The continent, which, according to scientists, is the "cradle" of humanity, until very recently remained unexplored. The foot of a European trod only on the coast. And the remaining gigantic spaces remained a mystery. Only two hundred years ago, “civilization” began to open the veil without hiding its indescribable surprise. The fauna of Africa was so rich and diverse that it was something to come to delight.
The uniqueness of the continent
The first Europeans noted that this territory is inhabited very little. On vast spaces, nature reigns without human intervention. No, of course, there was and is a normal life. Only people were so harmonious with nature that they did not interfere with it. Therefore, the fauna of Africa is striking in its diversity. There are species that are not found anywhere else. For example, zebras. From them, the Europeans were delighted. Unfortunately, the diversity of mammals has created a "new sport". The rich began to arrange safaris. Until the process was halted, the animal world of Africa was ruthlessly destroyed. On the continent, the climate is mostly hot. Part of it is covered with deserts. However, areas suitable for large mammals are sufficient. Scientists consider this land the most ancient. Therefore, the local inhabitants are the ancestors of the entire animal world. The continent is especially rich in large mammals, including ungulates.
According to the findings of researchers, the animal world of Africa for a long time was deprived of outside influence. Some time many thousands of years ago, it spread to Eurasia. But then, due to climate change, it focused only on the African continent. Characteristic are the inhabitants of the desert. For example, numerous rodents. Their scientists refer to the fauna of the Holarctic region. Just like some species of antelope (Bubala, Mendas and others). Ethiopian equatorial forests consider the birthplace of all mammals. It is clear that many of them remained to dwell in their homeland. Here you can find a quarter of the mammal of the world. Scientists have so far counted fifty-one families. But recognize that the wild fauna of Africa can not be called fully studied. It is assumed that in the vast unexplored expanses there are still many discoveries.
The fact of the sharp division of the continent into zones did not hide from the researchers' attentive gaze. They are completely different species of animals. They talk about the isolation of the fauna of forests and savannas. Rodents and insectivores are distinguished by a wide variety. Far from them went predators and primates, as well as hocktails. It is interesting to consider some species that have become the "emblem" of the continent. Again, back to the zebras. They are considered relatives of horses, although their appearance is completely different. On the continent lived several species of zebras. And they lived almost everywhere. Only the activity of a “civilized” person led to the extermination of certain species. They were simply knocked out by hunters for original skins. Let's take a closer look at the "original" animal world.
Africa is home to many toothy dangerous creatures. In the savannas, and now there are cheetahs, hyena dogs, hyenas, lions. They get along perfectly on the same territory. In general, it is striking how rationally the animal world (Africa). Lions, of course, the most dangerous and powerful. They reign in the local savannas. The most powerful are those that inhabit the Ngorongoro Valley. They hunt large animals, eat only part of the prey. The rest is left to their retinue. Small predators exist in the shadow of lions. They are not averse to pick up the remnants of their regal meal. Hyenas, jackals come running to eat. And what remains after them, goes to the vulture, rushing to the place of hunting in the daytime. Lions get food at night. They choose weak, sick animals. Although they have enough strength and healthy. Only the world is arranged so that "everyone helps each other." Predators make the population healthier, and herbivores make vegetation. As the Air Force regularly demonstrates, the wildlife of Africa is extremely rational.
This category of animals is quite numerous. You can call giraffes and antelopes, buffaloes and elephants, rhinos and hippos. These are large peaceful creatures. They coexist on some fields without a conflict, preferring to “distribute” both duties and food. For example, zebras eat grass from under their hooves, and giraffes immediately cut off branches from trees. They have nothing to conflict with. In the programs on wildlife, you can see how different animals roam together in the savannah as members of the same herd. More stunted try to keep in sight a tall giraffe. He demonstrates his behavior when a dangerous situation is created. That is why predators prefer to look for food at night when the “tower” is dozing.
On the territory of this continent live animals that are not found anywhere else. These include baboons and mandrills. These animals are kept in packs. Sometimes their number reaches two hundred individuals. They eat most of the plants. Although they can eat invertebrates, which they find. Interestingly, such a bunch of individuals is headed by only one leader - the male. He is the father of all the offspring of the pack. The remaining males are not allowed in the breeding process. During the day, monkeys graze, engage in offspring, prefer to sleep at night, climbing trees or hiding in the rocks. Some species of monkeys feel great in the mountains.
The problems of our time
Nowadays, the disappearance of whole animal species, a decrease in the number of populations is observed everywhere. The process, as they say, is objective. There is no exception and the local animal world. Africa 2014 has demonstrated that the extermination of populations is under way, regardless of the work of conservationists. They work constantly, only animals are getting smaller. Not benefiting the animal world and civilization. The continent is developing, the population is increasing. Requires new spaces for fields and pastures. So, the wild savannah crowns the civilized Africa. The flora and fauna suffers from this. It was natural for the local population to use the gifts of nature without actively influencing it. People hunted, collected fruits. All missed. Now they are developing agriculture according to the European type. Began to breed pets that need food, pastures. Naturally, the balance is disturbed.
In many countries, they are beginning to apply the latest technologies created for less fertile soils of another, more scarce world. But in Africa it is still possible to live as in the original Paradise, only collecting natural gifts.
The states that are created on the continent are taking the initiative to protect their unique natural education. One hundred and ninety national parks have already been established and are functioning. Only Africans have not enough money for their normal development. Yes, recently geologists have come to the continent (actively). Large mineral deposits are found here. Of course, some of them were known, but were not developed. Humanity left itself a “nest egg” for the twenty-first century. Now it's time to use it. And where large enterprises work, the animal world, accustomed to freedom, is uncomfortable. Some people call this situation critical, others adhere to more positive assessments. Only the facts remain, gradually the primordial nature of the ancestral home of humanity is becoming more and more "civilized", which is clearly not beautiful.
The fauna of Africa is diverse and beautiful. Many unique species live here. In general, it is magnificent for its pristine harmony, in which each individual is a cozy place, given the opportunity to comfortably exist. It is a pity that human activity is not distinguished by perspective analysis and long-term conceptual planning. For some reason, we prefer to destroy, and then "bite your elbows." But you can live differently!
Wet equatorial forests, vegetation
These are very dense and humid forests located along the equator. They grow along the Gulf of Guinea and occupy the basin of the major Congo River. These forests arose due to warm equatorial air masses. High temperatures are combined with year-round strong moisture. Therefore, from 400 to 700 large trees, of which there are 100 species, live on one hectare. Some of them are very valuable: black (ebony), red, sandalwood, polysander trees.
There are more than 3 thousand species of plants, and they form various tiers of the forest. The upper tier is formed by tall trees (sometimes reaching 80 meters). These are ficuses, palm trees (wine and maslinic), ceiba. In their shadows grow lower, among them are coffee and banana trees, rubber and creepers and valuable species - red and sandalwood. Tree ferns also grow. There is almost no light at the very bottom, so there are very few grasses and shrubs in the equatorial forests. There are spore plants - moss, ferns, selaginell. On the trunks and branches adapted to live some flowering and fruiting representatives of the flora. Such as orchid. Flowering plants in equatorial forests are 15 thousand species.
Vast areas of humid equatorial forests were prone to deforestation; light-loving trees and other plants quickly appear on those places. A tree can grow several meters tall in one year.
Fauna of equatorial forests
The fauna of Africa along the equator is also very diverse, as is the vegetable one. Animals in these forests live mostly in the trees. Therefore, birds, rodents and insects are mostly common here. In the jungle are found African monkeys, such as chimpanzees, monkeys, baboons. Gorillas are very secretive animals, they prefer wilder and more inaccessible areas of equatorial forests. These great apes are endemic in the fauna of the equatorial forests of Africa.
As already mentioned, the grasses in these forests almost do not grow; therefore, ungulates live here and choose leaves as their food. These are forest antelopes (bongos), small giraffes (okapis), wild boars, pig chickens. Predators live and hunt in trees. These are wyverra, leopards, wild cats. Among the birds there is a wide variety of parrots. There are also snakes.
These natural areas occupied 40%, almost half of the African continent. Translated from Portuguese savannah - "steppe with trees." Land areas are covered with fast-growing grass and isolated trees.
The vegetation of the savannah depends on the rain. Closer to the equator, where rainfall falls on 8 months a year, grassy plants reach three meters. The farther from the zero parallel, the grasses are lower and more and more trees are found. These are baobabs and acacias (having an umbrella-shaped crown). Acacia is common throughout Africa, but does not grow in equatorial and mountain forests. On the banks of rivers in the savanna grows a lot of palm trees, with something these small forests resemble wet tropical. In drier areas, thorny bushes and grasses, trees and milk sprouts grow closer to the semi-deserts. The drought here lasts half a year, and the rest of the year is the rainy season.
The wildlife of Africa in the savannah is very diverse and unique. Here is the largest accumulation of animals with high body mass. They are inhabited by rhinos, elephants, giraffes, zebras, hippos, buffaloes, wildebeest. Due to the large number of herbivores and predators are numerous.
They, as the “orderlies of the forest”, keep in balance the animal world of Africa. Lion - the king of animals, crocodiles, cheetahs, leopards, jackals, hyenas. They all regulate the number of herbivores. The most numerous animals include giraffe, impala, bubal, blue wildebeest, Thomson and Grant gazelles. Birds, like other representatives of the wildlife of Africa in the savannah, are also very numerous and diverse. Here live marabou, flamingos, cranes and the largest bird on the planet - the African ostrich.
Sahara Desert Vegetation
Africa has the largest desert in the world. Here is recorded the highest temperature on Earth in the city of Tripoli (+59 degrees in the shade). The sun's rays are very hot sands, so the vegetation in the desert is poor, in some places there are thorny bushes, but extremely rare.
Inhabited Sahara mainly due to oases. In the oases of the Sahara is found endemic date palm Erg Chebbi. Halophytes grow which can grow on salty soil. Plants have adapted to the harsh conditions of the desert, this is reflected in their appearance and method of reproduction.
The fauna of Africa in the Sahara is very poor, all the animals that live there, too, adapted to the hot and dry climate, like plants. These are the gazelles of Loder and the gazelles of Dorkas, the antelopes Adax and the antelopes of Oryx. These animals are able to travel great distances in search of food and water. Rodents from the squirrel, mouse, hamster, and jerboa families also live in the desert.
Dominated in the Sahara among mammals: fox, jackal ordinary, cheetah, spotted hyena, maned ram, gazelle dorkas, Cape hare, sablerogia antelope, Ethiopian hedgehog, baboon Anubis, mouflon, Nubian donkey.
Among the birds there are both permanently living in the Sahara, and migratory. The secretary bird is predatory; it feeds on snakes, small amphibians, insects and other birds, it moves very quickly on long legs. African owl lives in the desert, very well disguised as the environment, they are difficult to see against the background of sand and dry grass. Another representative of the bird fauna - the guinea fowl - has a gray-black plumage with white spots, was domesticated, but wild birds also remained in the Sahara.
The birds of the desert have all adapted themselves to the hot climate, they hunt at night, when the wild world of African animals is colder and manifest. They overcome considerable distances in search of food, do without water for a long time.
The snakes of the Sahara also adapted well. A horned viper with sharp growths above the eyes inhabits the entire desert, looking for prey at night. Efa (one of the most aggressive snakes) lives in the Northern Sahara, its poison causes abundant bleeding, not only at the site of the bite, but also in the nose and eye mucosa. The yellow scorpion, another of the desert inhabitants, hunts with its stinger.
Flora and fauna of the southern deserts
If the Sahara is located in the north of the continent, in the south there are the Kalahari and Namib deserts.
Namib is cool and harsh. Plants are represented by many species. Grows a lot of milkweed and bollard. Also a lot of endemics. Velvicia grows here, which lives for 1000 years, has a thick stem with creeping leaves (whose length reaches 3 meters). Large wide leaves attached to the stem up to 120 centimeters in diameter.
Another amazing plant is a nara, it is a wild melon that bears fruit once every 10 years. Its fruits more than once saved travelers dying of thirst. She feeds on desert animals.
Flora and fauna of mountainous regions of Africa
In the mountains grow Aleppo pines, Atlas cedars, Spanish fir, stone and cork oaks. The forest of the Mediterranean African coast is similar to the European one.
Tree juniper and heather grow on the Ethiopian Highlands. In the mountains of southern and eastern Africa, there is an “iron tree” (it has very dense wood and can drown in water), tree ferns, yew. The “iron tree” or temir-agach forms impassable thickets, the branches intricately intertwine with each other.
In the Atlas Mountains inhabits a small monkey - macaque tailless, the same species lives in southern Spain. Birds are also found the same as in Southern Europe: a lamb, a griffon vulture, a vulture, a black vulture, a stone partridge.
In the Ethiopian Highlands there are many species of animals, as in other parts of Africa. These are elephants, hippos, lions, leopards and smaller animals.
Flora and fauna of hardwood forests
This zone is located in the extreme north and south of the continent. The flora and fauna of the hardwood forests of Africa is also unique in its own way. The plants here have hard and small leaves, so that they can retain moisture for a long time. These are conifers: Lebanese cedar, cypress, pine. Animals also adapted to dry conditions, they begin to show the most activity in spring and autumn, when it becomes cooler and more moisture. Mammals of this zone: mouflons (mountain sheep), wild animals, wild cats.
Main> Abstract> Geography
ANIMAL WORLD OF AFRICA
Africa has a rich and diverse fauna, there are 1 thousand species of mammals and 1.5 thousand species of birds.
Северная часть материка вместе с Сахарой относится к Средиземноморской подобласти Голарктической зоогеографической области, остальная часть — к Эфиопской области, отличающейся особенным богатством фауны .
Fig. 108. Зоогеографическое районирование Африки
Однако резкие зоогеографические границы на материке отсутствуют и различия в фауне отдельных районов Африки зависят главным образом от современных ландшафтных различий. Фауна северной части материка во многих отношениях близка фауне Южной Европы и Западной Азии.
В засушливых районах Атласа и в Сахаре обитают животные, не требующие много воды или способные преодолевать большие пространства в поисках воды и пищи. These are various gazelles: gazelle dame, derkas and others. There are also North African deer, fallow deer, and predators include striped hyenas, jackals, desert fox Fenech, wild cats. From the savannas into the desert come the lions. In the Atlas Mountains there lives the same species of small monkey (macaque tailless), which also lives in southern Spain. Many rodents (hares, jerboas), there are wild rabbits, one species of porcupine. Reptiles, especially lizards, are richly represented: desert monitor lizard, geckos, spiketail. Of snakes characteristic sand boa, various vipers, African cobra.
Crocodiles, turtles, and a poisonous Nile snake inhabit the riverside thickets and rivers.
In semi-deserts and deserts North African African ostrich, bustard, lark, common in the Atlas Mountains - stone partridge, black vulture, vulture, griffon vulture, ovum (the same birds are in Southern Europe). Flamingos, pelicans, storks and herons live along rivers and lakes. A typical North African bird is a canary finch, or a wild canary (Serinus canaria), nesting in forests and gardens, as well as in the mountains at a rather high altitude.
Locusts cause great harm to the population, agriculture in North African countries suffers from its frequent invasions. Many beetles, butterflies, often with bright colors. Scorpions and phalanxes pose a great danger to humans.
Ethiopian fauna The region is characterized by a large uniformity within the continent, with only some differences depending on the habitat conditions, which is reflected in the division into subregions.
In the savannahs with their huge forage resources many herbivores, especially antelopewhich has more than 40 species. Until now, in some places there are herds of the largest wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) with a large mane, a powerful tail and curved down horns, and Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) antelopes with beautiful spiral horns, cannes (Tragelaphus oryx), etc. are also common. dwarf antelope, reaching a length of a little more than half a meter.
H African savannah and semi-desert animals saved from extinction are remarkable - giraffes (Giraffa reticulata and Giraffa camelopardalis), they have been preserved mainly in national parks. A long neck helps them to reach and grab young shoots and leaves from trees, and the ability to run fast is the only means of protection from pursuers.
In many areas, especially in the east of the continent and south of the equator, African wild horses are common in savannas and steppes. zebras (Equus zebra, Equus grevyi, Equus. Quagga). They are hunted mainly because of durable and beautiful hides. In some places, domesticated zebras replace horses, as they are not susceptible to tsetse bites.
D about still preserved African elephants - The most remarkable representatives of the fauna of the Ethiopian region (Loxodonta africana). They have long been exterminated because of valuable tusks, and in many areas they have completely disappeared. Currently, hunting for elephants is prohibited throughout Africa, but this prohibition is often violated by ivory poachers.
Elephant african elephant with elephant
Elephants are now found in the least populated mountainous areas, particularly in the Ethiopian Highlands.
Fig. 109. Distribution of some animals in Africa
In addition, they live in the territory national parks of Eastern and Southern Africawhere their livestock even increases. Nevertheless, the existence of the African elephant as a species in the last decades has been under a real threat, which can be prevented only by active joint activities of national and international organizations.
TO the number of endangered animals include rhinosdwelling in the eastern and southern parts of the mainland. African rhinos have two horns and are represented by two species - black and white rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, Ceratotherium sinum). The latter is the largest of the modern species and reaches a length of 4 m. Now it is preserved only in protected areas.
Much more common hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius), living along the banks of rivers and lakes in different parts of Africa. These animals, as well as wild pigs, are exterminated because of edible meat, and also because of the skin.
Herbivores serve as food for numerous predators.
In the savannas and semi-deserts of Africa there are lions (Panthera leo), represented by two varieties: the Berberia, living north of the equator, and the Senegalese, common in the southern part of the continent. Lions prefer open spaces and almost never enter forests. Hyenas, jackals, leopards, cheetahs, caracals, servals are common. There are several members of the civet family. In the lowland and mountain steppes and savannas there are many monkeys belonging to the group of baboons: the real baboons of Raigo, the helad (Theropithecus gelada), the mandrill (Papio sphinx). Of the small-bodied monkeys, the Gweres (Colobus guereza) are characteristic. Many of their species live only in a cool mountain climate, since they do not tolerate the high temperatures of the lowlands.
Among rodents It should be noted mice and several types of squirrels.
Numerous in savannahs birds: African ostriches, guinea fowl Turachi, Marabou, weavers, a very interesting bird-secretary (Sagittarius serpentarius), which feeds on snakes. Chibis, herons, and pelicans nest near water bodies.
Reptiles no less than in the northern deserts, they are often represented by the same genera and even species. Many different lizards and snakes, tortoises. Some types of chameleons are also characteristic. There are crocodiles in the rivers.
Abundant and diverse fauna insects. Among them, termites play a particularly important role in the landscape, their peculiar high earthen structures are often found in savanna. A dangerous pest for plants, as in the far north, is locust. Bloodsucking insect tsetse fly (Glossina) - carrier of parasites trypanosomes - the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and sears in cattle. Because of this, in some areas of Africa (mainly in the west) it is not possible to breed cattle and horses.
Tropical rainforests have peculiar a fauna far from as rich as the fauna of the open spaces of Africa. In forests, there are significantly fewer herbivores and, therefore, fewer predators.
AND With ungulates for forests, the giraffe-related Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is characteristic - an animal hiding in dense forest thickets, very fearful and cautious. There are also forest antelopes, water deer, wild boar, buffalo, hippopotamus. Predators are represented by wild cats, leopards, jackals and wyverrahs. Of rodents common brush-tailed porcupine and wide-tailed flying squirrels.
Monkeys are diverse in the forests, many of them are arboreal. There are numerous monkeys, baboons, mandrills. Africa between 10 ° N and 10 ° S It is home to two genera of great apes - chimpanzee (Pan) and gorillas (Gorilla), each of which is represented by 2-3 species.
In the mountains of the western rift zone live rare and poorly known mountain gorillas. There are also two species of lemurs in the forest fauna of the mainland.
Typical representatives of the avifauna of forests are several species of parrots, banana-eaters, beautifully feathered and brightly colored forest hoopes, tiny nectar pits, African peacocks, etc.
There are numerous lizards and snakes, a stupid crocodile is found in the rivers. From amphibians frogs are especially diverse.
Deserts and semi-deserts
The desert and semi-desert spaces of South Africa are much poorer in faunistic terms than other parts of the continent, including the deserts of North Africa. Of the ungulates, the Buffalo (Syncerus coffer), one kind of zebra (quagga), some species of antelope are typical there. Predators are characterized by the Kama fox, the earthen wolf, several species of civet. Lions are almost completely exterminated. There are some endemic species of rodents and insectivores; among the latter, the gold moles (Chrysochloridae) are particularly interesting.
Very peculiar faunaMadagascar with an abundance of endemic forms in the complete absence of such animal groups common in Africa as real monkeys, top predators and venomous snakes.
D Madagascar is characterized by lemurs, represented by many genera and species, and widely distributed throughout the island, since the local population does not exterminate them, some even tame them. Of the predators, there are only civets. There are many insectivores, among which the tenrecs are endemic.
African fauna, peculiar and one of the richest faunas of the Earth, causes great damage human activity. Long years of colonialism are also to blame for this, as well as individual socio-economic processes that occur in the countries of modern Africa. The fast-growing population satisfies the need for meat food by 80% due to the hunting of animals. In the budget of a number of countries, trade in ivory, skin or animal skins plays an important role. All this can not lead to the impoverishment of the fauna. At the same time, a number of African countries pay great attention to the protection of the fauna, and many species only because of this escaped complete destruction.
The first national parks Africa was created in the first half of the 20th century, including the Kruger National Park in South Africa (1928) and a nature reserve in the region of Mount Toubkal in Morocco (1944). Now in Africa there are about 3 thousand protected areas with a total area of nearly 240 million hectares. Their main goal is the protection of wild animals and natural ecosystems in general. However, the extensive and diverse biological heritage in all subregions of Africa is in danger. Civil wars and armed conflicts sometimes cause irreparable damage to the biodiversity of the continent. Thus, in 2002, 289 species of mammals, 207 species of birds, 127 species of fish, 48 species of reptiles and 17 species of amphibians were under threat of extinction.
Virunga National Park.
Virunga is one of the oldest national parks in Africa. It is located in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Officially, Virunga National Park was founded in 1929. Then he was called the National Park Albert and Kivu. In 1969, a separate Virunga National Park was separated from the single environmental facility Albert and Kivu.
Reserve Air and Tener.
The natural reserve of Air and Tener is located on the southern border of the Sahara desert. Its area is 77000 sq. Km. The reserve was founded in 1988. Immediately, about 15% of its territory was allocated to a special reserve with a strict protection regime to protect the add-ons. In 1991, the reserve entered the list of UNESCO World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites.
Serengeti National Park.
The Serengeti National Park is a low-grass hilly valley of 30,000 square kilometers in Tanzania and Kenya. They are covered with lush grass, which grows well on fertile soil of volcanic origin. The Serengeti is a paradise for animals that delights everyone who has been to it.
Ishkel National Park.
The first mention of Ishkel’s conservation status dates back to the 13th century, when the dynasty then ruling in the Arab Caliphate banned hunting in the outskirts of the lake. The national park in modern borders was founded in 1980. At the same time, the park was included in the UNESCO List of World Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites.
Nairobi National Park.
Just seven kilometers from the capital of Kenya is a small savannah with tall grass and sparse sprawling trees - Nairobi National Park, with a total area of 117 square meters. km This park was opened before many similar parks in Kenya, in 1946. This is one of the few parks in the world where you can simultaneously enjoy the beauty of almost untouched wildlife and not lose sight of the silhouette of a big city.
National Park Masai Mara.
The Masai Mara National Park is the northern (Kenyan) part of the Serengeti plain with an area of 1510 square meters. km, located at an altitude of 1650 m. The climate here is mild and warm, and the scenery is breathtaking. Masai Mara National Park is considered the most densely populated park in the world. According to the richness of flora and fauna, only the Serengeti and Ngorongoro can compare with it.
Mole National Park (Ghana)
Mole National Park, located in the northern region of the African state of Ghana. The nature reserve in the Mole, with an area of 4,840 square kilometers, was founded in 1971. 93 mammal species, 9 amphibian species and 33 reptile species inhabit its territory. In addition, more than 300 species of birds inhabit the park.
Kilimanjaro National Park (Tanzania).
Kilimanjaro National Park was founded in 1973 and now occupies 756 square meters. km The foot of the mountain is at an altitude of 1829 m above sea level, and the Kibo peak is at an altitude of 5895 m.
Dzanga Ndoki National Park.
Dzanga Ndoki National Park is located 480 kilometers from Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, at the southernmost point of the Central African Republic - between Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo.
Volcanic National Park of Rwanda.
Volcanoes National Park is one of the most famous landmarks of Rwanda. The territory of the national park of volcanoes is currently bordered by the lands of the Virunga National Park in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as several other nature conservation areas.
National Kruger (South Africa).
The Kruger National is the largest natural reserve in the South African region. In size it is comparable to the territory of Israel and Wales. Its area is 20,000 sq. Km. The park extends 350 km from north to south and 60 km from east to west.
on the topic: "Animal world of Africa"
The world of African mammals is very diverse and interesting. Among the many species there are both large animals and very small. For example, the largest and smallest mammal in the world are inhabitants of this particular continent. The largest land animal is a savanna elephant (7,500 kg.), And the smallest is a dwarf polydentus (1.7 kg.). Also, the fauna of Africa is represented by other representatives.
The predators of Africa include lions, cheetahs, leopards. The lion is the king of the African savannah. It can reach a height of 1 meter, and its weight reaches 200 kg. Females are predominantly engaged in hunting, and males go for prey only in case of a strong famine.
Also, the fauna of Africa is represented by black and white rhinos, zebras, buffaloes and antelopes, giraffes.
The African buffalo is the only species of buffalo living on the African continent. Of all the bulls, it is considered the largest, and its weight can reach 1000 kg.
Africa is also rich in very unusual mammals. One of them is the aardvark. This animal of Africa with a long muzzle, which ends with a heel like a pig. The aardvark has long ears and powerful forelimbs with which it digs beautifully. This mammal is a night beast, so his eyesight is very poor, but the scent is well developed.
Fig. 1. Aardvark
The name of the aardvark was named because of teeth that look like tubes. He has 20 of them, they are hollow and grow throughout the life of a wild beast.
Another unusual animal is the pygmy hippo. They inhabit the jungles of West Africa. They differ from ordinary representatives of this species in small stature and more round head. These animals are solitary and only for mating, they are combined in pairs.
Birds of africa
The birds of Africa can be divided into two groups: species that live permanently on the continent, and species that fly here for wintering from Europe and Asia. Such diversity is observed, even despite frequent droughts and difficult climatic conditions.
Marabou Bird - the largest representative of land birds. It can reach 1.5 meters and has a powerful beak. There are no feathers on the head and neck; they cover only the back part of the body.
The spectacled penguin lives in southern Africa. This bird, like representatives of other penguin species, does not know how to fly at all. Its height is 60-70 cm., Weight 3-4 kg. This species of penguin is listed in the International Red Book.
Ostriches also live in Africa. They are able to reach speeds of up to 270 km. at one o'clock. These birds live only on the African continent.
One of the most unusual birds on the mainland is the nectar pan. This little bird with plumage, which explodes with bright colors, is only 20 cm long.
Fig. 2. Nectary.
If the nectar dwelling lives in dense thickets, then its color looks dimmer than its relatives living in open areas.
African Fish and Amphibians
In the west and in the central part of Africa there are equatorial forests. This area has a warm climate and many rivers. There are many species of frogs living here: a hairy frog, a goliath frog, a burrowing frog.
In the Congo Basin you can find very large tiger fish. Her second name is giant hydrocin. This species is omnivorous and can gain weight up to 50 kg.
Kalamoiht is a small fish living in Central and Southern Africa. Its second name is snake fish, as it looks very similar to this reptile.
Senegalese mnogoper - another representative of the fish of the African continent. This elongated fish reaches a length of 40 cm and lives in lakes and rivers of the Nile.
Insects of Africa
The list of insects that live on the African continent is huge. And if some are completely harmless, then others carry a serious danger.
The goliath beetle lives in African rainforests. Это насекомое считается одним из самых больших на планете. питается жук фруктами и их соком.
На территории Африки обитает одно из самых опасных насекомых – малярийный комар. Он является переносчиком очень опасного заболевания – малярии.
Муха Цеце является переносчиком очень страшной болезни – трипаносомоза. Ежегодно на территории африканских государств погибают около 300 тыс. жителей от этой болезни.
Fig. 3. Муха Цеце.
What have we learned?
We learned what animals live in Africa, learned that the fauna of the African continent is very diverse. Representatives of the animal world live here, which are represented in other parts of the world (for example, elephants, hares, hippos), but there are animals whose territory of distribution is limited exclusively to Africa (for example, pygmy hippopotamus, ostrich, trumpet).