What is valued in geese? Meat, eggs, fluff, longevity?
What is guided when choosing your breed for breeding? There are many types of birds, some radically different from their counterparts. In this article we will consider the best types of geese for home breeding and personal farming.
Kholmogory breed - is exclusively for economic purposes. Not practical. It is displayed exclusively for decorative purposes because it is expensive to maintain because of the complexity of the breeding.
Sexual maturity comes at the age of 3 years, life expectancy reaches 17 years.
The disadvantages include: low productivity (10-15 eggs per year) and the survival of offspring (up to 50%), although this makes the bird more valuable.
Kholmogory breed does not differ in productivity and survival of offspring
Large Ukrainian gray
Ukrainian gray or as they are called a large gray. This is a young breed, large gray body and brightly colored beak and legs. This is one of the most preferred among farmers. They quickly fatten, unpretentious in the care and food, fruitful and strong health.
Inside the breed are divided into:
An adult species gains up to 7, and sometimes up to 9 kg of live weight, and females can carry up to 60 eggs per year, hatchability of eggs is about 70%, which is good. This is a wonderful bird for fattening liver.
Ukrainian gray gaining up to 9 kg of weight
Toulouse birds have French roots. The weight of black Toulouse comes to 12 kg, goose up to 7 kg of live weight. The liver is also in demand, the weight of one copy reaches 500 grams.
Pslavitsya high growth rates, good weight gain, unpretentiousness to feed. Also, Toulousers have good indicators of a set of fat reserves and fluff.
Disadvantages: sensitivity to temperature change, the presence of drafts, high humidity and the almost absence of maternal instinct.
Toulouse geese are sensitive to changing weather
Italian white arrived in the USSR in the 70s from Czechoslovakia, where she came from sunny Italy. Despite the warm climate familiar to this bird, they perfectly adapted to our weather conditions. Blue-eyed with snow-white plumage, bright orange beak and paws.
The size and shape of the body, length of the neck, wings and tail - everything is harmoniously folded, the average size does not allow to refer this breed to neither large nor small, this is the golden mean in the snow-white performance.
By 2 months, he gains about 4 kg. It's time to sell for meat. Adults weigh about 6 kg. Perfect for smoking, as this bird does not tend to accumulate excess fat.
45-50 eggs per year, but up to 90 pieces can be harvested, as the breed quickly reaches puberty and starts early, and eggs can be harvested twice a year.
Productive age up to 5 years.
Disadvantages: the maternal instinct is completely absent, without an incubator, it is unlikely that we will be able to grow this breed.
Italian geese are not inherent maternal instinct
The main purpose of breeding - down. For the year he can give up to 500 grams of fluff. Starting from the age of one and repeat the procedure every six weeks.
Legard is a tender and sensitive bird, loves warmth and stability in care, the diet is monotonous throughout the year, as well as the temperature regime.
Disadvantages: low egg wearing rates, poor survival rate of offspring, the need for incubation growth.
Legart geese love warmth and stability in grooming.
The breed is quite fresh. They were bred by crossing Shadrinsk and Italian birds. The weight of an adult male is 4–5 kg, for a year the female carries about 45 eggs. Good hatchability and survival (over 95%).
The species has good characteristics both in terms of egg production and meat quality.
Gubernatorial geese have good survival rates.
One of the breeds that are bred for eggs. One female carries up to 100 eggs per year, which is not much less than a chicken. The quality of meat is highly valued, but it is not profitable to maintain for the sake of meat, since the weight of an adult male is only 4-5 kg.
Disadvantages: not particularly developed maternal instinct. And increased aggression during the laying of eggs. It should be more closely monitor the tribe.
Breed brought from Denmark. The weight of an adult female is up to 9 kg, and the male is more than 13 kg. High egg-laying for birds - about 50 eggs, good survival and viability of offspring - up to 82%.
But weak maternal instinct. Hard to tolerate the absence of a reservoir.
Gus Mamut takes it hard
Breed possessing excellent immunity, tolerance of various weather and climatic conditions, consistently transmitting to the offspring selective qualities.
For the year, the female bears about 50 eggs, the percentage of hatching is more than 80%, the survival rate of the brood is very high up to 95%, the weight of the Ural whites is not great, the adults reach a weight in the range of 5-6 kg.
Ural white geese carry about 50 eggs per year.
Shabrin bird does not belong to pampered. Nevertheless, the floors should be kept dry and warm. Comfortable temperature for this type is around 18 degrees.
Adult person weighs about 6 kg, not much for the male, but the meat is of high quality and much appreciated, which makes this bird attractive to breeders. The liver also enjoys good demand. The weight of the liver reaches 400 grams.
Shadrinsky goose is a meat breed
The weight of the Tula geese is about 6 kg, the egg-carrying capacity is the smallest, so why are they valued? The fact is that this is the only fighting breed. It is not difficult to breed it, Tula birds can bathe even in severe frosts, the heat will not break them either. As true fighters, they bravely endure all the conditions, but they will still have to follow the ration. Gaining excess weight threatens to lose the shape of a fighter.
Tula breed geese can swim in the water even in cold weather
The Kuban bird was bred by crossing Gorky geese and Chinese. The weight of an adult goose varies around 5-6 kg. For the year, the females carry up to 90 eggs, of which about 75-85% of the offspring are hatching. Survival rate of goslings is 85%.
Bad mothers do not like to hatch eggs and care for offspring.
Kuban gray geese do not care for offspring
Early meat breed Linda. individual weight reaches 7-8 kg. Sexual maturity at 8 months. 90% egg fertility with 80% hatchability. Egg production 45-70 eggs. Lind bred not only for the sake of meat, but also for the fluff.
Perfect for the novice farmer. Geese are not whimsical in food and care, quickly adapt to any weather conditions. Profitability reaches 100% with no complicated care.
It is also recommended to equip the darkened nooks for this bird, they love solitude.
The profitability of geese linda - 100%
The purpose of the content - meat, fluff, liver for pate. The liver of one individual grows to 500 gr. The live weight of the Toulouse goose reaches 12 kg. As a rule, this particular bird is baked with apples for Christmas.
disadvantages: conditions of detention are tough. At least 20 degrees Celsius, no drafts, maintaining humidity. Low egg production and survival rate of offspring.
Toulouse geese baked with apples for Christmas
The weight of the goose is 6-6.5 kg, for the year the female bears about 30 eggs, of which about 85% will hatch.
Geese are not whimsical in care, have a good appetite and digestion, not emaciated, hardy enough. This bird has a well-developed maternal instinct and excellent chickens emerge from the geese.
Arzamas geese are excellent hens for posterity
Depending on the goal pursued by the farmer, selling meat, collecting eggs or fluff, you should choose your breed of geese and carefully monitor the population. Hygiene, proper nutrition and taking care of animals will ensure the profitability and pleasant efforts of the geese breeder.
Growing domestic geese
We started breeding these birds a long time ago, from the time when our ancestors tamed wild geese. These birds, if necessary, can take care of themselves. Their diet, consisting mainly of plant foods, requires the constant availability of greenery at their place of residence.
Everything is valued in geese - meat, fat, liver and feather, as well as their high productivity and ability quick weight gain. An adult male can produce about 6 kg of meat and 2 kg of goose fat.
For their breeding will require a large area with the possibility of grazing. This will increase not only the growth and development of birds, but also the egg production of females.
In the warm season, domestic geese can live in an open, fenced area. If the grazing takes place in the meadow, these intelligent birds can walk and graze and return home, the poultry farmer does not need to control them all the time, only to watch.
In the absence of pasture, farmers will have to constantly supply their livestock with green mass. Grass need to choose juicy.
How to equip housing for geese
The main thing that the farmer must consider is the creation of conditions in the room where the geese will live.
- One of the main requirements is the complete absence of drafts.
- For the maintenance of geese will need a spacious room, with the calculation of 1 square meter. per adult.
- The density of the feather shell and a good fat layer help the bird to tolerate the cold season well.
- A prerequisite should be the presence of a warm, thick litter, which consists of sunflower husks, hay, straw or sawdust.
- Watering geese is made using special nipple drinkers, which will provide a constant uninterrupted supply of clean water. This design prevents splashing of the liquid and makes the litter dry. In winter, this water can be heated.
- In summer, large water tanks are installed in the courtyards, it’s good if there is a reservoir nearby.
- Bird feeders should have the ability to economically consume food, that is, to prevent it from tamping down with paws of geese, therefore it is reasonable to purchase such a container having a special design with high sides and a roomy tray. Feeders need to have several to prevent crush among the birds.
- The room should be well ventilated to prevent the incidence of livestock. Due to air stagnation, the lungs of the goose suffer from inflammatory processes requiring treatment.
It is necessary to foresee the presence of a manhole, for going outside, and also to place the nests in dark places, for laying eggs by females. Construction dimensions: at least 60 cm in length, 40 cm in width and 30 cm in height.
We supply with all necessary territory for walking birds
On the runs, places should be equipped where geese can take baths from the ashes with the addition of feed sulfur, which contributes to the destruction of parasites on the surface of the skin of the bird.
Goose belong to the herbivorous species of birds, which are able to eat up to 2 kg of vegetation per day. To make it convenient for birds to consume green mass, it is placed in a special nursery for grass, located at the level of the bird's head. With the onset of cold weather, the farmer needs to stock:
- hay and its dust
- vegetable root crops,
Birds can be released to graze in the garden after harvest, they eat away all the remaining unwanted man vegetables and grass.
But experienced poultry farmers use other types of feed to increase productivity. Feeding geese with different grain mixtures, birds feeding trough should not be empty, geese eat not only during the day, they are obliged to eat well in the evening, before going to bed. Low-calorie foods, which contain fiber more, can quickly increase bird weight.
Formation of parent flocks
Each goose breed has several advantages. It is important for the poultry farmer to decide what features the bird should possess, to study their specific feeding.
Main tre Farmers ’search for the breeding of these waterfowl:
- early maturity
- quick weight gain
- disease resistance
- egg production.
Novice poultry need to pick up the breed, the cultivation of which will be under their power, because of their excellent productive qualities. These include representatives of the Kuban, Kholmogory, Linda and large gray waterfowl. individuals.
In order to properly form the parent flock, it is important to select strong, well-gaining geese. They must have the right physique and excellent quality of the pen.
From eight months, females begin to lay eggs. In one laying period, they can carry about 40 eggs. Their eggs are better sa harvest in mid-spring, April is the most suitable month for this. In the nest there should be no more than 13 eggs per individual, otherwise the offspring will not hatch. Chicks peel off at day 28.
Geese are good mothers and growing little goslings is better to trust her. There are 3-4 females per male for the formation of full-fledged families. Their egg production period lasts about 4 years.
We feed correctly goslings
As soon as the goslings hatched, special attention should be paid to their feeding. In the first months of life, their food should consist of a wet mash that includes:
- barley grits,
- chopped corn,
- soaked peas,
- boiled potatoes.
A prerequisite is the addition of vitamin-mineral complex, in which you can use and publicly available: gravel, bone meal, shells, charcoal.
But nothing will replace goslings of green grass, which they can tweak in the open air. In nature, they grow faster and gain weight.
Birds as a business
Like any other matter, breeding geese at home will require a certain amount for the initial investment. The cost of procurement usually depends not only on the number of heads, but also on their breed. Therefore, it is worth taking this issue more seriously.
The most popular breeds of geese for breeding are Italian, Toulouse, Kholmogory, Kuban, as well as legart and gray. Birds quickly gain weight and are most resistant to various diseases. In addition, they have an enlarged liver, which is why they are valued and grown not only in home gardens, but also in industrial conditions. If the emphasis is on high egg production, then the breed of Japanese geese will fit just perfect. One such female can carry about 50 eggs per year.
Making breeding geese your business is a good option for people living in rural areas. To start this type of activity, a small start-up capital is enough. It is not necessary to buy many heads at once, one hundred birds will suffice. For them, you will need to purchase food, as well as build a room. If there is already a barn, then the initial costs of this business are immediately reduced several times. You also need to buy an incubator, which will cost about 10 thousand rubles. With the addition of all costs, taking into account the construction of the premises "from scratch", you can meet the amount equal to 120 thousand rubles. And in order to sell finished products, you will need to register with the tax office.
Such costs will need to be done in the first year of work, and in the next one you can start breeding your nestlings. Often, farmers start breeding their own breeds, crossing several varieties of geese. As a rule, such activity improves not only the egg production, but also the quality of the meat itself.
In order not to buy goslings, but to get them from your own birds, you need to collect eggs in advance and make nests for chicks or lay them in an incubator for a certain time.
Brief description of the most popular breeds
● Italian. Ideal for growing in households. Very quickly gaining weight. Egg production per year is up to 45-50 eggs.
● Toulouse. This breed of geese is the fattest. Bred it in France and is valued for its large liver, which can weigh up to 1 kg. The weight of the goose is about 10 kg, and the gander is 2 kg more.
● Kholmogorskaya. Quite a large bird weighing up to 10 kg. Its distinctive features are folds under the beak and on the neck, as well as a bump on the forehead. The goose of this breed is able to carry up to 40 eggs per year.
● Kuban. It is considered an easy variety, as the weight of the bird is only 4.5 to 5.5 kg. However, it is characterized by high egg production - from one goose you can get about 70-90 eggs.
● Legarte. These geese, the breeding and maintenance of which, as they say, are the most beneficial for growing, eat up to 20% less feed than other breeds. At the same time, they quickly gain weight. So, goslings that are 2 months old weigh up to 6 kg.
● Gray. Possesses good stamina and quite strong constitution. Reaches weight in 8 kg. The egg production of females is about 40 eggs per year.
Breeding geese at home will require the purchase of special equipment that will be needed to breed chicks.
● Incubator. This is the most important device necessary in order to create the most suitable conditions for eggs.
● Ovoskop. A small device for determining damage to eggs. Through them, he finds even small cracks in the shell. With the help of this device, breeding eggs are selected for the subsequent breeding of chicks from them.
● Brooder. Here they contain hatched goslings. Устройство обогревает молодняк в первые дни жизни.
В чем преимущества разведения гусей
Гуси отличаются от других птиц домашнего подворья своей неприхотливостью, прекрасной адаптацией к нашим погодным условиям и, практически, всеядностью. Only the little goslings require special attention, and only those that are grown without the supervision of the mother goose. Adults in the herd may well stand up for possible predators (cats, dogs, foxes, hawks, etc.), feel great in the pen and grazing, have an excellent appetite and are satisfied with any food that is offered .
In addition to the amenities in the care, geese bring considerable profit. This is excellent meat, in taste, which favorably differs from already bored chicken, and a large amount of animal fat. From them we get a delicacy product - goose liver, the basis of the famous French dish foie gras. And the goose down and feathers are several times better than chicken ones in quality and durability.
It is especially beneficial to keep geese, if there is a lake, a reservoir or just a tinned field near your site. This possibility of free grazing greatly facilitates the maintenance of livestock and saves the cost of purchasing feed.
Like all chicks, little goslings require careful, delicate attitude and almost round-the-clock care. But by adhering to certain rules of content and patience, you can achieve maximum results. Indeed, unlike the tiny chickens and the fragile health of poults, geese babies are quite strong and enduring. That is why they are considered the best pets for beginner home farmers.
To accommodate the goslings, they emit the warmest and lightest place in the house. At first, it may just be a fenced corner or a cell. The area is allocated at the rate of 8-10 goslings per square meter. Dense population leads to frequent litter contamination and difficult access to feed, and in a large area it is more difficult to ensure optimal temperature and microclimate
In the remote part of the pen, it is recommended to arrange a secluded corner, a kind of nest where the goslings will rest (a large cardboard box covered with soft hay will suit for this purpose). Feeders and drinkers are placed in the opposite direction to reduce pollution and moistening of the litter, as goslings not only drink water, but often spill it. Drinking bowls need to pick up those from which the goslings do not get wet, because at least in the future they are waterfowl, but wetting the light fluff of babies can lead to colds and even death. The easiest way is to take a shallow container (a plastic jar from under preserves, a saucer or a small tray) and a half-liter jar. For the device, the canister of water is dug up with a saucer, turned over, and three or four bars are placed under the neck so that there is a gap for water entry.
As for the litter, for goslings under the age of 10 days it is better to use dry sawdust, as weak and clumsy chicks will be confused in the straw.
- Temperature and light modes
At first, care for the geese is to ensure optimum temperature. The goslings hatching in the nest are surrounded by the soft warm fluff of the geese, which will warm their chicks until they get stronger. Growing babies without a hen should try to create conditions most close to the natural and maintain the temperature of the air in the pen at the level of 27-29 degrees, especially the "resting corner" of goslings. Often there is not enough heat in the heated poultry houses or other outbuildings where geese live. The most convenient and affordable way to warm the little chicks is to use a red lamp. This heater will simultaneously solve the problem of light, which is important for goslings up to 10 days of age.
Over time, the artificial maintenance of daylight is gradually reduced and adjusted to 17 hours a day.
Gosling food is not much different from chicken feed, so it is most convenient to use ready-made feed, with optimally balanced ingredients, essential nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. In the diet of small goslings include boiled eggs, low-fat cottage cheese and bone meal. From the age of 10 days, it is useful for goslings to add crushed greens of yarrow, young nettle, dandelion, and green onions to the feed.
Tip! Mixes for little goslings should be crumbly. Too wet and viscous mass clogs the respiratory tract of a bird.
In the future, the gooses install a constantly-filled, separate feeder with solid food: millet, crushed grains of maize, wheat and other cereals, so that the kids have the opportunity to “eat” at any time.
But the issue of providing goslings with drinking water should not even arise. Water is always necessary and in sufficient quantity. Growing up, the goslings will not only quench their thirst, but also try to swim in the trough, splashing water and imitating swimming. And if chickens and poults do not have a desire to get into the water, then for goslings this is a natural instinct. Because of this, accidents happen to the kids - getting into the water and getting very wet, they can not get out and die. Therefore, in a water bowl, be sure to make a peculiar islet, placing a stone in the center.
If you managed to leave the goslings up to the age of 10-15 days, then in the future the probability of losing livestock is several times lower. Growing young and maturing individuals do not need such painstaking care, they are easier to adapt to temperature extremes, feed changes and living conditions.
Care and cultivation of geese
With the setting of good weather, the goslings are transferred to fresh air. The sun strengthens their growing organisms, and fresh greens, bugs and worms diversify the diet. Geese, in contrast to other poultry, having the ability to pinch fresh grass on their own, may not even go to the feeders. Therefore, prepared bags of geese give dosed, from 3 to 5 times a day, depending on the availability of other food.
Speaking of omnivorous geese, it is worth noting some seasonal and age differences of their diet.
In summer, when there is a possibility of grazing, geese will spend whole days on the pasture, moving from one juicy grass to another. In this case, they additionally feed them only in the morning, before the pasture and in the evening, when the flock returns to the yard.
If your geese spend all the time in the compound, then the grass is “delivered” directly to the feeders. They are happy to eat almost all the juicy herbs.
An adult goose, while free grazing, can eat up to 2 kg of green grass. Therefore, not being able to regularly feed the geese, you have to compensate for the missing part of the fresh greenery with other food.
A good help in feeding geese are vegetables. Growing on your plot cabbage, lettuce, spinach and other crops, you will always have a supply of food. Overgrown cucumbers and zucchini, young roots of broken carrots, overripe radishes, green leaves of corn, grated forage or sugar beets, as well as pumpkins and any melons and gourds will become a juicy and vitamin food for your geese. In the apple season, sliced carrion fruits, especially soft varieties, will also be used as food.
Tip! If the geese are not too appetizing eating chopped apples, try adding them to wet bags or “flavor” with dry feed.
But what should not be fed geese, and other domestic living creatures, so it is any type of beet. This root crop provokes intestinal disorders and, as a result, a “relaxing” effect.
Do not forget about microelements - in the pen there should always be a container with pieces of chalk and river shells. They not only enrich the body of the goose with essential substances, but also help to digest food, consisting of a large amount of fiber.
Everyone knows that geese love to splash in the water and swim. That is why many novice farmers think about how to grow geese without having near the reservoir. The fact is that such a need is somewhat contrived. Geese can successfully be maintained in their own courtyard, without pastures and lakes. It is enough to install a tank in the poultry yard into which to fill up water as needed. For these purposes, old troughs, baths, or even large basins are often used. Birds will be happy to splash in such a compact artificial "pond", and the most energetic individuals climb inside and take water treatments to the envy of their relatives.
The difference in the diet of geese at different stages of cultivation
Throughout the summer season, your geese ate mostly fresh plant food. But closer to the fall, when it is time to gain weight and accumulate fat, it is worth reviewing the diet of birds. Homemade raising of geese for meat implies intensive feeding of livestock, starting in September. Now geese are less likely to be allowed to walk and graze, especially since there is almost no green in the fields. Birds are trying to reduce the activity, leaving them in the pen and providing constant nutrition. Now the main element of the food are nutritious cereal grains and high-calorie wet bags. For the preparation of mixers, steamed feed is used, to which are added small boiled potatoes, grated fodder beets and more.
When the flock is already adult and the geese are in sight all day long, you can see the leadership positions of the gander and the most docile nature of some geese. It's time to choose parents for the future offspring. Not sure how to choose a gander for a tribe? Pay attention to the largest, with a large weight gain and characteristic pedigree traits. The gander must be an “authoritative” leader able to protect his flock. For healthy, strong offspring, he should select a pair from another brood to avoid incest. If you decide to leave for the future flocks of your own geese, then in the spring, you can turn to the neighboring farm for the services of the breeding gander.
As you can see, fattening geese does not imply any particular difficulties. And if there is a desire to start growing birds in their own courtyard, we recommend starting with the geese.
Basic principles of breeding geese
To buy goslings and let them out into the fence is not gusevodstvo. Breeding, maintenance and care of geese at home - not the easiest task. Experienced manufacturers will point out dozens of subtleties in technologies and methods. However, the main thing in this type of poultry farming is simply to adhere to the basic steps that have been formed over the decades.
Domestic goose: why is it profitable to breed?
Before purchasing and breeding, it will not be superfluous to understand the products of goose breeding. To begin with, we will define the basic materials that can be obtained from these birds. These include:
Based on this, it will be possible to proceed to the selection of a breed for the purchase of goslings or growing them in an incubator.
Some breeds of this home can reach 12 kg. Given the relatively low cost of feed, this weight is quite economically beneficial. Geese meat contains a large number of useful trace elements, as well as valuable other properties, such as:
- high calorie,
- choleretic effect,
- increases hemoglobin count
- strengthens the immune system
- contains a number of important amino acids.
The nutritional value of 100 grams of goose is 400 kcal and contains 7.1 grams. fat, 25.7 grams. squirrel. It is important to note that in meat there are practically no carbohydrates. Eating such a product has a choleretic effect and increases the level of hemoglobin in the blood, which is useful for patients with anemic conditions. The meat of this bird significantly strengthens the immune system and replenishes the body's reserves with a large group of amino acids necessary for its normal functioning.
Geese have not very high egg production, compared with other birds. In the year they are able to give from 80 to 120 eggs. However, goose eggs contain a number of useful substances necessary for the normal functioning of human organs:
- vitamins of groups A, B, C, D, K,
- minerals: calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorus, copper.
- the presence of a strong antioxidant lutein.
The presence in the yolk of a strong natural antioxidant lutein deserves special attention. It has a beneficial effect on the health of people with cerebral blood flow disorders, pregnant women and children.
Goose fat is a unique product that allows it to be widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. This is facilitated by its special composition, which is replete with a variety of essential acids:
- oleic acid - 59.7%,
- palmitin oleic acid - 22.4%,
- linoleic acid - 7.6%,
- stearic acid - 6.2%,
- myristic acid - 0.4%,
- linolenic acid - 0.4%.
The unique composition allows the use of fat for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, skin diseases, burns, frostbite, immunodeficiency states.
Another important element in the cultivation of these birds. The fact is that goose liver, obtained in a certain way, is a valuable delicacy. Only getting such a product as foie gras can pay back the rearing of this species of birds. However, for its production it is necessary to resort to forced feeding and special maintenance of the goose or goose.
How to choose the breed of geese for home breeding?
Depending on the purpose of cultivation and the conditions in which individuals will be kept, one of the existing breeds is selected. At the moment, quite productive birds of this group have been bred. They are able to give a lot of eggs, reach considerable sizes in a short time and contain large liver size.
- Kholmogorsky. These are the largest members of the family. They grow up to 10-12 kg. However, geese have low egg production - only 40-50 pieces per year. This breed is quite unpretentious to food and tolerates various temperatures. Juveniles reach 4 kg in just 60 days.
- Large gray geese. This species also belongs to meat breeds. Somewhat less than the previous one. Egg production - 30-40 eggs per year. Well acclimatized.
- Toulouse. Most fat and overall. Growing up to 12 kg, they are able to produce up to 40 eggs per year with a mass of 200 grams. These individuals are not very mobile and poorly eat coarse plant food.
- Landshsky. Grown specifically for the production of foie gras. The weight of the liver of these birds reaches 700 grams. Body weight is small - only 4-6 kg.
- Italian white. Another group for forced feeding in order to obtain a fatty liver. They are larger than Landshis and give more eggs.
- Gorky. Have a high egg production and a large body weight. They belong to the meat-group. Well adapted to climatic conditions.
How to create the ideal conditions for breeding and maintenance?
Geese do not make great demands on living conditions. They fit the usual house. The basis can be made of wood, brick and other building material. One of the requirements for a place is dryness. The roof must be tight and not water. The floor is best made of wood, it is the most successful material for this bird. Nests should be located at the edges of the building, away from the place of feeding and drinking. Ensure adequate ventilation and built area. If the herd feels discomfort, then the geese will be worse to hurt, and the hussaks will behave aggressively.
Food for geese
When feeding, it is important to combine the coarse feed with juicy green food. An adult can eat up to 2 kg of greens per day. In order to provide such a quantity, it is necessary to protect in advance a large place of walking, with insufficient area of which it is important to use top dressing with freshly cut grass or other plants. If you disturb the proportions in the diet and give more cereals, then the birds will begin to rapidly gain fat and are unsuitable for sale. For feeding coarse food suitable for cereals (barley, corn, etc.), produced in the fields. For the meat industry, geese are grown for up to 4 months, after which the quality of the meat decreases.
Gosling and care
You need to buy healthy, active goslings from trusted suppliers. They should be kept in a dry room with a controlled temperature and a dry microclimate. In the first week of life, the temperature should be at a level of 30-32 o C, the second - 25-28 o C, the third - 22-25 o C. From 21 days, the young individuals are able to do without heating. It is important to change the flooring every day and keep dry. The first days of goslings are fed with a finely grated egg and give enough water. From the 3rd day add cereals and various greens. From the 3rd week you can release them for free range and feed them with cereals.
If you expect to receive high-quality meat and a sufficient number of eggs, then the herd must ensure a comfortable existence. The goose is a water bird, it loves freedom, and if it is not enough, it will grow worse and carry on. Only when grown on a fatty liver, it is necessary to restrict geese from moving. And in this case, they often die. It should be noted that during the field walk, these birds are able to find the greens necessary for their diet. In such conditions, it is easier for them to fight parasites and infections.
What hurts geese?
In case of improper maintenance and non-observance of the rules of hygiene of geese at home breeding, you will receive such a frequent and unpleasant problem as infections. They can destroy the whole herd and make the meat unfit for consumption.
Виды инфекций и хищников:
- Viral enteritis.
Для того, чтобы избежать заболеваний, нужно своевременно обрабатывать стены птичника известью, следить и убирать из стада зараженных особей, пресекать контакты с другими стадами и своевременно лечить ваших птиц.
Еще одна опасность быстро потерять молодых особей – это хищники. Если птица недостаточно окрепла, и хищник крупный, то за ночь только один зверь может уничтожить до сотни гусят. The main pests include:
To combat them, special traps are set.
Goose farm as a profitable business
When breeding geese at home as a means of earning money, you should study the market in detail and calculate the financial part. Gusevodstvo in Russia is quite lucrative. The market constantly feels a lack of this production, and cultivation is connected with small expenses and risks.
For example, take a farm with a population of 1000 pieces.
- The construction of premises with land or its lease - 250 000-300 000 thousand rubles.
- Equipment - up to 150,000 rubles.
- Registration of documentation - up to 20,000 rubles.
- Purchase of goslings - about 50,000 rubles.
- Feed - about 600,000 rubles.
General: 1 120 000 rub.
- Meat (at the rate of 1000 rubles for the carcass and 500 rubles for the liver) - 1,500,000 rubles.
- Down and feather - 20 000 rubles.
Total: 1 520 000 rubles.
However, the loss due to illness and other unforeseen expenses should be considered. It is believed that the payback of a goose farm is estimated at 1-2 years. At present, the business of producing goose products is developing quite actively in Russia. One of the many such enterprises in this segment are: LLC “Gusevod Kuban”, Agrofirm “Luch”. These farms have one of the largest herds in Krasnodar. The number of heads exceeds 10,000. Individuals on them are distinguished by high egg production and rather large body mass. They are engaged in a wide range of work on incubator production. Fertilization of eggs in these enterprises reaches 90%.
Breeding geese at home produced in two ways. The first is an incubator. Most farmers prefer to use this particular device to get their young. It allows you to make at one time a large brood of chicks. For the first 14 days of life, goslings are fed on cottage cheese mixed with greens and finely chopped eggs. Later mixed feed is added to their diet. After reaching 3 weeks of age, the chicks are fed in the same way as adult birds.
The second method is breeding the young by the goose itself. One hen can produce up to 13 chicks. The withdrawal period lasts about 28 days. Since geese are fairly wayward birds, it is not recommended to disturb the hen that is sitting on the eggs - at any moment it can refuse to hatch them. A quiet, clean, dry and slightly darkened place is suitable for the nest.
In the diet of geese, in addition to vegetable and grain feed, sometimes even meat ingredients may be present. But there are some limitations to keep in mind. For example, in order to avoid lowering egg production, geese should not be given barley and corn in their pure form. Otherwise, the bird quickly grows fat and poorly carried. Also, egg production can be significantly reduced due to feeding with meat waste.
Feeding geese at home is somewhat different in the summer and winter. In the warm season, green mixtures of succulent herbs should be included in the poultry diet, as well as various vegetables: beets, carrots, legumes, boiled potatoes. When the cold comes, it is better to give preference to mixtures with tuber-root crops, various feed and oats.
Feeding during egg laying
In order to obtain a high-quality incubation egg, it is necessary that the bird's body be provided with all the necessary set of mineral substances, because somewhere in February-March the geese begin breeding egg-laying. Therefore, special attention should be paid to their proper feeding at this particular time. For this, the breeding bird is transferred to a more intensive diet one month before the indicated period. It should be noted that the goose will not be able to lay many eggs if it is weakened and depleted. For nutrition, hay, premixes and raw chopped potatoes are added to the feed. In addition, as far as possible, it is also good to use high-quality feed containing in its composition a whole set of useful trace elements and minerals necessary for the bird's body.
Content in winter
At this time of year, in the absence of grazing, special premises are built for geese. It is not necessary to heat them, but the building must be of high quality. Wintering geese at home requires that the house is well insulated and there are no drafts in it. For this settle the platform. In addition, the entrance door is additionally insulated with cotton. Usually lay boards on the floor, but the earthen flooring also fits. The main thing is that it rises above the ground level by about 25-30 cm.
Caring for geese is simple enough, but in some cases requires special attention. If the bird is kept in a relatively small room, then in no case should the litter be dirty or damp. Not only will it spoil the valuable down and feather, but it can also lead to serious colds. If the litter is dry, the geese will be able to survive even the most severe frosts. As it can be used as sawdust and large chips, and the usual straw.
To keep the eggs clean and the birds do not trample them, they should be laid along the walls of the board. On top of them put a fresh bedding. With such equipment, the goose house will get used to be carried in the same place. As for the litter, it is better to change it in the evening, so that in the morning you can collect clean eggs.
Caring for a bird involves and fight against skin parasites. For prophylaxis, in the room where geese are located, once every 2 or 3 weeks they put a trough filled with a mixture of sand and ash. They bathe in it and thus not only get rid of various parasites, but also clean their feathers.
To breed geese at home was as productive as possible, you need to take care of an artificial increase in daylight. It will be very beneficial effect on the egg production of geese. For example, if you turn on the light daily in the house at 6.00 and turn off at 20.00, then the birds will start to rush not in February or March (if there is natural light), but already in January.
Content in the summer
In the warm season, breeding and growing geese occurs in specially equipped enclosures, when it is impossible to walk them to pasture. The fence must have a shelter that protects the birds from the burning sun and cold rain. For them to feel good, the average area of space for one goose should be about 8-10 square meters. m
The aviary with an artificial reservoir will be ideal option for birds. Hygiene standards require that the water in them changed daily. It should be noted that the maintenance of geese at home does not require the mandatory construction of the reservoir. Studies have shown that its absence does not affect the egg production or growth.
Dilution and maintenance of geese at home as a business is an almost non-waste production. Experienced farmers know that not only eggs and poultry can be sold, but also fluff. If a goose carcass weighs up to about 8 kg, then its cost can reach up to 1200-1300 rubles. About 600 g come out of one bird of fluff, and it will also cost about 1200-1300 rubles. And if you still make pillows and other products yourself and sell them! In general, it turns out pretty good income.