In their natural habitat, the waters of Central America (from Mexico to Colombia) are considered the birthplace of the fish. The color of wild mollies is rather modest, unlike the derived hybrid. His scales have a velvet black or coal color.
The sturdy body of a fish of oblong shape, slightly flattened on the sides. The tail rounded fin has a broad base. The fins on the back and abdomen of females and males are shaped differently: the female gender is distinguished by its rounded shapes, and the male gender has pointed edges. Another sex difference is size. Females are larger than males, the length of their torso reaches 6-8 cm, whereas the parameters of the partner do not exceed 4-6 cm. In nature, the size of mollies is often twice as large.
In aquarium conditions, mills, live up to 5 years.
Mollies are small fish sized 4-8 cm.
Types of mollies fish
Different types of mollies have attractive qualities, but their behavior is notable for the lack of aggression and gambling playfulness.
The color of the fish is bright, sometimes in small spots of dark color. Red Molly loves good and long-lasting lighting, but it is important to provide at least 4-hour access to natural light. Equally important is the availability of space where it would be possible to frolic. The bright color reflects the health of the fish, if its condition worsens, the color fades.
The fish was named gold due to its bright yellow color, against which small dark specks (leopard) may appear. It is also called lyrotail due to the characteristic shape of the caudal fin. Males grow to 8 cm, females up to 12 cm.
Dalmatians reflect the appearance of the fish: black spots are densely scattered on a silvery body. Maximum body length - 6-8 cm. Keep better a small flock of 6-8 individuals. The aquarium should be densely planted with greenery, for plants the fish love to hide.
The fish has one of the attractive colors, peaceful nature and excellent livability with other viviparous inhabitants of the aquarium. She quickly adapts to new conditions, likes diffused bright light, which is achieved by landscaping the habitat. The average body size is 3.5 cm. The main parameters of water: temperature - 23-28 °, hardness - 10-30 °, acidity - 7-8.5, salinity - up to 8%.
The color of this type is more similar to coal, but with a velvety effect. This is the most common fish among aquarists. It is found with different variations of shades - olive, orange, greenish, which is caused by the degeneration of the breed or the ideas of selection.
The main parameters of water: temperature - 20-27 °, hardness - 10-25 °, acidity - from 7, salinity up to 8%.
Conditions in the aquarium
Aquarists contain mollies in pairs or small groups. A stack of 3 pairs will need an aquarium of 80-100 l. To create favorable conditions, it is necessary to equip the tank with a filtration system, an aerator and a backlight (daylight hours must be at least 11-13 hours).
As the soil can be used as sand, and the filler of a larger fraction. For mollies, this factor does not play a large role, since it lives mainly on the surface or in the middle water levels. Vegetation, snags, decor are an important component of the arrangement of the environment, imitating the natural conditions.
Indicators of water in the aquarium:
- temperature - 24-28 °,
- acidity (pH) - 7.2 - 8.5,
- stiffness (dH) - 10 - 25 °.
Replacement of one-fifth of the total water needs to be done weekly. If the fish lives in the aquarium together with the pitsilia, then the liquid is allowed to slightly salted (2-3 grams per liter). It is important to maintain the natural conditions and well-being of mollies, because in its natural habitats the rivers are mixed with sea water. Soft water has a negative effect on the health of the black beauty.
Replacement of 1/5 of water must be done every week.
Mollies in food are picky, they like dry and live food. In addition to food of animal origin, fish love to feast on a vegetarian lunch. They willingly eat even chopped steamed vegetables.
Feeding is carried out 2 times a day. Portions should not be given large, overfeeding badly affects the digestive system. Yes, and the aquarium as the accumulation of food debris will be contaminated faster.
Compatibility with other aquarium fish and aggression
In general, the nature of mollies is peaceful, if aggression is manifested, it is only during the spawning period. But this stage is accompanied by the deposition of the pair in the spawning area, so the fish will not be able to harm the neighbors.
Mollies get along well with other fish.
Recommended Companions for Mollies:
When choosing a company, it is worth considering that different species should be represented by both males and females. Otherwise, the “guys” of another kind (for example, the Swordsmen) will start to stick to mollies that will provoke the battles of stronger sexes.
Breeding and reproduction
Females reach sexual maturity at the age of 5-7 months, males become ready to breed. Mollies are viviparous, which does not include the emergence of eggs and their transformation into larvae and fry.
The male fertilizes the female organ (gonopodium) with the female, after which the pregnancy begins. The process itself is simple, does not require special conditions. Fish can mate even in a home aquarium with a small population, but for successful spawning it is better to repot the pair in the breeding ground.
Preparation for reproduction
For reproduction of fish it is necessary to make some preparatory moments. For spawning aquarium is selected with a capacity of 20 liters. Water should be a couple of degrees higher than in normal habitat (but not above 28 °). It is also important not to forget to salt the liquid (1 tablespoon of salt or sea salt per 20 liters).
Peru weeks of producers need to be fed with feed of plant origin. The habituation time to each other can be delayed for 1-2 months. If the female's abdomen is rounded, and a dark spot appears at the bottom of the tummy, then the pregnancy is developing successfully. The period of development of fry in the abdomen of the mother takes 33-45 days.
As the term of delivery approaches, the female is deposited in a separate container. For spawning, 45-55 fry are obtained. As soon as the offspring has left the abdomen of the mother, the female is removed. In the opposite case, she can eat her own cubs (although it is rarely found). Return it to the general aquarium is not worth it, because fertilization sometimes occurs in stages, which portends another genera.
After spawning, the female must be relocated otherwise she can eat the offspring.
Fry are born weak and sensitive to dirt, so it is recommended to replace the water in the aquarium more often and follow the diet. Molly needs to feed offspring 2-3 times a day. For this purpose, liquid, live and vegetable food intended for fry is used. Sometimes they give food for adults, ground into dust, as well as crushed Nautilia Artemia, Cyclops, live dust.
Black mollies are beautiful fish, so they often attract the attention of beginners. Before you buy a pair, you must take into account the peculiarities of the content and the rules of combining with other species.
Content, care and feeding
Mollies, like other viviparous fishes, are very hardy, not difficult to maintain, unpretentious to feed.
Black Molly requires a volume of water from 60 for normal development and vital activity, and ideally from 100 liters.
Contain them better in groups or in pairs.
This fish lives mainly in the upper and middle layer of water, loves the water space and light.
The light day of mollies should be at least 12-13 hours. It is useful for fish, if at least a couple of hours a day the lighting will be natural, but if there is no possibility, then you can do without it.
Of course, she also needs natural shelters: thickets of plants, snags, decorative ornaments that can serve as a refuge.
Mollies feed on all types of dry and live food.
The only condition that helps preserve the activity and health of these fish is that they definitely need plant fiber.
Therefore, along with others, use vegetarian food, plant in the aquarium plants with soft leaves, which the fish can eat. You can also feed them in small portions of shredded boiled vegetables.
Another important point in the content of mollies: at home, they live where the river water mixes with the sea water, and therefore they like hard water. If in your indoor pond there are only mollies and squares, the water can even be slightly salted on purpose. If, however, other fish live with them, then of course you should not do this. But in the case of illness or quarantine, the fish can be deposited in an aquarium with salted water - this way it will come back to normal faster.
Mollies easily adapt to different composition of water, however, the combination of two factors, such as low temperature and too soft water worsens their health and reduces immunity. In this state, the fish become vulnerable to bacteria.
If you see that the mollies vibrate in place, presses the fins, dives to the bottom and immediately rises, behaves uncharacteristically, then it is quite possible that she fell ill.
In this case, you want to increase the temperature in the aquarium, replace some of the water.
Ideal for the content of mollies temperature 24-28 degrees, the replacement of one-fifth of the volume of water in the tank per week.
Molliesia is not suitable for newcomers. Only experienced aquarists can afford it, as it is difficult to maintain proper water levels.
- Spacious aquarium,
- Salted water
- Temperature from 24 to 26 degrees
- The absence of drafts and a sharp drop in thermometer performance,
- Abundance of plant food,
- Bright cleansing
- Active filtration and aeration of water
- Periodic water change.
You need to change the water at least once a week. It is preferable to pour no more than 1/3 of water. These fish are peaceful enough and do not touch the neighbors of similar sizes. It is important to provide shelter for them, various snags, thickets and stones - to cope with this task. If the neighborhood is too close, then the males begin to fight for the territory. It is optimal to have 25 liters of water for one fish. Mollies prefers the middle layer of aqua. If you plan to breed offspring, then one male is enough for several females.
The content of mollies means feeding with plant food. Fish will not refuse from lettuce and oatmeal. Thanks to such feeding, the fish grows faster and looks much more beautiful, it can be seen in the photo. If you just brought home fry, then you need to feed them in large portions as often as possible. When the fry begin to grow up, the diet is reduced to 1 time per day.
Young fish are ready for breeding as early as 9-12 months, females about six months. Young males are deposited in another aquarium, so that they do not begin to upset females that have not reached puberty. Will have to isolate until all the fish do not "mature". It is proved that the most beautiful fry are obtained from large and spectacular producers. Bearing offspring last about two months. A large female is capable of bringing 240 tadpoles at a time. In order to increase the chance of survival, only large and beautiful fry are selected. In order to develop larger fins, the temperature in a salt aquarium is best lowered. This inhibits the development of fish, but a beneficial effect on aesthetic moments.
Reproduction in the general aquarium is not possible. Juveniles will be prey for more mature individuals. For successful breeding create a spawning aquarium.
Requirements for spawning:
- Volume from 40 liters,
- The presence of a large number of plants with small sheets,
- The temperature is about 25-26 degrees.
For feeding use live dust, Artemia and Nauplii cyclops.