The hummingbird is not only the smallest bird on our planet, but also one of the most beautiful creatures created by nature. Amazing creation amazes with its lifestyle and resolute disposition. But let's find out a little more about this miniature bird.
There are many (about 330) species of hummingbirds. Among the representatives of this order it is possible to find birds, whose sizes resemble larger insects more than birds. For example, the statement that the smallest hummingbird bird weighs 20 g is erroneous, because a very miniature species, called the hummingbird bee, can boast of representatives weighing about 2 g.
These crumbs are found mainly in Cuba and reach sizes less than 7 cm, while the largest of the existing hummingbird birds can grow up to 22 cm.
As a rule, measurements are carried out from the tip of the beak to the extreme point of the tail. Most of these small birds inhabit the North American continent. They can be found not only in a tropical and subtropical climate, but also in Alaska. Their favorite habitats are gardens, meadows, fields. Among the hummingbirds are found both resident and migratory birds. The latter include the ruby-headed hummingbird and the red fire carrier, they spend the winter in Mexico. Unfortunately, on the territory of our continent, these crumbs do not occur. Not even a hummingbird bird is found in Udmurtia, where you can meet another little bird called the Kingfisher. It is also small and has an emerald green color, so they are often confused.
The hummingbird is a bird with a unique color, its plumage is very beautiful and resembles precious stones. When exposed to direct sunlight, bright feathers shimmer, as if changing their colors. That is why the bird is often given names associated with precious stones (for example: "topaz hummingbird", "emerald neck", "fire topaz," flying amethyst "). Agree, very poetic nicknames.
Hummingbird nests are weaved out of grass, cobwebs, wool and pieces of bark. The size of the "hearth" depends on the size of the bird itself. In some of them, the nests reach the diameter of the cup, while in others the walnut shells.
In such a "house" hummingbird lays 2 eggs, the size of which is no more than a pea. The diameter of the eggs - only 12 mm, weight - not more than 0.5 g.
It must be said that the hummingbird is a very brave and courageous bird, in case of danger, it fearlessly defends its chicks and swiftly flies toward the enemy. Desperate Mom puts her sharp beak in the nose or the eye of the attacker.
It is noteworthy that hummingbirds do not form pairs. On the females of the cavity lies the care of the offspring. At the same time, she remains alone, starting from the moment the nest is built and before the chicks are fed.
A hummingbird is a bird, the description of the vital activity of which is somewhat different from our usual understanding of the way of life of birds. First of all, it is interesting that the main food for them is nectar, which they extract independently from flowers. Hummingbirds are capable of hovering in the air above a flower, making up to 80 wings by wings in one second. Such an intense flight takes a lot of strength and energy, so whenever possible the birds sit on a flower to drink nectar.
However, it is wrong to believe that this is the only food for these birds. For many species of hummingbirds, the main food (for some of them even exceptional) is small insects. Occasionally they eat their captive web captives.
A hummingbird is a bird that spends an enormous amount of energy when flying, so it is often forced to feed. During the period of activity, food intake occurs every 10 minutes. It turns out that during the day these crumbs eat the amount of food, by weight greater than the weight of their own body.
Another interesting feature of this tiny creature is that the hummingbird is a bird capable of maneuvering backwards. More than any representative of birds in the world such a flight is not under force. Scientists have determined that the flying muscles of birds make up about 25-30% of its total weight. The ability to move up and down and back is provided by the special design of the wing. Typically, the wings of birds are joined from the shoulders, elbow and wrist, in hummingbirds they are attached only from the shoulders. All this allows them to quickly accelerate, hover in the air, land vertically, and during mating courtship to develop the speed of flapping wings up to hundreds per second.
Hummingbirds have a big and strong heart. It occupies almost half of the cavity of her body, and its size is three times larger than its own stomach. The heart rate is also impressive - 1000-1200 beats per minute.
Important biological function
By the way, eating nectar, hummingbirds perform one of the very significant biological roles - they pollinate flowers. The fact is that a number of flowers have such a structure that only this tiny bird can pollinate them. Interestingly, the shape of the flower, most often pollinated by a specific type of hummingbird, is directly related to the structural features of the bird's beak. That is, for different species of hummingbirds their beak forms are characteristic. So, if the flower is flat, then the bird should have it short. From long inflorescences similar to a funnel, nectar can only be obtained with a narrow elongated beak.
The longest beak (up to 10 cm) is possessed by a mosquito. Its size is almost twice the total length of the bird.
On top of this, this hummingbird organ has other features, for example, a significantly forked tongue, a brushless base. Such individual differences allow this bird to protrude the tongue from the mouth much further than other birds.
Migration to cold edges
Some representatives of hummingbirds migrate to mountain rock formations located in Canada, while the snow cover has not melted. At the same time, the temperature of the laid eggs is successfully kept by the birds at the level of 25 degrees. It is warmer than the ambient temperature. How does this happen?
The fact is that hummingbirds are birds that easily adapt to fairly low temperatures due to the unique feather barrier. One inch of their body accounts for the largest number of feathers compared to other birds (excluding representatives of large species). In addition, hummingbirds are able to lower metabolism to a state of lethargic sleep in order to save energy. Before you migrate, they accumulate a significant amount of fat. Thus, it is 72% of the total weight of the bird. To accumulate such amount of energy reserve is not possible for every bird, because it requires special adjustment of physiological mechanisms. Scientists have found that hummingbirds possess the most metabolically active liver in the world. Another important feature is the high speed of delivery of glucose. This is an invaluable characteristic for a living creature whose main food is nectar.
Another interesting feature of hummingbirds is their ability to memorize. Scientists have discovered that when the bird “flies around” the flowers, it avoids those that it has devastated to the end. However, it returns to those plants where nectar still remains. This is an amazing fact, since the brain of the investigated hummingbird (reddish-brown) has the size of a grain of rice. However, this does not prevent her from using his capabilities.
Hummingbirds are truly unique creations. They differ from the rest of the birds, and structure, and way of life, and plumage, and, most importantly, size. No bird that looks like a hummingbird in appearance can compare with it in other parameters, for example, in flight speed. Therefore, for many years, it is of particular interest to nature lovers.
You may be wondering how much a hummingbird costs - a bird that is truly unique. However, if you want to buy it, it is better to think well, as a hummingbird, like any other representative of the wild nature, needs freedom to live a full life. Proper conditions for them can be created only in natural parks. In addition, to ensure proper nutrition will be difficult.
Description of the smallest bird in the world
Hummingbird belongs to the order of swift. Area in the western part of South America. In countries in the south, rarely live. These birds live in the mountains. The eggs that the birds lay do not freeze, the females maintain their temperature within 25 degrees Celsius. The hummingbird adapts to any ambient temperature. Before the flight, the birds accumulate a thick layer of subcutaneous fat.
They benefit nature and agriculture. Birds carry pollen on their paws and pollinate plants.
The ancient inhabitants of the city of Teotiukan believed that hummingbirds are the embodiment of the souls of warriors who fell in battle.
The skins of birds were used by people in the form of ornaments. This caused the hunt for hummingbirds and a large reduction in their numbers in nature.
The smallest bird has a peculiar appearance. The birds have a large bone ridge in the chest area. In birds, wings are well developed, they have a rather long brush. The forearm and short shoulder are less developed. In the wings 10 wing feathers.
The tail of most birds has the same structure, it consists of 10 feathers. In rocket-tail type 4 tail feathers.
Paws are not suitable for walking. They are small, with long claws growing on the fingers.
Proboscis (beak) - long. It can be straight or curved. In the Mechcaped Hummingbird, the beak is straight and exceeds the length of its own body. The beak has no bristles at the base, and its upper part with its edges clasps the bottom.
The tongue of these tiny birds is forked and long.
Color varied, depending on the type of bird. More often, the coloring is bright, with metallic reflections.
The crest is inherent in all species and is of different shapes. It is formed on the head from a bundle of feathers.
In females and males, the appearance is different. In males, the color is more variegated, and tail feathers and a tuft of various and bizarre forms. The color of the female is dimmer than that of the male, and the crest and tail are more modest, they are not so lush and attractive.
Hummingbirds have a high movement speed. The heart of these birds is beating very quickly. When flying, the heart makes 1200 beats per minute, and when the bird is resting - 500 beats.
How many strokes per second does a hummingbird make?
The flight speed is high and amounts to almost 80 km / h. The youngest members of this species make a humming sound. This is due to the quick work of the wings. Humming-birds in 1 second flaps their wings 80-100 times, and larger individuals make 8-10 strokes in 1 second. Due to the quick work of the little wings, when looking at the bird it seems that instead of the wings there is something vague and fuzzy, since at such a speed it is impossible to see them.
Hummingbird bird record
- not a single flying creature on the planet is able to react to obstacles during flight with the same lightning speed,
- the hummingbird has a flight technique that is inaccessible to other birds; it can fly not only directly, but also move backward in flight, and on the sides - left and right,
- even small representatives of the hummingbird species can drink about 120 times for 16 hours and eat more of their weight.
Hummingbirds are polygamous. The nest viet female, fastening it on the bushes, trees or leaves. Some birds to glue the components of the nest. To create a house, a bird uses: branches, down, moss, lichens, leaves, blade of grass.
Breed in a permanent habitat. Laying 2 small white eggs, which incubates the female. Newborn chicks look unattractive - after hatching, babies are bald, weak and helpless. Hatch eggs need 14-19 days. After hatching from eggs, chicks do not leave a cozy nest for 20-25 days. This time it takes them to get stronger and gain strength before the first flight.
When the female settles the nest and raises offspring, the male monitors the safety of the family and housing.
Birds feed on pollen, insects that sit in flowers and on leaves. Do not eat while on the ground. They eat exclusively in flight. Drink and eat a lot.
When a bird drinks nectar from a flower, it lowers its tongue into the flower neck 20 times per second. When immersed in nectar, half of the tongue unfolds on the sides, seizes the contents, and then rolls back and carries food into the hummingbird's beak.
Natural enemies of the bird
In freedom, birds live up to 9 years. In captivity, the bird will live less. Poachers hunt hummingbirds and sell them, but the price for one individual is quite high. In addition to humans, tree snakes and tarantulas are dangerous to hummingbirds.
Hummingbirds are very brave. They can attack a bird that surpasses them in size. During the breeding season, their courage and fighting spirit is particularly pronounced.
The history and description of the beauty of a tiny bird
Cuban naturalist Juan Cristobal discovered this species of feathery in 1844. Hummingbird lives in Cuba, mostly on the island of Juventud.
The Europeans, having first seen these creatures, confused them with insects, and all because their weight is only 2 grams. And the Indians from America loved to use the colorful wings of the bird for all sorts of jewelry: in the form of earrings in their ears, for decorating their heads. Hummingbirds are extraordinarily beautiful, their body is covered with scales, iridescent with all the colors of the rainbow. Some birds of bronze color, others - blue, violet, green. There are special scales on the throat and head of the males, which is how they differ from the females. The hummingbird's body is elongated (or it seems so due to the long tail). The beak of these birds is similar to an awl, which is equal in length to the body or may even be more. Hummingbird paws are very small and fragile, but the claws are quite sharp and thin. The wings of these birds are long, narrow, bent in such a way that they even resemble a sickle. From the specificity of the internal structure of a hummingbird, an interesting device in a tongue consisting of two threads fused at the root, which are also hollow inside.
Today, more than 300 species of these birds are known, and all of them live in South America.
Hummingbirds are the smallest bird in the world that is not afraid of humans. These babies often make their nests near the houses, becoming almost the favorites of people. And some even specially bred in their garden these wonderful birds.
The smallest bird in the world, the photo of which can be seen in this article, can be 5.5 cm long. The size of a hummingbird can be compared to the size of a bumblebee. The eggs of these birds are no longer even the coffee beans. Males are always smaller than females. The weight of these birds varies in the range of 1.5-2 grams, not more.
Hummingbirds are the smallest bird in the world that eats food at 2, or even 3 times its personal weight. This is due to the fact that these crumbs are quite mobile. Such birds feed on the nectar of various plants, they can also pamper themselves with small insects. What is interesting: when they eat, the food immediately goes into the duodenum, bypassing the stomach. They feed every 10 minutes. When these birds drink nectar, they lower their tongue into the core of the flower up to 15 times per second.
Hummingbirds are the smallest bird in the world and the only one that can fly backwards. The speed of its flight can reach as much as 80 km / h. The frequency of wing flaps is 90 strokes per second.
Role in nature
Although hummingbirds and the smallest birds in the world, they are still an inseparable part of the ecological system. These babies play an important role: they pollinate many plants. For example, in a day they can pollinate about 1,5 thousand flowers. And this, in turn, contributes to the support of ecological balance in nature.
How do they get nectar from flowers and where do they nest?
They pump it out in the air: they first hover above the flower and then put their beak into it. Then the tongue continues to work, which takes on various small insects and nectar itself.
Interesting facts about hummingbirds
- Half the body length is a beak.
- The heart of these birds struggles with a frequency of 500 beats, while in humans it can reach only 80. And when this bird flies, its internal engine can work with a frequency of 1200 beats in 60 seconds.
- These crumbs body temperature is the highest of all birds and reaches 40 degrees.
- Hummingbird - the smallest bird in the world, which also has the minimum number of feathers - only about 1 thousand. While in ordinary birds, there are about 25 thousand.
- These birds never sit on the ground, they feed on the fly. They can sit down only on the branches, as their legs are not adapted for walking.
- A hummingbird has 2 times more cervical vertebrae than a giraffe.
“These birds are an endangered species.” More than 10 species of these birds are listed in the Red Book. The enemies of this crumbs are rats, frogs, fish, spiders, birds of prey. However, their main offender is a man. And all because of the fact that people, doing mass deforestation and drainage of swamps, simply destroy the hummingbird's habitat.
- Эта миниатюрная птичка изображена на гербе Тринидада и Тобаго.
Самая маленькая хищная птица в мире – сокол-крошка, причём их существует 2 вида: черногорский и белолобый.
Оба экземпляра имеют среднюю длину 15 см, в том числе и хвост (5 см). Вес этих пернатых хищников - всего 35 г.
Питаются они различными насекомыми (бабочками, стрекозами, молью), термитами, маленькими птицами и ящерицами.
Сокол-крошка – хищник, обитающий в Центральной, а также Южной Америке. These birds live in wooded areas, near wide open plains at an altitude of about 1300 m above sea level. There are these birds in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Borneo, Indonesia.
Now you know what the smallest bird in the world. It was determined that hummingbirds are not only tiny, but also very beautiful birds, which have unique abilities: they can fly backwards, have more cervical vertebrae than giraffes, they do not sit on the ground, but feed on the fly. But the tiniest bird of prey in the world can rightly be called a falcon. However, not simple, but the Montenegrin and white-footed representative of this species of falcons.
What does a hummingbird look like?
The size of a hummingbird does not exceed 5 cm, and the weight of a hummingbird is 1.6-1.8 grams. It's really the smallest birds in the world. But among them there are larger representatives, for example, the giant hummingbird. Its dimensions are truly “gigantic” - the weight is as much as 20 grams, and the length of the body in some individuals reaches 21.6 cm!
Hummingbirds - description and photos.
Beak hummingbird long and thin, its upper part wraps around the bottom. At the base of the beak there are no setae, characteristic of most birds, and in addition, these birds have a forked tongue. The wings of hummingbirds, the smallest in the world of birds, are sharp, represented by 9-10 winged feathers and 6 short small feathers, which are almost completely hidden under the covering feathers. The legs of the birds are weak, very small, with long claws. Since they are unsuitable for walking, most of the time hummingbirds are in the air.
Hummingbirds have bright plumage, while males are colored brighter than females. Some species have a crest or unusual color on the head. The tail of different species may have a diverse shape and consists mainly of 10 feathers. Of all the species, only a few are able to sing, but mostly hummingbird's voice looks like a weak chirp.
Birds from the order hummingbird number more than 350 species.
The smallest hummingbird bird, a hummingbird bee, is 7 centimeters in size and is found in Cuba.
The largest among hummingbirds is a giant hummingbird. The length of his body reaches 21.6 cm, and weight - 18-20 grams.
Where does a hummingbird live?
Hummingbird bird lives in North and South America. Habitat - wherever there are flowers: in the meadows, fields, deserts and forests. Mostly they are sedentary and prefer to settle in mountain meadows and wet forests. Some species, namely the ruby-throated hummingbird, inhabit the territory of Canada.
What eat hummingbirds?
The bird hummingbird knowingly received the nickname "feathered bee". Due to the fact that hummingbirds feed on floral nectar, it turns out that they pollinate flowers. However, hummingbird food is not only floral nectar. Besides it, these birds also eat small insects and at the same time feed exclusively on the fly. Given the insatiable appetite of hummingbird birds, we can safely say that, along with gulls, they are among the most voracious birds. During the day, the hummingbird drinks more than 100 times, and the total weight of food consumed exceeds its own weight and reaches about 2.5 grams. During the reception of nectar, the hummingbird tongue descends into the neck of the flower at a rate of 20 times per second. It is because of all these “speed” indicators that hummingbirds are often compared to lightning.
Appearance, description of a hummingbird bird
The hummingbird troop is represented by a single, but very numerous and colorful hummingbird family, known to ornithologists under the Latin name Trochilidae.
The hummingbird's anatomy is similar to passerine: it has an equally short neck, long wings and a middle head.. At this, the similarity ends - the passerines cannot boast of either a huge "assortment" of beaks, or the magnificent coloring of feathers, which nature has endowed hummingbirds.
Males (against the background of females) have a more festive appearance because of the bright color and intricate feathers on the head and tail, often taking the form of tufts or tufts. The beak can be perfectly straight or curved up / down, very long (half body) or quite modest.
It is interesting! The feature of the beak is the upper half, which encloses its lower part, as well as the absence of setae at the base and a long forked tongue extending far beyond the mouth.
Because of the weak short legs, hummingbirds do not jump on the ground, but can cling to branches and sit there. However, birds are not particularly distressed about thin limbs, devoting most of their lives to ballooning.
Plumage and wings
The wing of a hummingbird resembles a butterfly's wing: the bones in it grow together so that the carrying surface, turning into a single plane, is much larger. Controlling such a wing requires a special mobility of the shoulder joint and a good mass of flying muscles: in hummingbirds they account for 25-30% of the total weight.
The tail, despite the diversity of forms, consists of almost all species of 10 feathers. The only exception is the rotatokhvos hummingbird, in whose tail there are 4 tail feathers.
Due to the brightness, diversity and metallic reflection of the plumage, hummingbirds are often referred to as feathered jewels. The greatest merit in awarding a flattering name belongs to the amazing property of feathers: they refract light depending on the angle of view.
From one perspective, the plumage may seem emerald, but as soon as the bird slightly changes its position, the green color instantly turns scarlet.
Homeland of all humming-like - New World. Hummingbirds flooded Central and South America, as well as the southern regions of North America. Almost all species of hummingbirds lead a settled life. Exceptions include several species, including the Ruby-Hooded Hummingbird, whose habitats extend to Canada and the Rocky Mountains.
Ascetic living conditions force this species to go to Mexico with the onset of cold weather, covering a distance of 4-5 thousand kilometers. On the way, a Ruby-Throated Hummingbird is picking up a decent speed for its build - about 80 km / h.
The area of certain species is limited to local territory. These species, called endemics, include, for example, the hummingbird bee already known to us, never flying out of Cuba.
As often happens with small animals, hummingbirds compensate for their compact size with quarrelsome character, zest for life and hypertrophied mobility. They do not hesitate to attack larger birds, especially when it comes to protecting offspring.
Hummingbirds are solitary, showing increased vigor in the morning and afternoon. With the onset of dusk, they fall into short-term hibernation.
It is interesting! Superfast metabolism requires constant saturation, which can not be at night. To slow down the metabolism, the hummingbird falls asleep: at this time the body temperature drops to 17-21 ° C, and the pulse slows down. With sunrise the hibernation ends.
Contrary to a stable opinion, not all hummingbirds make 50-100 strokes per second in flight: large hummingbirds are limited to 8-10 strokes.
The flight of the bird is somewhat reminiscent of the flight of a butterfly, but it certainly surpasses the latter in complexity and maneuverability. The hummingbird flies up and down, back and forth, sideways, freezes, and also vertically starts and lands.
When hovering, the bird's wings describe an eight in the air, which makes it possible to maintain immobility by holding the body of the hummingbird strictly vertically. This distinguishes hummingbirds from other birds that can only hang flat. The movements of the wings are so fleeting that their outlines blur: it seems that the hummingbirds just froze in front of the flower.
Food, Hummingbird Humming
Due to the accelerated metabolism, birds are forced to continuously feed themselves with food, which they are busy searching for a day-long journey. Hummingbirds are so insatiable that it eats twice as much per day. You will never see a dining bird sitting on the ground or on a branch - the meal takes place exclusively on the fly.
It is interesting! Most of the hummingbird's diet is nectar and pollen from tropical plants. Different hummingbirds have their own gastronomic preferences: someone flies from flower to flower, and some are able to taste nectar from a single plant species.
There is an assumption that the structure of the flower cup also determines the shape of the beak of various types of hummingbirds.
To get the nectar, the bird for a second has to lower the tongue into the neck of the flower at least 20 times. Touching the sweet substance, the twisted tongue straightens and twists again when pulled into the beak.
Nectar and pollen provide plenty of birds with carbohydrates, but they cannot satisfy their need for proteins. That is why they have to hunt for small insects, which they catch right on the fly or are torn away from cobwebs.
The uncontrolled catch of hummingbirds has led to the fact that populations of many species have declined dramatically, and some had to be entered in the Red Book. Now the most numerous population lives in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, but in almost all the ranges these birds face destruction.
The viability of the population is closely related to the state of the environment: one hummingbird should take nectar from 1.5 thousand flowers every day, providing energy for high-speed (150 km / h) flight and regular hovering in the air.
Instituzione Scientifica Centro Colibrì employees have been trying to incubate hummingbird eggs for many years. This was fraught with great difficulties, since the hummingbird's eggs are extremely sensitive to CO₂ content, temperature and humidity. Petersime came to the aid of scientists, offering Embryo-Response Technology ™ technology.. So, in 2015, the incubation of hummingbird eggs for the first time became a reality, giving hope for the restoration of the population.
Hummingbird bird records
Besides the fact that the hummingbird ranks the smallest bird on the globe, there are several other achievements that distinguish it from the total mass of birds:
- hummingbirds are one of the smallest vertebrates,
- they (the only ones among birds) can fly in the opposite direction,
- the hummingbird is called the planet’s most voracious bird,
- heart rate at rest is 500 beats per minute, and in flight - 1200 or more.
- if a man waved his hands at the speed of a wing of a hummingbird per minute, he would have heated to 400 ° C,
- At the heart of hummingbirds account for 40-50% of the volume of the body.