We are talking about an insect from the family of real grasshoppers. This is one of the representatives of the order Orthoptera, widely distributed around the globe.
Locust, medvedki, crickets and many other known insects also belong to the orthoptera, the total number of which reaches almost 20 thousand. The green grasshopper lives in Europe and Asia, in North Africa and in the Middle East. Recently, it can be found not only in the plains, but also in the mountains. For example, in the Alps, this insect feels great at an altitude of more than 1500 m.
What does an insect look like?
Grasshoppers can be watched from the beginning of July until the onset of cold autumn. Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the body and appearance, they are perfectly masked in the grass and in the bushes. A large green grasshopper can have a body length of up to 5-6 cm. At the same time, the length of its elytra may exceed 8 cm, and the antennae are one and a half times longer than the calf.
The head of the insect is large, oval, somewhat flattened laterally. The color is bright green, sometimes with brownish patches. A green grasshopper has three pairs of legs. Two shorter front pairs he uses, moving on surfaces. The third, back pair of legs, longer and stronger. It is necessary for the insect to jump. And the grasshopper has two pairs of wings. However, only one is involved in the flight, and the second pair, the external elytra, serves as a reliable defense.
What does a grasshopper have for lunch?
Remember how in the song: he ate only weed, did not touch the goat too? It turns out that the author of these words was greatly mistaken. Know, than the green grasshopper eats? He will happily eat large and small insects, larvae and aphids. So in fact we are dealing with a predator. But this does not mean that there is no vegetable feed in his diet. Succulent plants, buds and flowers, leaves of shrubs and trees are by no means a complete list of the small jumper's vegetable menu.
It is very interesting to watch a large green grasshopper hunt, but for a non-professional it is almost impossible. To begin with, the insect is very well camouflaged in the grass. Prey grasshopper captures on the fly. He firmly holds her forepaws and quickly kills her with strong jaws and mandibles. The seemingly harmless insect is able to crack the chitinous protection of any prey.
What is the grasshopper singing about?
The green grasshopper, the photo of which can be seen in the article, does not look like a great singer or musician. However, as soon as the heat subsides and evening is approaching, real concerts begin on the street. The sonorous chatter males of grasshoppers emit thanks to a special body located on the right elytra. This is a special bow-membrane, which rubs against the teeth on the right wing.
Grasshopper music has a different theme. Strong short trills serve to intimidate competitors. The males emit them before a fight, in which they often inflict serious damage on an opponent. The outcome of the fight is sometimes fatal, but the most terrible damage can be considered the loss of a mustache. Apeless male falls to the lowest level of the social ladder. He is weak, and everyone sees it.
And, of course, males chirp to attract the attention of females. The louder the love song, the greater the chance of mating and the appearance of offspring. As soon as the female showed interest in the male, the singing becomes quieter. The second part of the concert begins - fascinating. Performing a romantic serenade, the green grasshopper rises slightly on its hind legs, as if dancing.
External differences between male and female are quite definable. The female's abdomen ends with a long, sword-like process. This is the egg deposit necessary for procreation.
After mating, the female is busy laying eggs. Most often, the laying occurs in the soil, but it happens in the bark of trees and on the branches of a bush. In the spring of the eggs appear larvae that feed on plant food. Development to an adult individual takes about two months, during which time the young insect molts 5 times.
Description of the appearance of the insect
The body of an adult insect, like the body of a larva, has a juicy green color. Only on the wings and chest can sometimes be dark spots. Body length - 28–36 mm. Antennae antennae very long, bristle-like, with a reddish tinge. The length of the whiskers of a green grasshopper exceeds the length of the body of the insect. The grasshopper has 2 pairs of wings - front and rear. The hind wings are wide, transparent, with thin veins forming an abstract geometric pattern, and the front wings are denser and narrower. At rest, the rear wings are hidden under In front of them. The length of the wings exceeds the length of the abdomen of the insect by almost 2 times. The head has an elongated shape. Eyes are round, bulging. The upper part of the pronotum is convex or flat. The type of oral apparatus is gnawing.
Females differ from males by the presence of a long saber-shaped or xiphoid oviposition compressed from the sides. The hind limbs of males are much longer than the fore. The organs of hearing are oval membranes located on the legs of the forelimbs on both sides. In males, the elytra are provided with a chaff organ, which is formed by the stridulatory part and the transparent resonating membrane (mirror).
Green grasshoppers are solitary. They jump and fly very well.
The length of the jump is several times longer than the length of the insect itself, and the flight speed can develop up to 1.5 km / h.
Grasshoppers do not have a home, they are always among the grass, bushes and trees. In particularly hot weather, the insect hides all day in the greenery, leaving the shady shelters only early in the morning.
Voiced grasshopper melodies we hear throughout the summer. The sound is the result of vibration and becomes even louder if the insect lifts its wings. The males sing in order to attract females or make it clear to other males that this territory is already occupied. The grasshopper chirp can most often be heard in the afternoon and evening, less often at night.
Green grasshoppers are predatory insects. They feed mainly on butterflies, caterpillars and other small insects, sometimes eating the larvae or the weaker representatives of their species. Grasshoppers wait for their prey, sitting quietly in the grass, firmly grab her 4 front legs and immediately eat them.
If it is difficult to find insects, grasshoppers can eat plant foods: flowers, foliage, tree buds, plant stems, grass, and some cereals.
Very often a green grasshopper damages vineyards by eating flowers, leaves and buds. Often, a grasshopper harms tobacco crops, citrus fruits, tea leaves and other plants.
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Methods of dealing with this insect are not yet sufficiently developed. In the preventive and destructive purposes recommend the following:
- tobacco plantations are desirable to be located far from the place of oviposition (toloki and virgin areas) of a green grasshopper,
- processing of the makhorochny field and the adjacent territory by poisons of internal action,
- accommodation in the habitats of the pest bait with poison. This will require 30–60 kg of bran, 24 liters of water, 0.8–1.2 kg of arsenic acid soda.
Where and how does he live
There are few people who do not know what a grasshopper looks like. But if you say in scientific language, grasshoppers are ranked as a detachment Orthoptera insects and long-wilted sub-order. They live in places where very thick grass grows. This grassy steppes, forest edges, meadows, they can be found everywhere. They can also choose their own home in the fields planted with rye, wheat and other grains.
What grasshoppers feed on crops harms farmers. They love to eat the buds of grapes and flowers. Did you know that grasshopper is predominantly nocturnal? But during the day he is hiding in secluded places, and he goes hunting only at dusk. By the way, he is not such a harmless insect. Grasshoppers in nature are actually predators. And although their diet includes vegetable food, but the main menu is made up of small butterflies, ticks, caterpillars. Crouching in ambush, the grasshopper awaits prey and powerful legs that are in front, grabs the victim. Then the “hunter”, using his strong jaws, hacks a caught insect and then eats it. The size of the booty matters, the victim must not be greater than the “hunter”. Grasshoppers are cannibals, they do not exclude from their menu and their small brethren, as well as their larvae. They are not gourmets, so they eat everything that occurs on the way. As it turned out, plant and animal food is what grasshoppers eat.
Another interesting fact. If you think that everything that jumps from you is green or gray, when you walk on the grass, these are grasshoppers, then no. Often they are confused with filly or representatives of the Locust family. He himself lurked in the shelter and quietly dozing.
The life of grasshoppers is very transient, and is about one year, given the larvae.
Surely you have heard the grasshoppers chirp. And did you know that with the help of their chatter they communicate with their kind? In addition, they keep in touch with the world around them and receive information from it. Most species make chirping sounds thanks to sound organs that are located on the front pair of wings. On one wing there is a thin transparent membrane, it is called the edging, and on the other - a jagged thick vein. When the vein rubs against the edge, a sound familiar to us appears. Therefore, in a sense, grasshoppers resemble violinists.
And the grasshopper?
We are accustomed to thinking that if a small bug chirps and jumps, then this is probably a grasshopper. But it is not. There is an insect like a grasshopper, for example, a filly or a cricket. And all because they form a single group of insects, which are called orthoptera. In grasshoppers, there are two pairs of perfectly developed wings and powerful hind legs in grasshoppers. But between these representatives of the insect world there are serious differences. In mares, antennae are directed forward and short, while in grasshoppers they are long, almost like an insect, thin, and look back. The ears of the fillies are located at the sides of the body, while for the grasshopper they are located on the front paws. And the main difference is in lifestyle and diet. We found out what grasshoppers eat and what these night insects are. But, unlike them, fillies lead a day-time, active lifestyle, and their diet is only plant food.
It is worth mentioning the cricket, which is sometimes mistaken for a grasshopper. And this is not surprising, they are very similar. The same long antennae, they also have organs of chirring. That's just the crickets, they are larger and more complex arranged. And this is not surprising, many have heard how it melodiously chirps. In the afternoon, crickets, like grasshoppers, sit in secluded dark places, so they are not often seen. But at dusk, they will surely make themselves known with their ringing melody. They are predators, need food rich in protein, do not disdain and small crickets. But if he lives in your home, he can enjoy the waste from your desk.
Chattering grasshopper. What grasshopper chirps?
If we talk about what chirps and what sound makes a grasshopper, then this moment is very interesting. On the left elytra of the grasshopper there is a membrane with a thick stridulatory vein that has teeth. It plays the role of a bow. And on the right elytra is the membrane, which plays the role of the resonator. When chirping grasshopper vibrates elytra, lifting them.
Each type of grasshopper makes sounds that are unique in melody and volume. The ability to chatter endowed mainly male grasshopper and only a few species of females. Other individuals are wingless or with very poorly developed wings, therefore they cannot chatter or make other sounds.
The color of grasshoppers in nature depends on the habitat, is an excellent disguise and can combine both different shades of the same color (for example, green), and bright spots or striking stripes.
By the way, you can read about the differences between locusts and grasshoppers in the article about locusts.
Where does grasshopper's ear?
A complex hearing aid, that is, a grasshopper's ears, is located on the legs of the insect's front legs. Thus, it can be said that the grasshopper hears with his feet. Oval membranes, which are located on both sides of the leg, play the role of eardrums. In some species of grasshoppers, the membranes are open, while others are closed with special caps. The structure of the hearing aid consists of nerve endings, muscles, and sensitive cells. Also in the structure includes 2 branches of the trachea, which are suitable for the eardrum.
Grasshoppers have a marked sexual dimorphism: females are much more males and have sickle-shaped or straight, like an arrow, egg-fold. The life of a grasshopper, including the egg stage, is only one season.
Grasshopper Types, Photos and Names
Below is a brief description of some grasshoppers.
These are large grasshoppers living in Europe, Asia, South Africa, Australia and North America.
- Green grasshopper (lat. Tettigonia viridissima)
Insect length 2.5 - 4 mm. This species lives throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, in the middle belt and in the south of Russia.
- Greenhouse Grasshopper(lat. Tachycinesasynamorus)
Small insects that look like spiders. Delivered to Europe and America from China, they live in greenhouses and greenhouses, feeding on leaves and flowers of plants.
- Grasshoppers sharogolovye (lat. Bradyporidae)
Orthoptera long-necked insects with a spherical head. These include the steppe Fatun, a large black and bronze grasshopper. This species listed in the Red Book lives in the territory of Krasnodar and Stavropol Territory, in Chechnya and North Ossetia,
By the way, the largest grasshopper in the world is Giant Wet, whose impressive weight reaches 70-80 grams.
The smallest grasshopper in the world is a greenhouse grasshopper.
The world's largest grasshopper - Giant Ueta
What eats grasshopper?
The grasshopper in its main mass is a predator, mercilessly destroying on its way the clutches of insects, aphids, caterpillars, butterflies, beetles, ticks, small locusts. If you are not lucky with hunting, unpretentious insects are content with young shoots of plants. Some species of grasshoppers eat exclusively vegetable food: grasshoppers eat grass or tree leaves (for example, birch and chestnut trees), and some of them are marked as serious agricultural pests. In contrast to the same kindred locust that eats farmers' harvest, grasshoppers bring more benefits. For example, they help get rid of the Colorado potato beetle, which has chosen the field with potatoes.
Under autonomous conditions and lack of nutrients, grasshoppers were noticed even in cannibalism, that is, eating their own kind. A simple experiment showed that if you put a few of these insects in a closed jar and leave them without food for a couple of days, then in the end the group will surely suffer losses among the relatives.
It may seem surprising, but if a grasshopper does not receive its “dose” of protein and salt from ordinary food, then it does not hesitate to eat feces and carrion, and with appetite it absorbs its weaker relatives.
Where do grasshoppers live?
The habitat of grasshoppers is diverse - they feel great in the tropical jungle and hot deserts, live in the tundra zone and in the high alpine meadows. You can meet a grasshopper in the bush and in the wheat field, on the edge of the forest and in the steppe raznotravye. These "jumpers" settled on all continents - from Eurasia to Australia, with the exception of icy Antarctica and too hot deserts. In contrast to other long-winged orthopterans, grasshoppers live openly on plants, and do not use holes in the soil or tree.
Interesting facts about the grasshopper
- With the exception of some species of grasshoppers that readily eat tea and citrus plantations, these insects do not cause any special harm. In Chinese cuisine, grasshopper is a familiar ingredient, and also included in the regular menu of African and Asian aborigines.
- Thanks to the powerful jaws, a grasshopper bite, accompanied by a death grip, can be very painful for a person.
- Sweet insects, grasshoppers, are often kept in captivity as pets. Several individuals settle in a spacious aquarium - insectarium, the bottom is covered with sand and add some vegetation. Avoid cannibalism inherent in insects, will help a dense diet consisting of fruits, vegetables and compulsory living food: flies, spiders and butterflies.
Hello I found (as I think a new insect species) hind legs like a grasshopper jumping centimeters 40, the second half of it is like a stick insect, approximately, there are 3 photos. What should I do? подскажите. Могу ли я его назвать . 😄 в честь жены и дочки Anna-Karinys.K
Вячеслав, добрый вечер!
Поздравляем Вас с открытием! Назвать то Вы его, безусловно, можете 🙂
А вот куда обращаться, подсказать не сможем – мы открытий, к сожалению, не делали.
Я сфоткал кузнечика длиной 3мм. Именно миллиметра 🙂 тоже открытие
admin,пришлите фото этого насекомого которого нашел Вячеслав.
Лесовик, добрый день!
Vyacheslav did not send us photos of this insect.
I know. INTO. Grasshoppers are small. I.Edea the grass. I. My. Dad. Paymal. The grasshopper. the end
Anonymous and you are a grasshopper?
The grasshopper in the canopy caterpillars, PP
And I have a collection of grasshoppers. I have been fishing since childhood
An interesting event happened today! I caught a grasshopper in a secluded place on the lake, made a house with my hands and, squatting, began to open them a little .. the grasshopper to a safe distance .. he did not move anywhere anywhere .. he turned towards one of the hands and looked .. I did it slightly, so as not to frighten him, he moved his hand, again .. he looked at her for about 30 seconds, then turned to me and looking straight into my eyes, began to examine me .. It started something inexplicable! He, looking into my eyes, began to move the weight on one side of the body, from one front paw to the other and back and froze .. I repeated his movements ... then did the first movements in the reverse order .. I repeated .. once more .. again .. all this with a gap, he waited for me to repeat after him .. then the grasshopper with his right front paw smoothed his right mustache, his left left mustache .. I gently rubbed my eyes with one hand, the second one too .. and everything is consistent, with the arrangement, as if consciously .. then, apparently interested him la my hand and her appointment, he jumped on her, I moved my face as close as possible to him so that it was convenient to examine him .. and he looked at my hand for a while .. and began to repeat, sitting on my arm, once more all the movements and tilts of the body, as it was .. I, sitting already in the lotus position, repeated all the movements behind him with the tilts of my head .. he studied me and our mutual research lasted about 10-12 minutes .. I turned away for a second .. turned around. . The dog has a trace of a cold .. Does anyone have an explanation for what happened? Grasshoppers live the entire season, but they are among the most ancient insects on the planet, which have not changed much!