The Bashkir duck breed belongs to the egg and meat group and is regarded as the most advantageous tribe of this kind.
It was bred in Bashkiria at the Blagovarsky breeding plant, in the process of selection work with the Peking breed.
For nearly fifteen years, this breed is in constant demand for breeding and amateur poultry farmers, and large-scale producers.
A distinctive feature of the Bashkir duck is the presence of only two colors of the plumage of individuals: variegated black and white and a protective color ("khaki"). The coloring of feathers in a female bird is dull, modest in contrast to drakes.
Their plumage is colorful, bright, with outlandish patterns, giving them a unique elegance. This coloring pen resembles the color of ducks in the wild.
The bird is distinguished by a strong, lean body build, strong legs, a small bent neck and a flattened head. The wings are very close to the body. The chest is quite prominently forward. Paws and beak bright orange color.
There are no blood vessels and nerve endings in the legs of the ducks. Therefore, they move easily and calmly over ice and snow. The plumage of Bashkir cannot be not only wetted, but also moistened with water. A drake, unlike a female, is not able to quack.
The Bashkir color duck after two, three months reaches impressive sizes. The weight of the duck is in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 kg, the fat layer in the carcass is actually absent.
The yield of the tenderest meat from one individual reaches 75%, which, among other things, does not have a peculiar, specific smell characteristic of waterfowl.
Famous for the breed and significant indicators for egg production. For the year from one female hen you can get about 200-220 eggs weighing 85-90 grams. According to numerous reviews of ordinary people, duck eggs are in no way inferior in taste to chicken and have the following characteristics:
- have a high calorie - 100 gr. raw egg contains 180 kcal,
- food should be taken only boiled eggs in order to avoid infection with salmonella,
- children under 5 years old are not recommended to include them in the diet,
- in the cosmetic industry are used as one of the components of the mask for weakened and split ends.
The average hatchability of ducklings for incubators is 75-80%. This is a very high, good performance.
Maintenance and care of poultry
The Bashkir duck belongs to the early maturity and, with proper maintenance, reaches its highest industrial value by approximately 55 days.
Then the bird starts shedding and the process of weight gain stops, but more often it stops altogether. It is advisable to maintain adults in the household until they are four months old.
Feeding should be carried out two or three times a day. In the first two meals should be given a variety of mash, and at night - cereal mixtures. With a huge appetite Bashkir eats silage, brilliant green, finely cut root vegetables.
Silage has a positive effect on raising egg production and strengthening the physical, general condition of the brood. It consists of cabbage leaves, grass meal and cabbage in the ratio of 6: 1: 3. To obtain high quality meat, the ration must be enriched with granulated feed, various vitamin and mineral supplements.
In the Utyatnik where the bird will be kept, it is necessary to create a comfortable environment, at least minimal. The room should be warm, dry, spacious and well ventilated. Construct roosts in the home does not make sense, since the duck of this breed does not fly.
Of great importance in the breeding of poultry is compliance with the heat and light regime. In winter, the necessary temperature should be maintained with the help of heating devices, and lighting can be provided with ordinary electric lamps.
Specific features of breeding
The instinct of motherhood is very strongly developed among ducks of the Bashkir breed, therefore the bird quite easily sows the eggs itself. The health of the duck mother should definitely be monitored, since chicks are very susceptible to various infections.
After the chicks appear in the nest or incubator, they should be moved to a sufficiently lit, warm box. The temperature in the first three weeks of life of the ducklings should be maintained at 30 ° C. The flooring in the duckling, which will contain brood, must be insulated with litter.
From the 22nd day of life, the ducklings temperature is reduced to 18 ° C. From four weeks of age, ducklings are allowed to stay on the walking area along with the mother duck, and preferably with a visit to the water body.
In food, ducklings are undemanding and from the first days of life they feed on the same food as adult birds. Nestlings of the Bashkir breed became famous for their resilience and excellent endurance. Until the age of 7 weeks, almost all ducklings survive and by this period of life they gain up to 80% of their weight.
Pros and cons of growing
Breeding of all living creatures is troublesome and responsible. But, nevertheless, quite a lot of people are engaged in growing duck-bashkir. The desire for this is determined by the weighty virtues of the bird:
- from breeding, you can get not only tasty, dietary meat with low fat content, but also not a small number of edible eggs. Ducks of this breed start to bear testicles already from the 4th month of life,
- Ducks have extraordinary endurance and high, durable immunity,
- undemanding in nutrition and in attention,
- quickly acclimatize and easily adapt to new conditions,
- feed consumption is 2.75 units. per kilogram of growth,
- rather quickly grow and gain weight
- the safety of brood chicks reaches 80%.
The shortcomings of Bashkir are minor and few, but still they should be known:
- duck is very demanding for the presence of clean and fresh water,
- Both females and males have a high, excellent appetite. However, this flaw is rather conditional.
Pluses of the Bashkir ducks overlap irrelevant flaws and prevail over the bustle of its content.
The choice of a duck of Bashkir is reasonable and expedient not only for industrial production, but also for a private, small farmstead. You can take a look at the description of the breed, the ways of keeping, the feeding ration by video and photo materials posted on various websites on the Internet.
Look like the ducks of the Bashkir breed, see the following video:
Description of the Bashkir duck
The Bashkir duck has an outstretched chest, strong and muscular physique, large and widely spread legs, short legs.. Head noticeably flattened at the top. The neck is short, concave, curved to the outside. The bird's beak is arched and wide, with brightly defined plates and a wide “marigold”.
It is interesting! An interesting fact is that the short duck neck has a large number of vertebrae, even compared to such a long-necked animal as a giraffe.
A peculiar growth on the beak is used by the duck for easy grasp of growing grass. The wings of the Bashkir duck are distinguished by a rather tight fit to the body. This breed, along with other flying birds, is characterized by the presence of a well developed and long keel.
The initial factor that made it possible to distinguish the Bashkir duck from the total mass of birds in the selection process was a very peculiar plumage. The color of the feathers of representatives of this breed is as close as possible to the color characteristic of individuals living in the wild. Thanks to the brown plumage, even a man in the street can quite easily determine the sex of the daily ducklings. The feather gets a lighter shade in the direction from the back to the stomach, and the beak and legs are bright orange.
Currently, there are colored and white varieties of the Bashkir duck:
- The white variety has a dominant snow-white tone in plumage. By the age of two months, such a bird reaches a live weight of 3.5 kg and is less demanding in the total amount of feed,
- The gray variety is distinguished by a grayish or deep gray color of the feather and at the age of two months it reaches a weight of 3.4-3.6 kg,
- The blue variety is characterized by a very attractive appearance, but by the age of eight it reaches a mass of no more than 3.0 kg.
At the same time, the features of sexual dimorphism are noticeable quite well in all species. The drakes are distinguished by a brighter color, which in the monthly specimens gradually acquires a black and gray tint mainly in the region of the upper part of the neck, head and tail. Among other things, drakes do not know how to quack. Duck paws do not have nerve endings and blood vessels, so that such poultry is quite capable of moving quietly, both on a warm surface, and on snow or ice.
Calm temperament and behavior of representatives of the Bashkir duck breed allow to achieve high performance in terms of weight and stability of the level of egg production, regardless of growing conditions.
It is interesting! By its temperament, the Bashkir duck is well-getting along with other pets and quickly getting used to its owners, a very calm and incredibly friendly bird.
On numerous domestic and foreign forums of owners of such poultry, excellent results are shown by growing in private farms, as well as in conditions of traditional herding, cage and combined with regular grazing.
The diet of the Bashkir duck
A feature of all ducks, including the Bashkir breed, is the presence of too short intestines. This explains the need to pay attention to the use of a special diet and strict adherence to the number of feedings. The standard diet of representatives of the breed, aimed at the correct metabolism, implies giving food in small portions, with the predominance of such sufficiently fast-growing poultry products.
It is interesting! The norms of daily nutrition for breeding poultry at different stages of cultivation are markedly different and are selected strictly individually, in accordance with the needs and age characteristics.
Diet of ducklings
In the first days to feed the ducklings should be boiled eggs, and the drinking bowl must necessarily be filled with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. The young of Bashkir duck breed is unpretentious in food, so it can easily consume the products that are used for feeding adults.
Perfect for feeding ducklings:
- Tear various crops,
- quality soybean meal,
- grass meal
- bone and fish meal,
- high-quality fodder yeast,
- chopped herbs such as dandelions, alfalfa and nettle,
- high-quality food waste,
- grated carrots, boiled potatoes.
As the diet grows and develops in the diet, it is necessary to gradually increase the total amount of green fodder. The main requirement for any type of feed is their good quality and freshness. The priority in the summer period is the dandelion greens, clovers and alfalfa, cereals before the flowering phase, not coarse nettle, as well as cabbage leaves, carrot or beet tops.
The use of crowded, rotten, rancid and soured feed in ducklings is the main cause of intestinal and infectious diseases, which can cause a massive mortality of poultry. To minimize the overall mortality rate of young stock, it is recommended to give preference to dry feed rations and clean drinking water.
When choosing a ready-made combined feed for ducks, it is very important to pay attention to their composition, the amount of vitamins, minerals, as well as the basic microelements, the lack of which often causes weakening of the bones of the bird or its falling to its feet. For example, an insufficient amount of sulfur-containing amino acids very often becomes the main reason for the rapid loss of young plumage.
It is interesting! If boiled potatoes are added to the food, then in order to prevent poisoning of the bird by solanine, it is necessary to pour out the water in which the vegetable has been boiled.
At about three months of age, the young of the Bashkir duck completely stabilizes the functioning of the oil gland, therefore, such grown poultry can easily be released into a natural or artificial reservoir. Among other things, it is necessary to add to the feed or pour into a separate container clean gravel of not too large fraction.. A bird that has reached three weeks of age can diversify its diet with chopped food waste.
Adult duck diet
The feeding ration for the adult Bashkir duck should be selected taking into account age and general condition, but in the main feed for such poultry are used:
- silage in the form of fermented foliage, grass, carrots and cabbage, pumpkins,
- shredded root vegetables
- green and voluminous feed.
For feeding in the morning it is advisable to use nutritious wet mash, and in the evening it is best to give whole or sprouted grains to the poultry, a special compound feed.
It is interesting! A feature of the breed is also the need to provide the bird with a sufficiently large amount of clean drinking water and at least a small body of water for swimming.
Representatives of the Bashkir duck breed show the best egg production when feeding poultry with a combined silo based on one part of grass meal, three parts of cabbage and six parts of cabbage leaves.
Cultivation and cultivation
It is possible to breed the Bashkir duck through an incubator or with the help of females, and the young stock is housed in a hatchery or cage with an adequate lighting system. Little ducks are quite vulnerable to various infections, so it is important to control the health of the hen. For brood, a clean and deep bedding should be organized, as well as a comfortable temperature regime of 30 o C.
By about three months of age, the temperature can be lowered to 18-21 ° C, retaining the ten-hour coverage. In the spring and summer period, poultry mainly use natural light. The incubation method of breeding involves the observance of certain rules:
- use only fresh eggs without visible defects,
- Maintaining the first week's temperature of 38 ° C with a moisture level of 70%,
- flirting eggs three or four times a day,
- a decrease in temperature from the eighth to the fifteenth day of incubation to 37.8 ° C with a five-fold egg roll,
- cooling eggs after the second week of incubation for a quarter of an hour.
It is interesting! Proper organization of breeding allows you to maximize the livestock, and the total losses in the process of growing, as a rule, do not exceed 10%.
If all requirements are met, the incubation process takes 25-28 days, and to facilitate the process of ducklings coming into the light, it is desirable to provide softening of the shell by raising the humidity to 90%.
Diseases, breed defects
Of course, the Bashkir duck belongs to the category of fairly hardy birds, but if you do not follow the rules of keeping, serious diseases can occur.. The most dangerous diseases of ducks are presented:
- avitaminosis, which most often develops against the background of a lack of essential vitamins in the daily diet of poultry,
- cloacitis, which is a severe inflammatory process of the mucous membranes of the cloaca, and occurs with a deficiency of minerals, as well as vitamins A, E and D,
- prolapse of the oviduct, accompanied by profuse diarrhea or prolonged constipation,
- blockage of the esophagus and goiter as a result of feeding the bird too much coarse feed.
Infectious diseases can be caused by many viruses, bacteria and fungi, but the most dangerous and common are paratyphoid fever, hepatitis, pasteurellosis, as well as various helminth infections. Bashkir ducks quite easily tolerate low-temperature regimes, have good development indicators and a quick set of muscle mass, which is caused by a fairly strong innate immune system.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Representatives of the breed Bashkir duck favorably differ a very large number of advantages, which explains the popularity among farmers and private farmers. The most important and indisputable advantages of this breed are high hatchability, most often a component of 79-80%, as well as good resistance to many avian diseases.
It is interesting! The Bashkir duck belongs to the category of breeds, which in commercial growing conditions show fairly high rates of profitability.
Such poultry is able to easily adapt to the most different climatic conditions, it is distinguished by unpretentiousness in food, worthy of egg production and precocity. Кроме прочего, мясо обладает низкой жирностью и очень хорошими вкусовыми качествами. К недостаткам породы можно отнести только некоторые особенности содержания (потребление большого количества воды), а также не самые высокие показатели яйценоскости.
Bashkir ducks are unpretentious in content and are sufficiently resistant to adverse external influences and certain diseases, but in order to maintain the natural immunity of poultry at a high level, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the following simple recommendations:
- the litter should be kept dry and clean,
- disinfection is periodically carried out indoors with the help of bleach and caustic soda,
- regular redevelopment is necessary to expose the place walking a duck, as well as a body of water,
- Timely vaccination allows to prevent the development of the most dangerous diseases and the massive death of poultry,
- you can not keep together young animals of different ages.
A diseased duck has a very sluggish, sedentary and apathetic behavior, as well as a characteristic appearance, which is represented by ruffled feathers, lowered wings and an unsteady wobbly gait. All sick individuals must necessarily be isolated in a quarantine room in a timely manner.
It will also be interesting:
The acquisition of the Bashkir duck is fully justified and advisable not only for a large farm, but also for a small private farm. The advantages of such a breed of poultry noticeably predominate over all the troubles in keeping it, so the popularity of the Bashkir duck is steadily growing every year.
Introduction to the breed
The Bashkir duck is one of the successful results in the breeding activities of scientists of the Blagovarsky plant, its history dates back to 2001 and is still incredibly popular in almost all corners of Russia. It is interesting that initially the work was carried out to improve the qualities of the white Peking duck, but in the end a completely new unique breed was bred.
Find out the representative of the breed - duck-Bashkir - can be the following description:
- Muscular large body.
- Chest protrudes forward.
- Legs are short.
- Large widely placed paws.
- Short curved neck.
- Flat head.
- Wings close to the body.
- The keel is long and well developed, which gives out a flying bird representative in the Bashkir duck.
- The beak is wide, with a special outgrowth, which the bird uses to grab grass.
- Legs and beak bright orange.
You can meet the birds as a black and white color, and color variations of the breed (khaki). At the same time, lighter shades are placed closer to the duck's belly, and the drake is always colored more brightly than the duck. Already at the age of one month, he acquires a black color on the head, tail, upper neck.
The advantages of the Bashkir ducks include: opportunity to move on snow and ice, not experiencing discomfort due to the absence of nerve endings on the legs, as well as waterproof feathers, lack of quacking in the drakes.
Virtues The breeds are:
- Calm quiet temper.
- High egg production rates for any type of cultivation: cellular, driven or mixed.
- Disease resistance is developed.
- Ease of breeding at home.
- The duck belongs to the meat-breeding breed, therefore it gives man not only meat, but also eggs. From one duck you can get up to 280 eggs per season.
Lack of just one - Bashkir ducks voraciousIn order to gain weight quickly, Bashkir people need to eat plenty of food.
Adult drake reaches 4 kg in weight, and the Bashkir duck is slightly inferior - up to 3.8 kg. With the right approach to feeding, already at the age of 1 month, the Bashkir duck is able to gain in weight up to 3.2 kg. The meat is very tender, with little fat. The yield of meat from one carcass is up to 70%, which is also a very good indicator for ducks. It has many advantages meat:
- Very tender and tasty, much appreciated in restaurants.
- No peculiar smell.
- It is rich in vitamin A, so it will be especially useful for people suffering from the entire spectrum of eye diseases.
In order for the Bashkir duck to quickly gain weight, it is necessary to provide it with a full ration. The nutritional rate is determined as follows: for 1 kg of growth, the bird should consume up to 3 kg of food with a predominance of succulent and green fodder.
Important! Ducks should have free access to clean water, which should be changed as they become turbid. One bird per day requires about 2 liters of fluid..
If Bashkir ducks are caged, they should be served three meals a day. For the winter, grass meal silage is harvested, and cabbage leaves and cabbages and carrots can also be given to birds.
When growing ducks for meat, o should be included in their diet granulated stern. In this case, the percentage of types of feed should aim at an indicator of 45% of grain feed (wheat, corn, barley, peas) and 55% of feed mixtures with fish and grass meal, gravel, crushed shells, and yeast.
Ducks of the Bashkir breed can be easily bred at home, and a beginner can handle it. Birds have a highly developed maternal instinct, so they will be happy to hatch eggs and the owner will not have to buy an incubator.
If the incubation method of breeding is chosen, it is important to consider the following recommendations:
- For breeding choose only fresh eggs, free of defects and cracks.
- Before laying the incubator should be disinfected using a solution of potassium permanganate.
- It is necessary to withstand the temperature: the first week - 38 ° C at a humidity of about 70%. Turn over every 6 hours. The second week - a temperature of 37 ° C, humidity 60%, the number of rollovers - 6 times per day. The third week and before hatching ducklings - the conditions remain the same, but the eggs should be cooled twice a day for 15-20 minutes. Ducklings appear on the 28th day.
- The eggshell shell is dense, so that it would be more convenient for the chicks to get out, increase the humidity to 90% and ensure that fresh air enters the incubator - this will make the shell more pliable.
There is nothing complicated in breeding Bashkir ducks, even a newbie will master this case with success.
Features of growing
Small ducklings of the Bashkir breed along with the hen should be organized special conditions of detention - at a temperature of about 30 ° C. gradually the temperature decreases, to achieve ducklings of three weeks, they calmly endure and 20 ° C. highly important monitor the behavior of the brood - if the kids are pressed against each other, are inactive, it means they are cold and should raise the temperature. On the contrary, if the ducklings constantly walk with their beaks open, not moving, they drink a lot, then it is hot.
Lighting the first week should be around the clock, then the daylight hours are reduced daily by 1 hour, approaching 9 o'clock.
Important! Ducks can pour water from the drinker, wetting the straw bedding. The owner must immediately replace it. On average, this is done every two to three days..
To feed the ducklings must be balanced and varied, should be introduced into the diet of soybean meal, fodder yeast, pick grain. Over time, you should increase the percentage of green fodder, add boiled potatoes, carrots, dandelion grass, nettles to the diet. Also birds enjoy eating clover, beet and carrot tops, cabbage leaves.
Main demand - the feed must be fresh and of high quality, the soured or rotten food will cause a spike in the intestinal infection.
Bashkir ducks are fully gaining weight already by 2.5 months, so in such an early period they should be sent for slaughter.
The duck of the Bashkir breed is fairly resistant to major diseases, therefore, timely preventive measures will avoid many of problems.
- Isolate sick birds from healthy ones. To identify a sick duck will help such signs: an uncertain sluggish gait, lowered wings, ruffled feathers.
- Do not be kept in the same room ducklings of different ages.
- The bedding should always be dry.
If you find a disease, you should definitely contact your veterinarian, this will help minimize losses.
Bashkir Breed Duck - ideal a choice for both beginners and experienced farmers who are in search of an unpretentious breed that is rapidly gaining weight and giving juicy lean meat. It is very easy to breed such ducks and care for them, which is why the breed is so rapidly gaining popularity in the modern world.
Outstanding chest. Build strong and muscular. Paws, large size, widely spaced, short leg. The head is flattened on the upper side. The neck is short, concave, bent outward.
Wide concave beak with brightly defined plates and a wide “marigold”, growth, used by a duck to grab grass. The wings are tight enough to the body.
Characteristic of flying birds, well developed and long keel. There is a white and colored species of the breed.
The appearance of the ducks of this breed
The plumage of a bird became the primary factor of its isolation from the general stream during selection. The color of the pen is as close as possible to the color of individuals from the wild nature and experts could not miss it. Brown plumage of this breed, allows you to determine the sex of daily ducklings.
The feather brightens from the back to the stomach. Beak and legs are bright orange.
- There are no nerve endings and blood vessels in the duck's paws, due to which the ducks can easily move through the snow and ice.
- Untreated duck feathers of this breed impossible to wet water, even a few years.
- Drake can't quack. The quacking of the ducks does not have an echo.
- Short duck neck has more vertebrae than giraffe.
The temperament of this breed allows to achieve high results in weight and sustainable egg production in various growing conditions. In the forums, the results from private farms did not depend on cellular, driven, or combined grazing.
The market is always ready to offer for private owners of daily ducklings of the Bashkir breed, and this fact proves the simplicity and expediency of developing these ducks at home.
High resistance to infectious diseases, high reproduction and low, reasonable spending during rearing have become the key to the constant selection of these birds by domestic poultry farms.
Characteristics of Bashkir
Reaching adulthood, the drake of this breed gains about 4 kg., And duck 3.7 kg. At the same time, there is practically no fat in the carcass (adipose tissue content at a reduced level of 1.8-3.9%).
The tenderness of meat according to taste characteristics are comparable with the best broiler breeds. The lack of a specific smell makes this meat a leader in sales in the markets and supermarket chains.
- Presence of double content vitamin A in duck meat, in relation to other types of meat, makes it an indispensable component of the menu of people suffering from skin diseases and vision problems.
- Fat contains Omega 6 and Omega 3 essential oils, which is comparable to olive oil.
- Allergic people Not recommended include duck meat and eggs in your diet.
Bashkir ducks are meat-breeding species. Egg production largely depends on the variety. So Bashkir khaki in 280 days of the reproductive period can produce up to 217 eggs.
With the color "black white-breasted", for the same period, it is able to lay 11 eggs more. These figures are approximate and may vary depending on external factors, diet, number of livestock, weather conditions. The egg is not large, weighing 70-80 grams. When laying in the incubator, you can count on a brood of 8 ducklings from 10 eggs.
- Duck eggs have high calorie - in 100 grams of raw eggs 185 kcal. Excess weight is a contraindication for the intake of this product.
- Tall risk of infection Salmonella does not allow you to take raw eggs.
- According to the recommendations of pediatricians do not include them in the diet children under 6 years old.
- In cosmetology is used as a component masks for splitting and falling hair. Protein is suitable for oily skin, providing a drying effect. And for combination skin, use the whole egg.
Feeding Bashkir Duck
Nutritional norms for breeding poultry at different stages of growing are varied and selected individually, the amount varies between 2.6 and 3.0 kilograms of feed per kilogram of growth with the gradual introduction of green and succulent feeds in the amount of 1.5-2 kilograms per kilogram of growth. Based on these figures, you can calculate the amount of feed per egg.
Talking about the diet of ducks, do not forget about the mandatory availability of water near the feeders during their meal and free access during the entire time of wakefulness. Avoid turbidity or stagnation of water. Change the water as often as possible and spending on the vet will be reduced to a minimum.
- One adult uses order 2 liters of water in a day.
- Ducks have the shortest digestion cycle food among domestic birds. The reason for this is a short intestine and a very fast metabolism.
Breeding at home
The decision to breed a duck of the Bashkir breed will immediately ask you how to do this. Incubation method or using a hen?
In the case of choosing an incubation method, to obtain a brood, it is important to observe the following rules:
- Take only fresh eggs for the bookmark (up to 5 days, at a temperature of 8-13 degrees, turning 3-4 times a day), having no visible defects, cracks and chips. Ellipse eggs correct, without concave and curved sections.
- Before you bookmark produce disinfection weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- 7 days the temperature in the incubator 38-38,20C at a humidity of 70%. Egg flipping 4 times a day.
- 8 to 15 day increase air exchange in the cavity of the incubator and reduce the temperature to 37.80 ° C. Humidity 60%. We turn over 4-6 times a day.
- From 15 to 25 days the period is identical to the previous one, but we add here egg cooling 15-20 minutes two times a day. This is due to the processes inside the egg, when the temperature inside can rise above 400C.
- From 25-28 day - hatching ducklings. Given the considerable thickness of the shell, you can help ducklings by increasing the humidity to 85-90% and air flow. This will soften the shell. Do not forget to turn all the eggs.
Compliance with these simple rules will allow us to expect, practically, a simultaneous brood of birds. Within a few hours, the young ones react to noise, light, and stand firmly on their feet.
After the birth of ducklings, together with the hen, you need to move to a designated place with special conditions for temperature and light. The litter, the first 5 days, in this place should keep warm, the temperature in 300C will help to adapt to new conditions.
As they reach 3 weeks of age, the air is gradually cooled to 220C, and by 4 weeks it is equalized at the level of 18-200C. The indicator of the correctly chosen mode is ducklings behavior. Inactivity and torsion signals about hypothermia ducklings.
Open beak, lowered wings, sluggish reaction to food and increased water consumption indicate the need to reduce the temperature.
The first 7 days provide round-the-clock coverage for ducklings. Starting next week, every day, the duration is reduced by 1 hour, bringing to the rate of 9 hours per day. So light day is acceptable until the end of rearing.
The intensity of the light near the feeder, at the beginning, is 40 lux. Gradually reducing this value, do not forget about night meals by ducklings, for which we leave not a bright (3-5 lux) light bulb for the night.
The content of the ducks in the aviary
Duck strongly splashes water at watering. Take care of changing the litter, ensuring it is always dry and friable. Replacement occurs every 2-3 days. Invalid odor of hydrogen sulfide in the premises of young stock. Provide ventilation and ventilation, eliminating the appearance of drafts. Humidity maintain at the level of 60-75%.
How to feed the young
Youngsters of the Bashkir duck are unpretentious in food and consume the food that adults do. Suitable for feeding grain Derti, soybean meal, bone, grass and fish meal, fodder yeast. Dilute the diet with chopped green dandelion, alfalfa, nettle. Add carrots, boiled potatoes, food waste.
As ducklings grow older, the percentage of green fodder increases. The main requirement for feed is freshness and good quality. The priority of taste preferences leans towards dandelion, clover and alfalfa. They will not refuse from cereals to flowering, not coarsened nettle, cabbage leaves, carrot tops or beets.
Clogged, rotted, rancid and soured feed cause infectious and intestinal diseases that cause death of the livestock.
The use of dry food and clean water in a separate container, instead of mash, prevents the death of ducklings and increases the percentage of heads of birds who have lived to the age of 3 weeks.
Pay attention to the composition of the finished combined feed for ducks. The daily diet should include the necessary vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The lack of a number of elements will lead to a weakening of the skeleton (falling on the legs) even at the age of 3-4 months.
An insufficient amount, for example, of sulfur-containing amino acids leads to a loss of plumage, in a short time. At 3 months, the ducks set up the work of the oil gland, and if there is a body of water, the ducks can be released there. Add 3-5 mm gravel to the feed or keep it in a separate container. After 2-3 weeks, you can feed overcooked, shredded food waste.
When adding boiled potatoes to feed, be sure to drain the water. This will prevent poisoning with solanine.
Заболевания уток и утят
Ранее обсуждалась неприхотливость и устойчивость Башкирской породы к неблагоприятным внешним факторам. Disease is easier to preempt than to cure. This rule also applies to ducks of this breed.
Follow these rules so that caring for this bird brings joy and positive emotions.
- Aspire to keep dry litter for birds and cleanliness in the room where the maintenance takes place. Until the bird appears, treat the room with bleach and caustic soda. Dry 3-4 days. Then whiten a 20% solution of lime 2-3 times.
- In the case of domestic withdrawal ducklings or uncertainty about the integrity of the provider of daily young consult a veterinarian with help in vaccination, to prevent major diseases.
- Do not keep ducklings different age in one pen or indoors. Separate them until the moment when the younger ones get stronger, and acquire sufficient resistance to infections and diseases.
- Pay attention to pets. An individual with sluggish behavior, apathy and inactivity is sick. She has, as a rule, ruffled feathers, lowered wings and an unsteady wobbly gait. Isolate the sick as soon as possible from the rest of the healthy birds.
- If you suspect deterioration of the condition, contact immediately the veterinarian, who will help to save the livestock of the poultry yard and minimize negative consequences.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Derivability ducklings at the level of 80%.
- Elevated resistance infectious diseases.
- Normal conditions of detention and speed weight gainregardless of weather and climatic conditions.
- Not fat meat.
- Earlier beginning of laying duck eggs and perseverance in the nest.
- Low feed costs.
- Decorative drakes.
The disadvantages are conditional and are of a general nature, typical of many duck breeds. Appetite, the need for clean litter and water. Khaki ducks have reduced egg production.
The choice of the Bashkir duck is justified and expedient for the farm and a small private courtyard. The advantages of this breed prevail over the hassle of its content.
Description and important characteristics of the duck
In addition to the outstanding indicators of productivity, which will be discussed further, the Bashkir duck differs from other representatives of poultry by the presence of two colors: khaki and black with white breast. The bird has rather dense strong constitution, strongly convex breast, thick short neck. Head slightly elongated, slightly flattened upwards. The beak is large, wide, slightly flattened. Paws are powerful enough, have an orange-red color.
The average weight that a Bashkir breed drake can reach is about 4 kg. The percentage of body fat is minimal. Meat breed has a delicate pleasant taste (without a specific taste). The number of eggs that a duck is able to carry in 280 days is about 240 pieces. Eggs are quite large, each weighs about 80-90 g.
Bashkir duck is considered one of the best meat and egg breeds due to the large number of its undeniable advantages:
- Excellent taste of meat with low fat content (no more than 30%).
- Quick weight gain. Monthly duckling is already able to gain up to 80% of its bulk. When breeding with the purpose of obtaining high-quality meat, it is enough to keep the bird for 2-4 months, not longer.
- Unpretentious breed to conditions.
- Excellent immunity.
- Endurance, which allows the bird to perfectly acclimatize in almost any conditions.
- High rate of hatchability of ducklings: about 80%.
- Earlier onset of egg production - by the age of 4 months, ducks are able to lay eggs.
- Small feed costs: only 2.7 units of feed per kilogram of bird weight gain.
Few people know, but the Bashkir duck is divided conditionally into several varieties, each of which has its own, different characteristics:
- White duck. White is the predominant color of this variety. Unlike the others, this variety consumes less feed, but at the same time it gains the main mass at the age of 2-2.5 months (about 3.5 kg).
- Blue duck. Unlike white, the mass gains not so quickly and the weight usually does not exceed 3 kg. But eggs are capable of carrying much more: for example, a blue duck gives about 130 eggs per season.
- Gray duck. Gray color predominates. The bird is gaining the bulk by the age of 2 months (about 3.5 kg). The maximum possible number of eggs that a gray duck is able to carry for six months is about 115 pieces.
Poultry farmers speak very well of the Bashkir duck breed, because it has a set of all the advantages that make the process of growing it as simple as possible and productive.
Features of poultry
Since the Bashkir duck is considered to be a rapidly ripening breed, by 2.5 months of life it is fully gaining its main weight, and by this time meat has the maximum nutritional value.
Council When the bird reaches 4 months of age, weight gain stops abruptly and the duck begins to molt. It is simply inexpedient to keep the breed under consideration in the household longer than the specified period of life.
Unlike chicken, duck has a slightly different type of intestine and its metabolism is much faster, respectively, the food passes the whole processing cycle very quickly. The principle of feeding is quite simple: it is necessary to feed the ducks 2-3 times a day, observing a strict regimen. So, in the first half of the day, it is advisable to give preference to various wet mashies, and in the evening (just before bedtime) it is better to feed the bird with germinated grain (it will give the bird not only a feeling of fullness, but also useful trace elements). The bird loves all sorts of root vegetables (they should be given in a crushed form), silage, bulky and green food.
In the cold season, the duck can be given cabbage, pumpkin and combined silos, silos of root crops. The bird of this breed willingly eats combined silos consisting of the following components: grass meal, cabbage and its leaves (ratio 1: 3: 6). Such foods in the best way affect the overall health of ducklings and the egg production of adult ducks.
If the breeding of ducks is carried out solely for the purpose of obtaining high-quality meat, a lot of granulated feed with the content of microelements and vitamins should be given to the bird (this will allow to achieve maximum weight gain and excellent egg production of large eggs).
As for the room where the Bashkir ducks will live, grow and rush, it should be comfortable, despite the unpretentiousness of the bird. Make sure that the room is spacious and at the same time warm enough (not lower than +15 degrees), but not damp at all (the simplest ventilation system will help prevent dampness), otherwise it may be fraught with the appearance of diseases in poultry and deterioration of plumage. In the cold season, warmed only outside the room will not be enough for a full duck life: it is necessary to additionally use heaters.