The main destination of horses at all times was the transportation of goods and people. Valued horses, able to run as fast as possible. The goal of modern horse breeders was to raise just such horses. And they reached it - they managed to breed a horse. Its representatives regularly become winners of the competition. The maximum speed of the horse is the parameter most interesting for the participants of the races.
Kinds of speed - average and maximum indicators
Experts identify 2 types of speed at the horses:
- The average speed of the horse is in the range of 15-20 km / h. It can be developed by any individual, even one that does not belong to race species,
- The maximum speed depends on the type of gait and breed. At the races except for the gallop its accelerated version is used - the quarry. Not every horse can develop such speed. Usually it is purebred or English riding horses. The pace of fast gallop can reach from 35-40 to 50-60 km / h.
The speed depends on the structure of the animal's body. So, sports horses are more adapted for running, than workers. They spend less power running more distance.
Athletic horses are better suited for running.
Maximum performance from the animal can be expected only when running for short distances. Usually it is no more than 1000 m. But riding breeds, running at races, are able to move as fast as possible for the whole 15-20 minutes.
American riding horse
If you need to gallop a considerable distance, the animal will have to stop every couple of hours. The exception is when the animal is in danger. Making stops, horses overcome 30-50 km. This circumstance is necessarily taken into account by lovers of equestrian sport.
Red horse at a gallop
The speed of a horse’s run also depends on its suit. It is noticed that red horses are faster than their relatives of other stripes. Affects heredity and innate features of development. The stallion Secretariat was famous for having an abnormally large heart - its size was twice the size of the norm. This feature allows him to stay ahead of rivals.
How does the type of gait affect speed?
Allure affects the speed of movement. There are the following types of it:
- Step - its speed is 4-5 km / h. Race individuals pass up to 7000 m per hour and this is not the limit,
- Lynx is one of the main types of gait. She is much faster than a step. The average pace of trotting is 10-40 km / h. There is even a special breed of horses bred for this type of running - trotter. Her representative is able to circumvent the race horse. Rysak runs at speeds up to 60 km / h. There is a slow trot - 10-15 km / h, working and extended - 50-60 km / h. The pace of movement of Russian trotters is 40 miles per hour. Oryol stallion set a record, having skated at a speed of 50 miles per hour,
- The amble is faster than the trot. It is mainly used when riding, in a carriage or with a carriage. From nature, such breeds as American trotters, rocks of the Caucasus, the Crimea and the Tien-Shan mountains have the ability for this kind of gait
- Gallop is more natural and comfortable than trotting for any horse, no matter what breed it is. Therefore, many of them go to him after a few quick steps. The gallop speed is about 40 miles per hour. At the same time, an animal can run several kilometers, and some representatives of race rocks even more.,
- A quarry is an added gallop, a technically more complex and quickly exhausting animal. Therefore, this type of gait is used only for minor distances. With the help of the quarry, all world records were set, when the horse was moving at a speed of more than 65 km / h, which is almost equal to the speed of the car. To move at such a pace is not easy and usually the animal maintains it for a short time.
Wild animals rarely ride at a rate of no more than 20 km / h. The animal develops such a pace basically only during the competition.
World records and record holders
The world champion is still the Beach Rakit stallion. The fastest horse in the world is a representative of a thoroughbred riding breed, which has developed a speed of 69.6 km / h, having covered a short distance of 409 meters on it. The record was set in 1945.
Only half a century later in 1993, the horse Onion Roll could achieve the same result. But they failed to break the record. Interestingly, the stallion also belonged to purebred riding.
Siglevi stallion Slave managed to run a gallop distance of 804 meters in just 41.8 seconds. It was a race without a rider. The average rate of his movement was 69.3 km / h.
Mostly riding breeds achieve high speeds.
Known and world record for the race for a long distance - John Henry. This representative of a thoroughbred riding breed traveled 2400 meters at a speed of 60.7 km / h.
Individuals belonging to the purebred riding breed, often set records and achieved good results:
- In Mexico in 1975 the stallion Tiskor has caused a stir. He managed in 26.8 seconds to ride a distance of 500 m,
- In England in 1960, a horse named Indienes, in 53.6 seconds, covered a distance of 1000 meters. That is, the rate of his movement was slightly less than 68 km / h
- In Rostov-on-Don in 1965, the stallion Sardar with a rider in 1.30 minutes rode 1500 meters in total,
- In Japan in 1989, a mare named Three Lege-Melt for 2.22 minutes rode 2 km 414 m.
The organizers of the races are attentive to the choice of racers. The horse always checks the pedigree, speed characteristics and health. All information is entered in a special register of purebred horses - a stud book. It reflects the genealogy of each individual. And if in some generation there was a mixture with a different species, then such a horse would not be allowed to go to official races.
Video: horse gallop and trot speed
Counting on how fast a horse can develop, consider its breed. You should not expect from the working speed, which can give horseback. In contrast, the riding horse should not demand the endurance that a worker has. Those who are planning to participate in the races, suitable racers with pedigree. Such a horse will be expensive, but it guarantees a place in professional races.
There are several types of speed horses:
- Average. If we talk about this parameter, it will be in the range of 15-20 km / h. Every horse breed, even a horse, can maintain such a speed of movement. Different breeds have their own particular body structure. Therefore, athletic racers endure running much better than workers. Since they need to spend less on this strength and energy.
- The maximum speed of a horse is determined by the breed and the type of running. Horse racing provides not only a gallop, but also an accelerated version of it - a quarry. So far not all horses can run fast. Pace is especially well able to move thoroughbred or English riding. Usually, running at a fast gallop reaches 50-60 km / h, while as a slower run is only 35-40 km / h.
Gallop speed - 60 km / h
Many purebred animals belonging to the English riding, are record breakers on the run. The fastest purebred horse named Beach Rekit, refers to the world record holders since 1945. In Mexico City, this horse, running a distance of 400 meters, reached a speed of 69.69 km / h. This world record has not been beaten yet.
History knows many records related to horse speed. Against the background of the rest, the most striking is the value of 69.3 km / h It was recorded at a distance of 800 m, which the horse named Siglevi Slave overcame in 41.8 s. There was no rider when he overcame this distance. But despite this, the rate remains very high.
What is the speed of a horse's movement in the long run? The horse named John Henry traveled 2.4 km at a speed exceeding 60 km / h. In the race the horse participated under the saddle.
Siglevi Slave - English record holder
The relationship of speed and type of running
Allure has a direct effect on horse agility. There are four main ways of movement of the horses:
- Step. The speed of movement of a simple horse in this case is from 4 to 5 km / h. Horses belonging to the horsemen, can walk up to 7 km per hour. From practical experience it is known that this is not their limit.
- Lynx is one of the main types of running. With him, the animal rearranges in turn two limbs: the hind and fore. If the trot is correct, then they are diagonally. Pacers do this with their feet on one side. This type of running is much faster than a step, but inferior in speed to a gallop. The average value is from 10 to 40 km / h. Horse trotters are breeds of horses bred exclusively for such a run. They are able to outrun a race horse. Such an animal develops speed up to 60 km / h. Lynx is divided into several types: slow (10-15 km / h), working and added (50-60 km / h). The speed of Russian trotters is kept at 40 mph. And the Orlov breed horse set a world record, breaking the bar at 50 mph.
- Gallop. For a horse, lynx is not natural. Most of the horses, after a quick stride, begin to gallop. It is faster, easier and more convenient for these animals. Such a gait allows you to move at a speed of 40 miles / h for a couple of kilometers. Big indicators show only special race breeds of horses.
- Quarry, he added gallop, is used only at short distances. This species is very complex and exhausting the animal very much. It was with the help of it that almost all world records were set (over 65 km / h). This speed is comparable to the speed of the car. True, the horse can keep it only a short time.
Wild animals rarely overcome the mark and at 20 km / h. Horse speeds are shown to us during races and other competitions. The lynx and gallop of thoroughbred horses are admired by the spectators.
Modern horses no longer need to solve applied problems with fast movement.
But breeders continue to work on the creation of new and improvement of existing breeds of fast horses.
Horse speed types
Types of a horse run depend on its breed, and, as a result, on its build. In this case, for different breeds the same type of running may have different speeds. This is logical: a working horse harnessed to a cart pulls it, as a result of which it moves more slowly than a purebred Arabian horse.
The breeds have considerable differences in body structure and metabolism. Some horses must be hardy, others - swift, and the third are somewhere in the middle, but all of them can be divided into three types of speed:
- Step. Leisurely type of movement, which is the least tedious for the animal. But even in increments, horses of different types move at a different pace. The speed of movement of the working horse is 4-5 km / h. She moves like a middle pedestrian. Horsemen and horses move at a speed of 6-7 km / h.
- Average travel speed. This type of running is called “trot”. The longest trotters can move at this pace for the longest time - horses bred specifically for this purpose. For working horses this speed is also maximum. On average, their pace is 13-15 km / h. The limit is 20 km / h. The average speed of race horses or trotters - 16-20 km / h.
- Maximum speed of movement. It is recorded only at certain competitions. The best race figures available in 50-60 km / h. Some champions are able to develop a higher pace. The speed of a race horse with a rider may not exceed 60 km / h. Officially, these figures have never been registered.
To understand the maximum speed with which a representative of a particular breed can move, each type should be considered separately. A certain variety has its own records and its capabilities. It must be understood that the gait (this is the name of the type of running in a horse) is divided into a much larger number of types. But not all breeds have access to every type of gait, therefore the highest speed of movement is separately noted for each type of horse. And they are measured differently, at different distances and in different conditions.
Run speed heavy horses
Powerful and strong creatures that are able to carry cargo over long distances. They have a harmonious and strong physique, incredibly developed muscles and excellent endurance. Fans of these animals consider them a living embodiment of power and beauty. Of course, in terms of endurance, no heavyweight will outrun a camel, but he does not need this. These horses are used in other conditions. At the moment they are used not only for the transportation of weights, but also at various exhibitions.
Examples of these breeds can be considered the Vladimir heavy truck or the Shair horse. Their body weight is capable of reaching 400-450 kg and more, and height is 160-175 cm. The Shire heavy truck is registered, its weight was 500 kg, and its height is more than 200 cm. But now the question arises, what is the maximum speed of these giants? Their constitution is not intended to run fast. A leisurely lynx is their limit, therefore their highest speed of movement is 20 km / h.
On the other hand, the draft vehicle is able to move at a similar pace, being harnessed to a loaded wagon. But in this matter it is also important how heavy the load is.
These horses are intended only for movement in a harness, and are not suitable as a horse. First, these horses were never trained for such use. Secondly, they, of course, stand rider. But not every rider will be comfortable riding on such a large horse.
Speed of upstarting varieties
It was these horses that were harnessed to various carts (and in winter - to the sleigh) for the carriage of passengers. Couples and fours of high-strength animals were the main force for transporting people before the advent of cars. Examples include the Don or Karachai horses. What speed does a horse of this type develop? A top-up animal cannot match trotters or horses in its pace, but endurance is its distinguishing indicator.
What is the average speed of a horse with a rider or in a harness? It rarely exceeds 22-25 km / h. But riding horses are not sprinters, but marathon runners. In one day, such an animal can go up to 300 km, and sometimes more. Before the advent of cars, when it was necessary to go by carriage or carriage, such horses were required.
We should also mention the Karachai version. This horse is able to keep the same running speed regardless of the conditions in which it needs to move.
When they talk about trotters, they usually mean the Orlov variety. According to a number of horse breeders, these animals are unique in nature. They are related to riding horses, as they were also intended to work in a harness. But their mission is to transport light carts over long distances. And here speed comes to the fore. The trotters got their name for nothing. Their main pace of running is trot. In this case, according to experts, trotters are sometimes able to overtake race horses.
On average, the trotter reaches a speed of 25 to 35 km / h. And what speed can a horse develop with the famous breed of Eagles? Such a horse runs trot somewhat faster than its fellows. He jumps at a speed of 40-45 km / h. Such indicators are already close to the possibilities of race horses. But the advantage of trotters - in their best endurance. They are not such marathon runners as upstart animals, but not sprinters, like most racers. However, 40-45 km / h is not the limit of the Orlov trotters.
Record holders of this breed are able to move at a speed equal to 47-48 km / h. But these are the results of competitions at distances of 1600, 2400, 3200 and 4800 m. Naturally, these are competitions in trot. At such races only trotters compete, and the record here belongs to one horse. The fastest Oryol mare was able to cover a distance of 1.6 km in 1.56 minutes (according to other sources - 1.57). That is, she managed to trot to reach a speed of almost 50 km / h.
Riding horses - the fastest of all breeds. Among them stands out the English variety. It is a purebred English horse - the fastest of all existing. The fastest moving speeds are available to riding animals: gallop and quarry. The quarry is also called extended canter, and it is not only the fastest, but also the most difficult. In general, all racers are sprinter, and most of their achievements recorded at relatively short distances.
Riding horses - the fastest, but the breeders are constantly continuing to improve their running characteristics. Now the speed of fast movement on a horse is needed only at the races. These animals are not currently used as workers. Для конной полиции больше подходят рысаки или верхоупряжные лошади, а в сельском хозяйстве используются в первую очередь тяжеловозы, но тем не менее верховые остаются популярны во всем мире. Все благодаря своей красоте и способности бежать быстрым и грациозным галопом.
Рекордсмены среди верховых лошадей
На беговой дорожке на скачках проще всего определить, какая именно лошадь самая быстрая. Даже во время быстрого галопа нетрудно зафиксировать победителя на скачках. А затем — определить скорость его галопа, после чего можно будет решить, был ли установлен новый рекорд. In the world there are many records related to horse racing. It does not make sense to list all the achievements regarding the speed of riding horses. It is better to quote one from the horse breeders forum:
“There is evidence that the English riding horse is the fastest of the existing breeds. That she owns most of the records of movement. One of them: at the races in Mexico City, the stallion Beach Racit managed to run at a speed of 400 meters at a speed of 400 meters to 69.7 km / h. Not much worse was the speed of the gallop at Siglevi Slave. This horse was somewhat slower. Her record is 69.3 km / h, but this galloping speed is already 800 m. ”
Mustangs and their running speed
Many authors continue to romanticize the image of the Mustang. Wild horse, whose image is forever associated with speed and freedom. But is it possible to compare her pace with purebred horses? Alas, but, according to experts, these animals do not have high speed. When compared to other creatures in the wild, mustangs are quick.
But these are only feral domestic horses. They crossed uncontrollably in the wild and no work was done to improve their handling characteristics. Now there are few of them left, and they live in reserves, so experts are more interested not in their speed, but in how to save the horses from complete extinction.
SPEED OF MODERN HORSES
Over the course of evolution, the animal itself has changed: this is caused by climate change, and consequently the habitat. The climate on our planet has become hotter, so the number of forests has decreased markedly. There appeared more semi-desert and steppe zones, where it was harder to escape from predators. The horses needed to develop a significantly higher speed in order to escape from them, which resulted in changes in the structure of the animal's body. Its height and length increased, the legs became longer, the side toes on the legs became smaller, and the middle finger became larger and turned into a hoof. All these changes did not make the maximum, but the average speed of the horse equal from 15 to 20 kilometers per hour.
When 6000 thousand years ago a man first saddled the "wild beauty", it was then that a new era began for man and for the horse itself. From that moment on, the horse became a loyal friend and helper. Together with a man, they began to conquer new heights, expanding the limits of their capabilities.
- Drivers are individuals that were used as a vehicle, they are comrades on the battlefields, and also used as participants in sports competitions.
- Freight - these are the horses that were used as pulling force. A riding horse is faster than a freighter.
Many are still interested in the question - what speed does the horse develop? Let's start with the important point of interest - step.
Horse pitch is called - gait . A step is the slowest way to move; if we compare a freight horse and a riding horse, it can be seen that the average speed of a riding horse can be 4 to 7 kilometers per hour, while the average speed of a freight step is 3 to 5 kilometers per hour. Such a difference in the speed of the horse is explained by the fact that the cargo is forced to expend additional efforts on dragging a heavy load: during the step, the least amount of effort is expended, and the work time increases accordingly. At all, There are three types of horse step:
- A quiet step in which movement is significantly reduced, but great efforts are being made.
- Normal step.
- Accelerated or fast pace.
Lynx is a type of gait. Lynx faster pace, but slower gallop. However, specially trained horse trotters can run at a speed roughly equal to the speed of a slow canter. The trot speed is approximately 12 or 13 kilometers per hour. It should be noted that the animal can move like this for a maximum of twenty minutes, after which the horse moves to a step.
It is not recommended to load the horse with a load that weighs more than 7% or 8% of the body weight of the animal itself. In nature, a horse changes its pace, alternately moving from step to trot. And after the gait trot, it will walk in about 5 or 10 minutes. Such cycles are necessary for the animal to rest and restore breathing.
Gallop is also a type of gait.. This is the fastest type of gait, it is divided into three types: slow canter, normal canter and frisky canter. With a slow gallop, the speed can develop more than 20 kilometers per hour.
Under normal canter, these indicators change and amount to 40 kilometers per hour. At a frisky gallop, which is called "quarry"when the horse moves almost in two tempo jumps. The maximum movement can then exceed 60 kilometers per hour. It is natural that at this speed the animal can run no more than 2 or 3 kilometers.
In nature, wild horses move at such a speed only when their lives are in danger, or if short distances are required to quickly overcome. Those individuals who participate in races can maintain the speed of gallop for 15 or 20 minutes. Such indicators are achieved only through training.
If we talk about horse racing, the world record in running at a distance of 409.26 meters in 1945 in Mexico City, was set by a stallion named BEACH REKIT, he ran at a speed of 69.69 kilometers per hour. BEACH REKIT is the fastest horse in the world. This result is an absolute record in horse racing at this distance in the world. BEACH REKIT belonged to purebred stallions of the QUOTERHORS breed. The fastest horses in the world are considered thoroughbred English breed horses. This is largely due to the fact that the internal organs, and most importantly, the heart of this elite breed, are more adapted for high-speed driving. Many world experts highly appreciate the quality of this breed.