can use in case of danger. Content with a sharp vinegar smell shoots into the distance and scares predators. Therefore, there are almost no special enemies of the kosinozhek.
The mating season is usually at the end of summer. The male, having met the female on the way, mates and does not linger, poisoning further. Occasionally there are battles for girlfriends. In some species, males are involved in the care of future offspring. Protecting the clutch, they are sometimes forced to drive away the females, as they can eat everything.
In a cocoon, usually up to 50 eggs. During the season, female haymakers have time to postpone several clutches with a break of up to three weeks. The substrate for this is chosen among the foliage, moss, loose earth can be used.
Is the spider mating dangerous?
Long-legged arthropods in impressionable people can cause horror. However, the myths mentioned above are unfounded. The haymaker cannot be poisonous, because it has no glands that produce such a secret. The possibility of a bite is also in doubt.
Could the spider be dangerous? It does not make sense for him to bite a person, he will not bite his skin, and he is used to injecting poison only into a victim tangled in cobweb. Laboratory data on the degree of action of his poison on humans is not. Also not known in medicine are cases of people being bitten by representatives of long-legged spiders.
On the contrary, it is believed that haymakers benefit by catching and eating various insects that can cause harm. Spiderweed spiders for catching flies and mosquitoes, also can not be considered enemies of man.
Most poisonous spider
Unlike the haymaker, a black widow can seriously harm a person. The small (2 cm) size of this spider cannot be compared with the action of poison, which is stronger (up to 15 times) than that of a rattlesnake. A weakened by the health of old people and children, the bite of these arthropods can be fatal. Especially dangerous are the spiders. Their color is black; on the abdomen there is a small bright spot in the form of an hourglass. Widows weave cobwebs. Its threads are very durable, arranged chaotically. It may seem that these traps are abandoned, because of the stuck debris (foliage, blades of grass), but in a secluded place nearby a black mistress usually hides.
The most poisonous spider lives in Brazil. It is also called a banana, because it likes to climb into the baskets of pickers of these fruits, and wandering, as it does not weave trapping networks and does not linger in one place. The size of this spider is more impressive. It grows up to 19 cm with a leg span up to 12 cm. When in danger, the spider rises on its hind legs and demonstrates threatening fangs.
The six-eyed sand spider from Africa is also a threat to humans. In our region (southern regions), karakurt is a serious danger. The spider bite is not immediately felt, but after a few minutes a sharp pain spreads all over the body. Outwardly, they resemble black widows (red dots on the abdomen). This is not surprising, since they are representatives of one kind.
Is it necessary to be afraid of a haymaker?
A haymaker is a strange terrestrial animal (of the Arachnoid class) with very long legs. It has an egg-shaped body, the head and chest.
About 60 species of haymakers live in Russia, although there are many more of them in the world. The most common species in our country is the common marsh (Phalangium opilio).
Haylings are not spiders, but spider-like animals. Sometimes they are called spider. Scientists note that the haymakers are perfectly adapted to life on land. They usually hunt at dusk or at night. During the day less mobile.
They can usually be seen in their characteristic posture with their legs spread wide. There are species that feed on snails and slugs, using special claws. Many grasslands are content with small insects, plant food and ... animal carcasses.
At dusk and in the first half of the night, the seedling is engaged in the search and absorption of food: not only vegetable but also animal: it eats small insects. This species is common in Eurasia and in North America. A similar species is found in the steppe strip (Opilio parietinus).
The female of the common grass seedling is easily recognizable by the dark spot (with bright white edging) on the back. The male "saddle" does not have such clear boundaries and looks vague.
The female body is longer (9 mm) than the male (up to 7 mm). But her legs are shorter. The female lays eggs in the soil, dry leaves, moss. Before that, she studies the place for a long time, after which she plunges a long ovipositor into a loose substrate.
It will take time, more precisely, 5 - 7 molts before the baby-kinooshozhki themselves can multiply. It takes place from July to October. Only young and eggs hibernate.
Who needs long legs?
The haymaker has long legs, which he easily copes with. Nature has thought over the unique principle of managing these limbs. The legs are bent with the help of the muscle tightening the tendon (musculo-mechanical action). They unbent from the pressure of hemolymph, which accumulates inside (hydraulic action).
Such a well-established mechanism is incredibly economical: it avoids the need to have a lot of small muscles. Haymaker can safely entwine any blade of grass or a small pebble. The walking bar-jack easily overcomes obstacles and can move even in hot or cool time, carrying the body high above the surface.
The mechanism of movement of the grassland interested specialists in the field of bionics (applied science, which is studying the use in technology of the principles of functioning of living forms). Kosiinozhki give ideas to writers and artists, they are developed by specialists who are working on the creation of ... walking machines to explore other planets.
Such an automaton is thought of as a walking device, which has several advantages over an automaton on a wheeled or tracked track, especially in the sense of orientation and overcoming obstacles.
The equipment, designed for research and movement, is concentrated in a sealed capsule, towering on several long, cranked legs.
At the ends of the legs and in the joints there are sensors that send information about the touch of the leg to the substrate and its relative positions, according to which further consistent movements are programmed at each moment.
For example, it is considered that the combination of mechanical and hydraulic principles, which is observed in the leg of the grass hanger, is most appropriate for leg movement: bending due to a cord passing through the segments to the end of the leg, and bending the pressure of the fluid that fills the leg (“Animal Life” volume III).
At the first danger, the breeder easily part with his limbs. The wound is instantly delayed, so hemolymph loss does not occur. The severed leg continues to twitch for some time (up to half an hour). This is due to the arbitrary contraction of special muscles.
Lizards, who give their tails to the enemy, do likewise. Autotomy (the so-called “voluntary” loss of body parts) often saves the animal from death.
The longest is usually the second pair of legs. The male grass seedling is up to 54 mm. These legs read information about the condition of the ground, stone or other support. The red dots on the legs or the body are the larvae of ticks that have attached themselves to the mows.
Spider fear - arachnophobia
Many people suffer from fear of spiders (arachnophobia) and all sorts of arachnids. One simply does not like them, others cannot touch them or fall into a state of panic when in contact with these animals. Haymakers absolutely harmless to humans are no exception. Especially when they are on the human body.
Psychologists give a lot of advice. The simplest and most interesting for me was the one that helps reduce the degree of tension, change the negative attitude towards the haymakers to a positive or dismissive one. There are many different game options. For example, give the name of a specific kosynozhke. Call her Anyuta. Or Clara.
Come up with the life story of this cute kosinozhki, sympathize with her. It is said that such a “dialogue” often leads to the fact that a specific seedling ceases to be nasty and becomes quite nice. And this is the first step towards overcoming arachnophobia.
Haying spiders, or so-called centipede spiders, belong to the family of spiders from the infraorder araneomorphic. This name was given to the family because of the similarity of long-legged spiders in body shape with the haymakers.
This family includes over 1000 species, which are combined in 84 genera.
Haymakers have lived on earth for about 0.5 billion years, and during this time they have not changed at all, indicating that they have perfectly adapted to living in the harsh conditions of the world of invertebrates.
Hay spiders are spread all over the world. The vast majority of them live in the tropics. They often coexist with people in their homes. In central Russia, in Ukraine, Belarus, the species Pholcus is common.
Haymakers are small spiders that have a wide variety of forms (from spherical to elongated) and body length from 2 to 10 mm.
We will never meet a haymaker, weaving a web, settling for himself a den, or descending on a thin web thread, since these arthropods do not have web warts.
There are eight eyes on the rounded prosome (two small medial and six lateral forming triads), but some spiders have fewer eyes, mainly living in caves. The seedlings have eight long, thin legs on the cephalothorax.
The length of the legs varies from species to species, from short legs to very long, up to 0.5 cm. Many grass harvesters have a pair of excessively long legs, which are adapted, like antennas, to touch surrounding objects, find food, and avoid danger. a pair of eyes at the crown of the head does not provide clear vision.
Long, awkward legs help them to save their lives, because they raise the body of spiders above the level where most invertebrate predators hunt.
Spider maker: description of a spider with long legs
Among the representatives of the class of arthropods, often penetrating into the dwelling of a person, it is necessary to note the spider of the grass maker, the meeting with which is hardly pleasant.
This is a frequently occurring family that includes about a thousand species. You can also find other names of the spider: centipede, reaper, kosynozhka, false spider. Get to know him better.
Haylinger most often comes across in apartments and houses as an uninvited guest. What does he look like?
In the photo you can see that the kosynozhka has eight long legs, which are surprisingly curved. Also, this representative of the spiders can be recognized by the following features:
- the body is shaped like an egg, consists of two sections - the head and abdomen,
- body length can be from 10 mm to 20 mm,
- body covers the shell,
- the belly consists of tight segments
the articulation of the cephalothorax and abdomen is very thin, almost imperceptible,
- there are eight eyes,
- no mustache,
- the legs are arranged in pairs in the zone of the cephalothorax, absent on the belly,
- the largest is the second pair of limbs. Average leg length up to 5 cm
- four legs are used for walking, two for grabbing food,
- the extremities are hollow inside, filled with hemolymph, which replaces blood,
- at the ends of the legs of the claw,
- glands are located on the sides of the cephalothorax: at danger, they secrete a special substance with an unpleasant odor that scares off predators. That is why the enemies of such spiders are very few
- teeth are missing, food is ground with the help of chelicera.
Interestingly, species that live in forests have short legs, but long thin legs are characteristic of urban residents.
DNA research revealed an interesting fact: haylings are much closer to scorpions than to spiders.
Of particular interest is the web of the haymaker devoid of the sticky enzyme. However, once in the network, the victim will not be able to break out of it - the disorder weaves are so cleverly executed.
When injured, the wound heals in a few moments, preventing the hemolymph from leaking out. However, in the place of a damaged or severed limb a new one does not grow. Due to the nerve endings, the severed foot will impulsively twitch.
The movements of the limb resemble mowing, hence the name arthropod. The loss of limbs to spiders is not fatal, they often tear off their legs as a diversion to escape from danger.
The lifespan of spiders reapers in favorable conditions - up to 2 years.
Types of mowers
There are several thousand species of grassland, which are divided into day and night: daytime have a variegated color, nighttime are painted black, gray or brown.
It is customary to single out four suborders:
- Eupnoi have very long legs and big eyes. It is the representatives of this suborder who find refuge in the dwelling of man,
- Cyphophthalmi – это наиболее примитивные представители косиножек, внешним видом напоминающие клещей. Имеют небольшую длину тела – до 3 мм, короткие ножки и овальное, слегка вытянутое туловище. Встретить таких паучков можно в тропических и субтропических странах,
- Dyspnoi – обладатели коротких ног и развитых хелицер, предпочитают проживать в южных широтах. За счет своих «клешней» эти пауки без труда могут доставать моллюсков из их раковин,
- Laniatores – это жители тропиков, подотряд, несмотря на свои внушительные размеры, относится к числу малоизученных. The body often has a bright unusual color and fancy growths.
The spider matinger is found almost all over the globe, but the most comfortable conditions for it are southern and temperate latitudes, forests. Some species inhabit the city.
Spiders are predators, catch prey with the help of its confused web. Insect, hitting the net, gets confused, and the breeder quickly gets to the victim from his shelter, killing it.
The haymaker eats various living beings as food:
- even other arthropods.
Often, spiders are forced to use carrion, excrement, decaying organic remains, mushrooms for food.
This arthropod can get into an apartment in several ways:
- through holes and slots in the walls and floor,
- on people's clothes and shoes.
Having entered the room, the spiders choose warm, dry places and begin to weave their net. In the winter, they prefer to climb higher, closer to the ceiling.
Is haymaker dangerous for man?
Despite the fact that this spider is poisonous, the strength of its poison is only enough to paralyze the victims caught in the web, for a person the poison is not terrible at all. But at the same time, such a neighborhood is not always pleasant, and in some people the appearance of a spider is causing a real panic attack - such fear is known to science and is called arachnophobia.
How to save your home from these unpleasant neighbors? First of all, you should get rid of the reason for their appearance, that is, to bring cockroaches, flies and other insects, attractive to spiders. Also an effective way to destroy the seedlings will be the elimination of their cobwebs, for this purpose you can use a broom or a vacuum cleaner.
After cleaning, all the cracks should be carefully repaired so that the spiders could not return. As a preventive measure, citrus peels have proven themselves well: their fragrance repels arthropods.
Also for this purpose, you can use sprayers with tinctures of peppermint, eucalyptus. In the corners you can put small containers with a solution of vinegar.
Do not forget that the haymakers are often beneficial, helping to clean the apartment from unpleasant insects such as bugs or cockroaches. Despite the unattractive appearance, these creatures are absolutely safe for humans and can not harm him.
Haymaker - description, characteristics, structure
Why is it common to call a kosyonzhka in common? Haymaker received this name because of the special structure of the limbs. The torn off leg of the kosynozhki continues to make movements resembling mowing.
The haymaker (kosynozhka) is similar to a spider, but unlike spiders, the external structure of the haymakers is different: they have an abdomen consisting of tightly closed segments with a broad rigid base that passes into the cephalothorax.
In spiders, the connection between the abdomen and the cephalothorax is thin. Also, do not confuse the seedlings with the mites, although these three species of animals belong to the class of arachnids.
The body of the grassman is small (1-5 mm), covered with shell. Individuals have a large, ovoid body, up to 22 mm long. One pair of simple eyes with weak eyesight is located on the protruding part of the cephalothorax. Long legs end in claws.
Due to the lack of extensor muscles, the haymakers have the hydraulic principle of movement. The hollow inside of the extremity is filled with hemolymph, which replaces blood with the castes. Legs straighten when pressure builds up inside.
The functions of smell and touch are performed by short pedipalps (second pair of limbs) and legs. Haymakers feel objects with the longest limb.
Types of haymakers
The world population has almost 7 thousand species of grassland. Night types of kosinozhek have black, brown or grayish color. Daily specimens are variegated in color.
The classification of grassland seedlings is divided into 4 main sub-orders:
Cyphophthalmi: small primitive kosynozhki. Externally resemble ticks, 2-3 mm long, with short legs and an oval oblong body. Habitat - tropics and subtropics of Africa, America and Eurasia. The suborder includes the families Sironidae and Stylocellidae,
This sub-order includes kosinozhki, which we meet on the walls of residential houses: Phalangium opilio and Opilio parietinus. The suborder consists of 2 families: Phalangiidae and Caddidae,
Dyspnoi: sluggish suborder of haymakers with short legs. Some families of the suborder possess powerful chelicerae (mouth clavicle appendages), which allow the haymakers to extract mollusks from the shells.
Subspecies distributed throughout the world, including living in the southern regions of Russia. The suborder consists of 4 families: Ischyropsalidae, Nemastomatidae, Trogulidae and Dicranolasmatidae,
They live in tropical America, Africa, India and Australia. The suborder includes 5 families: Cosmetidae, Gonyleptidae, Triaenonychidae, Oncopodidae, Phalangodidae.
What does a seedling feed on?
The structure of the oral apparatus allows the haymakers to chew and digest food. Like any predators, kosynozhki eat animal food: caterpillars, mosquitoes, beetles, ants. Do not shun carrion, excrement, remnants of rotting organic matter. "Gourmets" prefer snails and slugs. They can eat mushrooms and other plant foods.
Not dangerous to humans, the haymaker brings invaluable benefits, destroying many types of insect pests, and is also an excellent orderly, absorbing and recycling waste and decaying organic matter.
Loss of a limb is not fatal for the haymaker. Sometimes kosinozhki themselves separate their legs, distracting the enemy with a twitching foot, thereby gaining time for retreat.
Kosinozhek sometimes confused with spiders, seedlings and mites, seedlings. The kosinozhka only resembles a spider due to its long legs, but does not weave a net, does not catch victims in them, and does not kill them with the help of poison. Myths and confusion caused by the similarity of mows with dangerous relatives, harm only themselves.
Among our other arachnids, haylings stand out for their exorbitantly long and slender legs, supporting a relatively small body. During the day, they are inactive and sit in bark cracks in the trees, in the grooves of the log walls and in other secluded corners, but by night they become more lively and go hunting for small insects and spiders.
If, wanting to catch a haymaker, we grab him by one of his long legs, then the leg easily comes off and remains in our hands, while he himself on the remaining legs escapes danger.
"Spider-mow-hay" is common everywhere and is often found on the walls of our houses, so it is very easy to observe and study it.
First of all, we can see that the body of the haymaker is generally ovoid in shape, and there is no interception between the cephalothorax and abdomen, as is the case with the small cross. We will never see a weaver weaving a web, making a lair for ourselves, or going down on a thin spider web, we will never find females with an egg cocoon that weird wolf spiders carry with them.
If we look at it with a magnifying glass, we see that the abdomen of the seedling is subdivided into segments, that there are no web warts on it, and that the first pair of mouth extremities has the appearance of small claws.
All these essential features that distinguish the grasslings from the cross and from other spiderweb spiders, force them to belong to another group - to a special order of grasslands.
Excessively long legs, as it is easy to see, do not give special speed to the haymaking run, and the significance of their peculiar features seems to be different: the body and the crawling haymaker are always surrounded by a whole paling of limbs, with which I encounter the attacker predator.
The grappled leg, as is well known, easily breaks off and with its convulsive jerks distracts the attention of the pursuer, while the hay-bearer continues to walk away on his surviving legs: he still has enough of them. Therefore, it is often necessary to encounter haymakers with an incomplete number of limbs (their lost legs do not regenerate).
The ease with which any leg of a haymaker breaks off gives the impression that it is very “weakly seated”, and we too carelessly pulled it. However, in fact, in the seedling, the legs are attached to the body quite firmly, and their dropping depends on a particular muscular movement, which makes the seedling, with strong irritation of his leg.
Such self-healing (or autotomy) is also observed in many other animals, for example, in the Crimean centipede-flycatcher, in some crayfish, in our common lizards.
Sometimes in the garden or in the woods there are haymakers, in which on their bodies or on their feet one can notice small roundish bodies of bright red color. These red bodies - representatives of another order of arachnids - tick larvae living on the body of haymakers as external parasites.
Who is a spider with long slender legs, and how does it differ from its relatives?
This is a spider-haymaker, or centipede. This family of spiders Pholcidae, which includes more than 1000 species living around the globe. Many of them often settle in houses, apartments, barns and garages, preferring to coexist with people. First of all, it is Pholcus phalangioides.
The body of this spider with long legs can reach a length of 2 to 10 mm, look like a ball or have a spindle shape. In this case, the males are usually a few millimeters smaller than the females.
In Pholcus phalangioides, the most common type of hay spider, the abdomen is colored beige or brown, and the shield covering the body is painted with a grayish pattern. The real pride of this family of spiders - long legs with a shiny surface. Their length can be several centimeters, and in the tropics it sometimes reaches 9 cm.
It is important not only to know the name of the spider with long legs, but also how it differs from kosinozhek.
For example, the centipede, which is a true spider, weaves a web, while the casts do not. In addition, the spider-hay on a round body - the prosome - has 8 eyes: two of them in the middle (medial), and the rest - on the edges of the abdomen at small projections.
In some specimens living in dark caves, the number of eyes may be reduced as unnecessary. In the grassland, the eyes are always only two.
One more difference between the centipede spider and the haymaker can be seen, if you carefully consider their torso. In both it consists of a rounded abdomen and chest, smoothly passing into the head. These two significant parts are connected by a peculiar neck-stalk.
But in a true haymaker, unlike a spider, this transition is very wide, so it seems that the whole body of a kinoshozh consists of one single section, whereas each one of the centipede has a distinctly distinct section.
There are 8 legs on the head. Moreover, their size is often uneven: the longest pair of spider-haylings are actively used as antennas. He perceives the objects surrounding them, brings order to his web.
In addition, each of the legs may fall off in danger: for example, if a lizard grabs it. Although the lost limb is not regenerated, the centipedes work fine without them: there are often individuals that move at a fast pace even on 4 legs.
The life of the spider
Long-legged spiders belonging to the family Pholcidae are spread all over the world, as well as its well-known representative phalanx folk (Pholcus phalangioides), which is so often found in houses and in buildings on the adjacent areas.
Every person has ever met a spider with long legs
Grasshopper spiders move very quickly due to their long legs. Their height allows this arthropod to grasp blades of grass, easily climb over the logs, cross impressive distances in a short time.
In this case, the body itself is located at a relatively large distance above the ground, so the risk of injury is minimal. These qualities allow the spider seedlings to hide from numerous detractors.
The haymaker - a spider with long legs - is quite undemanding of food. The process of feeding is slow because the creature has no teeth. He tears off the pieces of his food - snails, small insects and other arthropods - with the help of strong chelicera, and then carefully chops the food in his mouth.
Helicera - processes in the oral cavity in the form of small ticks.
In the diet of the spider-haymaker there is not only animal food, but also vegetable food. Sometimes he does not disdain even carrion, using dead insects. The solid, soft and semi-liquid food is suitable for the long-range hills.
But the main way of extracting food from a spider-spider is hunting. Like all real spiders, he, unlike the haymaker haymakers, weaves a web.
But he does not emit a sticky enzyme that his fellows have, so the trapping network works in a different way: it is woven randomly and firmly, and the victim, fluttering, seeks to get out of the trap with all his might, only becoming more entangled in it.
Haying spider is often active at night, when it weaves its chaotic web and expects prey. In the daytime, the centipedes prefer to sit on the walls, windows and foundations of houses, and their wide and long legs serve as an excellent support, allowing the arthropod to feel confident on any surface.
The web of the centipede is not distinguished by its accuracy and symmetry.
If too large prey that he cannot cope with (for example, a bumblebee) or unnecessary garbage gets to the spider-hay net, the centipede begins to move the web, causing it to vibrate, thereby helping the prey to get out of the trap.
Is it harmful in the house?
Hay spiders, despite their peculiar appearance, are completely safe for humans. Their venom is incapable of causing harm to health, with the exception of the rarest cases of individual intolerance to substances causing insignificant local redness.
Grasshopper spiders have been living in human houses for a long time and all over the world. In the West, they are called “Cellar spider”, which in translation from English means “Basement Spider”.
The main reason for which people seek to rid themselves of the neighborhood with the centipedes and their relatives is arachnophobia, that is, fear of spiders. It represents an irrational fear of these creatures, and psychologists or psychotherapists are engaged in treatment.
But, if the house has got a lot of hay spiders, then there is a reason for concern. This means that there was a lot of food for the centipedes in the room, often parasites. Therefore, it is necessary to find the cause of such a “neighborhood”, eliminate it and treat the house from spiders.