Karelian Bear Dog (Eng. Karelian Bear Dog) is a breed of hunting dogs that was used by the northern peoples for catching large animals. At home is considered a national treasure. Bear husky is considered fearless, aggressive, with it preys on large animals, including bears.
According to archaeological research, dogs are very similar to modern Karelian bear dogs and Russian-European husky, have lived in Europe and Scandinavia since the Neolithic Age. These spitz-like dogs became the ancestors of not only the Karelian bear dog, but also the Russian European husky. The ancestors of the Karelian bear dog lived in Finland before the arrival of the Vikings. By natural breeding, dogs resembling a spitz were specialized. With small hunted squirrels and martens, with larger and more aggressive wolves, wild boars, elks, or used as sleds. The results of the excavation of Viking burials in Denmark, Britain, on the Isle of Man, suggest that these dogs were common and popular. They were often buried with their owners, as they believed that the dog would follow him in the afterlife. They passed the test of time, revolution, civil and world wars and became the modern treasure of Finland.
But the modern bear like comes from the areas of Karjalankarhukoira in Finland and Bjornhund in Sweden. In 1917, Finland gained independence after it lost it in 1809 and became part of the Russian Empire. In 1920, an agreement was signed under which the official borders between the USSR and Finland were established, according to which part of Karelia was withdrawn by the USSR.
This agreement divided the development of the breed, as until this point, the dogs were a single breed, but then they were divided into a Karelian bear dog and a Russian-European husky. Finnish breeders continued to breed dogs for hunting and shows, and first appeared with them at a dog show in Helsinki, back in May 1936.
During World War II, the population suffered greatly as Finland participated in the conflict. In 1939, the winter war began, when the USSR attacked Finland and most of the hostilities were fought on the territory of Karelia. In March, a peace treaty was signed, but according to it the country lost part of the territory. The world was short-lived, and in June 1941, Finland, hoping to change the territorial losses incurred in the framework of the Moscow Peace Treaty, in alliance with Nazi Germany again struggles unsuccessfully against the USSR. The war ends in defeat and even greater losses. The northern part of the country lies in ruins, the number of surviving Karelian dogs goes to tens. Karelian breeders literally comb through the remaining places and buy all the dogs, hoping to save the population. Each Karelian bear dog that exists today comes from 43 surviving ancestors found after the war and used in breeding.
In 1945, the English Kennel Club recognizes the breed, it receives the official name - Karelian Bear Dog. In 1946, registration begins, and by 1951 the number of registered dogs reaches 100 per year. Today, this number reaches 600-800 dogs per year, and about 18,000 in total in Finland where they are among the ten most popular breeds.
Karelian Bear husky is a compact, medium-sized dog, typical Spitz, similar to the Russian-European husky. Males at the withers reach 54-60 cm, females - 49-55 cm. Weight for males 25-28 kg and 17-20 kg for females. The color of the fur of a bear husky is black, with clearly visible white spots on the head, neck, chest, abdomen and paws. Black color may have a brownish or matte shade, but other colors are considered a serious drawback. The coat is double, with a straight and coarse top and a thick, dense undercoat. Must be direct, waviness and curliness are unacceptable. There is a pronounced mane on the chest and neck. In males, it is significantly more developed than in females. On the tail, the coat is longer than on the body, but without feathering. The tail is coiled, with a white mark on the tip.
Karelian bear dog is very intelligent and tied to the owner, with whom it forms a strong relationship. These dogs do not trust strangers, do not let them in and treat well only to their family members. Territorial by nature, they are wary of strangers, they are barking at them, but they can only bite with an immediate threat and are generally not very suitable as defenders. But they willingly, loudly and often bark. During the inspection of the territory, they have strangers, dogs, cars, strange sounds, a bird in the sky, or simply out of boredom. This factor should be taken into account if you live surrounded by neighbors.
In relation to other dogs that have wandered into the territory of the husky, aggression will be displayed. Those dogs that have grown up together usually coexist peacefully, provided that there is a hierarchy in the pack. But to bring a new, adult dog should be with great caution, especially if it claims to the leadership in the pack. Some bear huskies, even bitches, can remain enemies for life. Since the spitz-like rocks are distinguished not only by their territoriality, but also by their size and strength, they are strong and aggressive in a fight. But, unlike other breeds, they do not kill the opponent, but simply solve the conflict. Stop if the opponent surrenders or runs away.
Remember that these are innate hunters and they are always aggressive towards other animals. True, the centuries of living in the village have taught the Karelian huskies to quickly understand who can be touched, and who should not. Cows, sheep, they are of little interest, but cats and rabbits will not be good. Various poultry are usually safe, but only if the puppy has been taught since childhood to ignore them.
The Karelian bear dog has a thick, double coat, with a dense undercoat. If you plan to keep her in the house, then you need to comb it regularly. Usually they molt twice a year, but dogs living in warm climates can molt evenly throughout the year. Keeping in the house means that you will have to not pay attention to wool lying on the floor, furniture and flying in the air. Regular brushing helps reduce its amount. For the rest of the care, the dog is unpretentious, as befits a northern hunter.
The Karelian Bear Dog is one of the healthiest breeds in the world. At the moment there are no serious genetic diseases that it would inherit. However, small anomalies occur in any purebred dogs.
Characteristics of breed Karelian bear dogs
Karelian Bear Dog (Karelian Bear Like) - northern investigative hunting dog breed. It was bred as a universal breed for hunting for different game: bears, elks, wild boars and others. But since she showed excellent working qualities in hunting for a bear and became famous for courage in relation to this beast, in 1936 the breed got its name the Karelian Bear Dog.
She also shows excellent results in hunting for fur-bearing animals: squirrel, marten, badger. Karelian Bear Like is hardy and unpretentious, has an excellent sense of smell, a strong hunting instinct and an unsurpassed orientation to the terrain. She should bark to notify about the prey, grab the prey and not release until the hunter comes. Dogs have particularly strong jaws, from which it is almost impossible to get out.
In 1945, the first breed standard was approved, and the first dogs in the breed were registered in 1946.
Today it is the pride and national treasure of Finland.
People have learned to use her abilities not only for hunting for clumsy toes. In the USA and Canada, for example, this husky helps the rangers find problematic bears, which get used to walking in the garbage, where, unfortunately, unpleasant meetings with people take place. After the rehabilitation of the animal, the dog barks him into the forest and tries to discourage him from approaching people forever. Thus, the huntsmen are trying to wean the bears to roam the dustbins, putting themselves and people at risk.
Description of breed Karelian bear dog and the standard MKF (FCI)
In the photo, a Karelian bear dog stands in a side stand on the grass.
Purpose: for hunting moose and bears. Her task is to find the beast, bark signal and keep prey until the arrival of the hunter.
FCI classification: Group 5. Spitz and primitive breeds, Section 2. Northern hunting dogs. With obligatory working tests only in the Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland).
General appearance: medium-sized and strong build dog with thick coat of black and white color, erect ears and small attentive eyes.
Important proportions: body length slightly exceeds the height at the withers. The depth of the chest is about half the height at the withers. The ratio between the muzzle and the skull is approximately 2: 3. The length of the skull is equal to its width and depth.
Behavior / Temperament: bold, self-confident with a balanced character. Never shows aggression to people, but she is able to behave aggressively with other dogs. Strongly developed fighting spirit.
Head: has the shape of a blunt wedge.
The skull: wide, slightly visible when viewed from the front and in profile. Wide between the ears. Frontal groove barely visible. Brow arc slightly pronounced.
Stop (transition from the forehead to the face): mild, rather prolonged, gradually rises to the skull.
Muzzle: deep, tapers to the nose. The back of the nose is straight.
Lips: thin, tight, pigmented black.
Nose: the nose is large, black, and wide nostrils are well developed.
Photo Karelian bear dog close-up
Jaws / Teeth: Scissor bite correct. Jaws are very strong and strong. The pressure of its jaws at the bite (to keep the prey) can reach 70 kg, which is 2 times stronger than a person can bite. The teeth are well developed, there must be a complete dental formula of 42 teeth.
Cheekbones: zygomatic arches pronounced.
Eyes: small, oval, brown in different shades (yellow not allowed). The expression is very attentive.
Ears: erect, set high, medium in size with slightly rounded tips.
Neck: muscular, medium length, arched. Without suspension.
Withers: pronounced, especially in males.
Back: straight, strong.
Loin: short, muscular.
The croup: wide, strong, slightly sloping.
Chest: bulky, not too wide, approximately elbows. The ribs are slightly curved, the front part of the chest is clearly visible, although not too wide.
Bottom line: slightly matched.
Tail: set high, medium length, twisted into a ring and curled over the back, the tip of the tail touches the body on either side or back.
Were limbs: strong, with strong bones. Seen from the front, straight, parallel. Shoulder bones and shoulder blades are equal in length, forearm longer.
Shoulders: oblique, muscular.
Shoulder bones: slightly sloping, strong.
Elbows: directed strictly back, located on a vertical line, lowered from the top point of the blade.
Forearm: strong and vertical.
Pastern: Medium length, slightly sloping.
Front feet: tight, rounded, tapering slightly in front. The pads are elastic, the side surfaces are covered with thick wool. The claws are strong.
HINDQUARTERS: Strong, muscular, straight and parallel when viewed from the rear, the anterior line of the hind limbs clearly curved.
Thighs: broad, long, very muscular.
Knees: directed strictly forward, angles of moderate severity
Lower thigh: Long, muscular.
Hock joints are low with prominent angles.
Hocks: short, strong, vertical.
Hind feet: collected, slightly longer and less arched than the front. The pads are elastic. The claws are strong.
Gait / Movement: lungs, with a wide grip of space and without effort. The dog moves easily from trotting to gallop, which is the most typical gait. Legs move in parallel.
Skin: skin is thick, without folds.
Wool: coarse hair coarse, straight. On the neck, the back and the backs of the hips, the coat is slightly longer. The undercoat is soft, very thick.
Height at withers: Males 57 cm, Bitches 52 cm, deviations of ± 3 cm are allowed.
Weight: Males 25 - 28 kg, Bitches 17 - 20 kg.
Disadvantages / Defects: any deviation from the above is considered as a disadvantage / defect and the entire severity of the impact on the health and well-being of the dog should be proportional to the degree of its severity:
- Light bones
- Narrow skull
- Overly prominent forehead
- Narrow face
- Yellow eyes
- Soft or large ears hung
- Neck pendant
- Too deep or barrel chest
- Straight or insufficiently twisted tail
- Straight shoulders
- Straight hock and flat feet
- Dewclaws on hind legs
- Wavy hair
- Predominant white color with black markings or the presence of the so-called wolf hair
- Aggressiveness towards people
- Overshot or overshot
- Hanging ears or with hanging tips
- Different color, except as described in the standard.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioral abnormalities is disqualified.
PS: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Karelian Bear Dog Character
By the nature of the Karelian bear dog courageous, purposeful, efficient, responsible and very loyal. This true hunting breed is ideal for keeping an experienced hunter who can appreciate all the qualities.
Despite the evil attitude towards the beast, it never shows aggression towards people. With the owner and members of the family in which this loving, affectionate, gentle, devoted friend and excellent helper lives. To outsiders is wary and incredulous, but without aggression. Not suitable for keeping as a caretaker, but always informing about the arrival of a stranger or the approach of an animal.
Pictured devotional look: Karelian Bear Dog
It is hardy, strong, physically developed, easily adapts to any climatic conditions. She is not afraid of cold at all. Despite the fact that the Karelian bear dog is small, it does not like confined space and cannot live in a city apartment all the time. She will feel much more comfortable outside in the aviary, as she needs open space and freedom of movement.
On a hunt, a Karelian bearlike gambler, hardworking, able to make independent decisions, can go far after the beast (especially males), but always returns to the owner. In spite of congenital malice towards game, they are careful, soberly assess the situation while hunting, try not to risk (by the way, this ability saves lives for many dogs, especially when hunting for a bear and a boar) and work well on the trail.
Males are more stubborn and capricious, always trying to dominate, especially over the female half in the host family. This cunning man will pretend to be a good old until it is profitable for him, and then as they say: “Look for the wind in the field,” he will run away and come when he wants. Bitches are calmer and more docile. But in any case, a Karelian bear dog needs a patient owner with a firm and fair character.
This husky is not suitable for a family with children, because it will not tolerate an unceremonious attitude on the part of children towards itself, it is too capricious and independent and a loving pet will not work out of it.
Poor live with other animals in the house, especially small animals that will constantly hunt. Even if she is patient with other dogs in the family, she will not let anyone to her bowl.
They need early socialization and constant communication with animals from puppyhood. With a puppy like a bear, you must complete the course OKD (general course of training). Seek help from an experienced dog handler who teaches your Karelian bear dog to obedience. The owner must constantly be strong in character (cruelty and brutal treatment - never), otherwise one should allow a person to be weak, the Karelian bear dog immediately tries to dominate.
Despite the stubborn and capricious character, the bearlike dog lends itself well to training, easily remembers the commands, because it has an excellent memory.
In 6 -7 months of age, a puppy likes to be trained to hunt small animals: squirrel, marten. Upon reaching 1 year old, they lead him to the preframe for a bear or a boar.
Interesting: dogs - hunters have one interesting ability, they are able to turn the beast on the hunter. This is a very interesting sight, the dog runs parallel to the beast (elk, deer), does not come close and only barks softly. The beast is not afraid and continues on its way, and in the meantime the dog slightly rounds up the movement and the prey begins to turn towards the hunter. But the owners claim that it is impossible to teach such a thing specifically, it is an innate ability.
Caring for a Karelian Bear Dog
The Karelian bear dog is not whimsical in care, the hard self-cleaning ostevoy hair, the undercoat is thick, the wool does not smell like "dog", sheds. Линька обильная, происходит 2 раза в год.
Расчесывать 3-4 раза в неделю металлической щеткой или гребнем. 2 раза в месяц прочесывайте шерсть пуходеркой по направлению роста шерсти, так вы быстрее уберете отмерший волос.
During the period of the Vienna-autumn molt, the wool will have to be combed every day by a furminator (a wool removal tool that speeds up the molting process, does not damage when combing the guard hair and gently pulls out the undercoat).
Bathe as little as possible or as necessary with shampoo for wire-haired breeds. In winter, the husky perfectly cleans its fur on snow. She loves to frolic and tumble in it.
Examine eyes and wipe with chamomile decoction once a week to avoid souring. Each eye is wiped with a separate soft, lint-free cloth. After washing the eyes, do not let the dog outside until they are completely dry (especially in winter).
In the photo the Karelian bear dog attacks a brown bear.
Ears once a week to check the inside of the auricle to wipe with a damp cotton pad dipped in warm water. A healthy ear with a pleasant pink color, without excess sulfur, an unpleasant smell or liquid.
Claws should be cut once a month with a large nail clipper.
Paws especially after the hunt, inspect for cuts and cracks. Treat the wounds with an antiseptic, and in order to avoid cracks, rub the vegetable oil into the paw pads and add it to the diet with the calculation of 1 part. in a day.
Bear teeth do not need cleaning; they are not susceptible to the formation of caries and tartar.
Worm-drying is carried out 1 time in 3 months. Be sure to consult with the veterinarian about the drug and the dose, based on its weight and age.
Ticks and fleas: regularly treat Karelian bear husky with a remedy for ectoparasites. Thick wool and dense undercoat make it impossible to examine the skin for the presence of parasites, and only constant treatment will save your pet from these harmful bugs.
Happy Karelian bear dog - photo
Fleas cause severe itching, they carry diseases from other individuals and can cause the appearance of worms if the dog swallows them while they bite.
Ixodic ticks are carriers of a deadly disease - piroplasmosis (babesiosis). Unfortunately, they are particularly susceptible to attack by ticks, as they are regularly in the forest and run around in thick bushes.
- Lethargy, apathy
- Increased body temperature
- Refusal from food and drink
- Yellow whites of the eyes
- Falls on his hind legs
- Red - brown urine
Noticing the above symptoms, immediately contact your veterinarian for help, because the health and life of your pet depend on a correct diagnosis and timely medical treatment.
Funds from ectoparasites are of several types:
- Drops on withers (valid for 3 weeks)
- Collar (has an effect when regularly worn)
- Tablets (valid for 3 weeks)
- Spray (applied to wool, and in case of infection with fleas, I process loungers and things)
Walk: at least 2 times a day. Walking active, long with physical exertion. Even when kept in an open-air cage, regularly walk with a Karelian bear dog, he needs to communicate with a person. Hunting and going on nature is a vital necessity for a Karelian bear dog.
Eating a Karelian Bear Dog
Nutrition Karelian bear dogs pick up high-calorie, balanced and fast digestible. She has a strong digestive system and excellent health. They are not prone to allergies and may be contained in the finished feed or natural food, the main thing is not to mix these two types in one feeding.
For any type of food, follow simple rules and your dog will be healthy and full of energy.
- For such an active and hardy breed, 50% of the diet should be meat.
- Ready-made feed, choose only premium
- Food is fresh and warm (room temperature)
- Permanent access to water
- The dog is always fed after walking.
- The portion should be eaten in the sapling within 20 minutes, if it refuses to eat we hide the food until the next feeding
- Never give prohibited foods
- New products are introduced gradually into the diet
- Meat (veal, poultry, rabbit) to give raw or scalded boiling water. If you are afraid of infection with helminths, freeze the meat for several days in the freezer.
- Turkey and chicken neck
- Vegetables and fruits
- Cereals (rice, buckwheat)
- Offal (liver, ventricles, scar, heart)
- Fermented milk products (kefir, low-fat cottage cheese, yogurt without additives)
- Vegetable oil 1 t.lozh. per day (olive, flaxseed, sea buckthorn, etc.)
- Boneless sea fish
- 1 h. honey once a week
- Fatty Meat (Pork)
- Fresh bakery
- Smoked products
- fried food
- Tubular bones of birds
- River fish
- The nuts
Breed has about a hundred years. Its first representatives were withdrawn at the end of the 19th century. In the breeding they used an old Finnish breed and descendants of Arkhangelsk huskies, who were brought to Karelia earlier by hunters. By crossing two breeds, scientists managed to obtain individuals that inherited the best qualities. The resulting offspring was used to catch and search for large game - wild boars, bears, elks.
The active development of the breed began in 1934. During this period, the very first nursery of Karelian dogs appeared. And the following year, pedigree representatives were generally recognized by the canine community.
But the Soviet-Finnish war did not spare the breed, significantly reducing its number to several dozen individuals. As indicated in some documents, literally forty dogs survived. These dogs were taken to European countries for conservation and breeding, and thanks to the efforts of dog handlers, it was possible not only to save the breed, but also to restore it.
Today the breed is not so popular, but it is especially appreciated by the northern peoples for their excellent hunting qualities, which distinguish dogs from all other hunting breeds.
Coat and possible colors
The Karelian dog has a rather tough coat, straight, has a thick and fluffy undercoat. In the area of the back and neck of the guard hair is longer, in comparison with other parts of the body and muzzle.
For Karelians, a predominantly black-matte color is characteristic, casting bronze in the light. In addition, there are white spots with clear boundaries located in the neck, chest, head, legs and covering the tip of the tail.
Also, the standard allowed wolf or white coat color, diluted with black spots, specks.
Karelian huskies are fearless by their nature, very courageous, stubborn and even stubborn animals, hardy and unpretentious. Since the main task in their breeding was hunting, then it is hunting instincts that are in priority. Going with such a pet to the game, the owner will not return empty-handed. Having driven the prey, the dog will hold it as long as necessary, patiently waiting for the moment until the hunter arrives.
In the process of hunting between the owner and the dog there is a close contact, they seem to merge into one. But this is possible only under the condition that only one Karel participates in the pursuit. All pets of this breed are intolerant to each other. Therefore, on the animal's paddock, if several individuals of a Karelian dog are involved, serious conflicts may arise.
Huskies of this breed are mistrustful of strangers, so do not tempt fate and come close to Karelia, especially if the owner is far from him. But the dog loves its family members. He is very attached to the owner and family, infinitely faithful to them and devoted. Each generously bestowed with love and affection. True, there will always be one authority for him - his master.
With other animals living in the house, the dog also will not be able to build relationships, since all pets will be regarded as prey. Kindred by breed also do not get along in the same house, leadership traits and dominance will lead to serious conflicts.
To a greater extent, these dogs are acquired just for hunting, and not as a pet. If they are not busy, do not get enough exercise, then they can get sick, become aggressive, behave inadequately, spoil the furniture and everything in the house.
In addition, the role of the caretaker Karela also does not fit. In order for him to grow up as a non-aggressive raised dog, he should socialize, educate and train him from puppyhood.
Pet Education and Training
Teach the dog should be since its appearance in the house. Since the character of a Karelian husky is not easy, the owner, who is able to cope with it, must have vast experience in training and raising such animals. Karel is distinguished by independence and independence, therefore he requires a firm hand, a strict voice, perseverance, he must understand that the master is the master here, and his word is the law!
Training in hunting skills (coaching, defense, etc.) is not provided, since these skills are likes, so they initially possess. The important thing in training is to teach the dog to act only at the command of the owner, which is quite difficult for this breed. However, if Karel perceives the owner as the “leader of the pack”, then there will be no problems, and the training will not be complicated.
During classes, it is strictly forbidden to swear, shout loudly at the pet, much less raise a hand to it and show other types of cruelty. This will only cause aggression and stubbornness on the part of the dog. In this case, she will grow up aggressive, vicious and also cruel. Regular, systematic training and training sessions will help tame the dog a little and cope with its over-developed hunter instincts.
It is imperative to walk with your pet every day for several hours a day, since active physical activity allows you to control it. It is recommended to wear a muzzle for a walk for safety. Moreover, walks should be made in various places so that the dog could quickly get acquainted with the outside world. Walking is also carried out with a leash. Otherwise, despite the host’s commands, the dog will rush past the cat running past or the bird flying quietly by.
How to care for Karelian husky
It is completely easy to care for Karel, he is unpretentious in everyday life and does not require special care procedures. The pet's short hair usually does not tangle, does not stick into mats. Karelian bear dogs shed twice a year, and the molt is not as abundant as in other breeds. It is enough to comb them out once a week with a metal comb; you should do it daily when you moult.
The undoubted advantage of the breed is the absence of a specific dog smell. Karelians are rarely bathed, as their wool is practically not polluted. For bathing you need to use special hygiene products for dogs.
However, fleas and ticks can often quietly settle in such thick hair. It is therefore very important after walks and in general daily to carefully examine the pet's skin for the presence of parasites. To prevent infection, the dog should be treated with anti-parasitic agents.
Also in need of care eyes, teeth and ears of a pet. They are recommended to periodically inspect for contamination and infections. In process of pollution they should be processed and cleared, stopping the further development of inflammatory process.
Claws, if they do not grind on their own, provided that the dog lives in apartment conditions, should be trimmed using claws. Visits to a veterinary specialist with a preventive purpose, planned vaccination and deworming are obligatory. If all conditions are met, the pet's life expectancy is about 15 years.
Karelians have excellent health and excellent immunity. They lack any genetically determined breed pathologies that could be inherited by offspring.
All diseases that dogs suffer from, exclusively acquired, developing as a result of inadequate care. Therefore, the most important is care, proper nutrition and timely vaccination.
Rules and diet feeding
Despite the increased activity, the Karelian husky eats little in comparison with other breeds. She will eat as much as she needs, no more, no less. Choosing a diet, it is necessary to take into account, making the pet menu more calorie. More calories are needed in the cold season, as well as in the hunting season, when the dog spends more energy.
If the owner decides to opt for natural feeding, then the diet should be balanced so that 50% is meat, which is a source of protein. The remaining 50% includes:
- cerealsreplenishing the energy balance
- fruits with vegetableswhich are the main source of minerals and vitamins,
- offal - liver, scar, heart,
- dairy products - cottage cheese, sour cream, kefir, yogurt.
It is strictly forbidden to feed Karel from his desk. In addition, you should not pamper your pet with baked pastries, confectionery, smoked meats, chocolate, pickled and canned foods, pork, tubular bones, potatoes, etc.
Also banned are spices, especially salt, as it helps reduce olfactory functions, which is completely undesirable for hunting dogs. Due to the abundance of spices in the diet, they lose their sense of smell and cannot fulfill their primary function. You will also need to supplement the diet with vitamin-mineral complexes.
If the owner gives preference to production rations, then it is worth buying high-quality premium and super-premium food for active dogs. Dry food does not need to be soaked, but when “drying” it is recommended to provide the pet with enough drinking water.
Feed the pet should be twice a day, best in the morning and evening hours. But puppies are fed at least 4 times a day. The rest of the diet for puppies and adults is practically no different, except for the predominance of dairy products in kids.
From the history of the breed
In the Karelian-Finnish epic "Kalevala" you can find the repeated mention of a tireless four-footed hunter - half a dog, half a bear. Cynologists who do not believe in the mythical origin of bear cubs consider them to be the direct ancestors of the aboriginal local dogs and the Russian northern (Arkhangelsk) laika.
At the end of the 19th century, selection work began in Finland with dogs capable of searching for and driving large ungulates and bears. Local individuals with strong working qualities, approximate abilities, endurance, perseverance in pursuing the beast, and good physical data were selected for breeding.
By 1936, the breed group was formed with the necessary skills. The dogs were presented at the national exhibition and received the official name - Karjalankarhukoira. With the beginning of the Soviet-Finnish war, work on breeding the breed stopped. And only in 1945-46 was the standard developed and registered. Karelian bear dog received breed status.
In Russia, in parallel, work was carried out on the breeding of domestic, similar in exterior breed. She got the name Russian European Like. Similar in appearance to the dog, however, differ significantly in their working qualities.
Bear cubs are popular among hunters in the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Portugal, and the USA. The population of Karelian bear dogs in the world is large enough, and many experts consider it the best among the Spitz dogs, but in Russia it is still an exotic rarity.
Breed standard, appearance, photos
According to the FCI classification, the Karelian Bear Dog belongs to the section of northern hunting dogs included in the Spitz and primitive dogs group, No. 48.
At exhibitions and work tests, Karelian bear dogs are subject to strict exterior and workmanship requirements. A dog that has not shown working hunting skills is rejected.
Here are the main characteristics of these dogs:
- The backbone and muscles well developed. Athletic build, strong build.
- Head wedge-shaped, characteristic of all huskies, expands to a moderately prominent forehead.
- Muzzle deep, tapering, but not pointed. Nose black, wide. Nostrils open. Thin lips tight to the teeth do not droop.
- Ears oval shape with rounded tips, oriented forward, set high.
- Eyes small in size different shades of hazelnut. Eyelids black, tight. Look alive, wary, attentive.
- Jaws strong with a full set of large teeth. Scissor bite.
- The neck is of medium length and well muscled. Withers moderately marked.
- Housing powerful, moderately elongated format. The back is slightly sloping, with developed muscles. The belly is taut.
- Limbs strong, with developed muscles, parallel. Paws are arched, rounded, dense. The fifth finger is removed. The movements are energetic, sweeping.
- Tail fluffy, rolled into a ring, laid on his back or pressed to the thigh. A distinctive feature of a bear dog is a fairly large number of puppies with short, up to 5 cm long tails. Kotsehvoost allowed standard, but not welcome.
Wool and allowable colors
The coat is thick and thick. The undercoat is soft, plentiful. Ostev hair coarse, adjacent. Wool on body is shorter than on legs, neck, ridge.
Окрас черный, с бурым или бронзовым оттенком, с белыми отметинами на голове, шее, животе, манишка на груди, пятна на лапах и конце хвоста.
Окрас черный, с бурым или бронзовым оттенком, матовый, без выраженного блеска. Ideally, there should be white markings on the head, neck, abdomen, shirt front on the chest, spots on the paws and the end of the tail.
The dominant white with black spots, the wolf (gray with black, fawn with black), in the specks are permissible. However, the majority of judges at exhibitions consider such colors a serious disadvantage.
Bear Dog Character
Karelian bear husk has a congenital sanguine (easily excitable with a strong process of inhibition) or choleric (strongly excitable with weak inhibition) type of the nervous system.
Dogs with such temperament are courageous, energetic, easily adapting to adverse conditions. Their conditioned reflexes are quickly developed and well-established, but often they lack endurance. The distinctive traits of dogs include stubbornness and a penchant for self-will.
Genetically inherent quality is viciousness in relation to prey, which is often manifested in relation to other dogs and pets.
Karelian bear husk has an inborn sanguine or choleric type of nervous system.
The dog tries to distance itself from strangers, but does not show aggression. Watchdog quality manifests weakly. At the same time, the bear huskies are devoted to the owner, ready to protect him from the beast or other danger, selfless and fearless.
Important. Bear dogs seeking dominance require the establishment of unquestioning leadership by the owner.
Training and education
When acquiring a bear husky, it should be borne in mind that during the formation of the breed, preference was given to hunting-quality workers, therefore keeping as a family dog or guard is not acceptable for them. The course of the protective guard service is not recommended for bearies, this provokes manifestations of evilness.
When training a bear dog requires rigor, even rigidity.
From the owner requires experience in training, the development of genetically incorporated hunting abilities, the regular withdrawal of the dog "to work." When training requires rigor, even rigidity. The use of physical impact is possible only in the most extreme cases of aggression and disobedience.
Raising a puppy begins with fixing the natural inclinations necessary for fishing activities.
Bear cubs need socialization. For villagers, this is, above all, the development of tolerance towards domestic living creatures. When keeping a dog in an urban setting, you should teach a puppy to a leash and a muzzle.
The training of bear cubs is possible only by the owner or under his vigilant control. Board training is not effective.
For the development of hunting qualities is important:
- clear interaction with the owner,
- strict consolidation of actions after the team
- fixing the main commands: “To me!”, “Forward!”, “Back!”, “No!”,
- reaction to the intonation of the host,
- training to the sound of the shot, annoying and distracting factors,
- search skills,
- training orienting instinct,
- trail differentiation teaching,
- a clear consolidation of the command "You can not!", especially when the prospect of using the dog in the hunt for fur-bearing animals
Nachzhivanie and predravku bear husky optimally start at the age of 7 months to a year. During this period, it is worthwhile to decide on the specialization of the dog: large ungulates, bear, fur animal, upland or marsh game.
There are known precedents for the participation of bear cubs in agility competitions. But the main purpose of the Karelian bear dog is hunting.
Important. In the United States and Canada, Karelian dogs are often used for highly specialized service purposes. They scare bears in national parks from garbage cans.
Breed is hunting
Hunting with a Karelian bear dog is somewhat different from hunting with other huskies. The breed is considered universal, the dog works on elk, wild boar, bison, roe deer, bear, wolf, lynx, fur-bearing animal, bird.
Bear dogs are less cautious than other representatives of the huskies, come close to the beast, so the death rate on the hunt is high.
It is believed that due to the excessive aggressiveness of bear cubs, they do not hunt in pairs or pack. However, numerous reviews of hunters indicate that the CCM are able to successfully work together with representatives of their breed or with other likes.
Bear dogs are hardy, follow the trail and drive the beast in all weather conditions. Selflessly hold the beast to the shot.
They are less cautious than other representatives of the huskies, come close to the beast, therefore the mortality rate of bear cubs on the hunt is high.
History of origin
Spitz-type Finnish dogs, Zyryan and other huskies, which have long been inhabited in Karelia, where they were used for different types of hunting, are considered as ancestors of Karelian bear dogs. Hence the great similarity with the Russian-European husky, which has the same ancestors, but was bred in Russia.
Factory breeding of a Karelian bear dog began in 1936 in Finland, after the founding of the cynological community Suomen Kennel Liitto. After World War II, the livestock consisted of only 40 dogs, to which most modern pedigrees can be traced. Began the rebirth of the breed. The first standard was approved in 1945, the stud book was opened in 1946. Today in Finland for the year 600-800 puppies of the Karelian Bear Dog are registered (fin. Karjalankarhukoira). Breed among the ten most popular. In total, about 18,000 representatives of the breed live in the country. Karelian dogs are known in other countries, particularly in America. In Russia, the Karelian hard to compete with the Russian-European husky, which is not inferior to her in working qualities.
Karelian bear dogs are used for hunting small fur and large animals. He takes the trail, pursues, barks and holds prey until the hunter arrives. The work is passionate and gambling, very independent with a pronounced hunting instinct and a wonderful sense of smell. In addition, the Karelian bear dog is well oriented on the terrain.
In the United States, under the Karelian Bear Dog program, green dogs are actively used to scare away bears, who are accustomed to walk around the garbage dumps with impunity and even go to the city limits in search of food.
Video about breed Karelian bear dog:
The Karelian bear dog is of medium size, well built, strong, but not heavy, slightly elongated format with thick coat of black and white color and erect ears. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced. Height at withers is 52-57 cm, weight 17-28 kg. Males stronger and larger.
The head is triangular in shape. The skull is wide, slightly convex. Brow arc moderately expressed, the foot is quite tightened. Muzzle deep with a straight back of the nose, slightly tapering to the lobe. The lobe is black, large. Lips thin fit tightly. The jaws are very strong, the teeth are well developed, the bite is correct, scissor-like. Zygomatic arches are well expressed. The eyes are not very large, oval-shaped, the color brown in different shades. The ears are set high, erect, of medium size, the tips slightly rounded.
The neck is muscular, curved, of medium length, abundantly covered with hair. The length of the body only slightly exceeds the height at the withers. The depth of the chest is about half the height. The back is straight. The loin is short. The croup is slightly sloping. Chest is voluminous, not too wide, rather long. Ribs slightly curved. The bottom line is moderately matched. The tail is set high, of medium length, it is held by a ring on the back, the tip touches the body on either side or back. Allowed natural tail bracing. The limbs are strong with strong bones, straight and parallel. Paws collected, rear slightly longer and less arched than the front.
The skin is thick, without folds. The coat is double, formed by coarse straight top coat and soft thick undercoat. On the back, back of the thighs and neck, the covering hair is longer. Color black with clearly defined white markings on the head, chest, neck, abdomen and legs. Black color can be dull or tinged with brown.
Differences of the Karelian bear dog from the Russian-European husky:
Externally, the Russian-European husky and Karelian bear dogs are very similar and this is not surprising. Huskies from Karelia and adjacent areas served as the source material for the CCM. Russian-European laika was bred from dogs from the same terrain. Thus, the rocks are not only similar, but also genetically close. Some differences in behavior and appearance, of course, can be traced.
Visually, the CCM is more powerful and wide-breasted than the REL. It moves better in deep snow. The format of the REL body is almost square, while the CCM is a bit stretched and can be naturally tail-tailed. The nature of Karelian dogs is less choleric. As for hunting skills and instincts, they are approximately at the same level. As with the reels, not all dogs become outstanding, and among the Karelian there are more and less talented.
Character and behavior
Karelian bear dog balanced, courageous and stubborn, somewhat restrained, but self-confident. She has a strong character and a tendency to dominate, so she needs an experienced owner with a firm hand. It is often aggressive to other dogs, but rarely to humans. Suspicious of strangers and trying to avoid unwanted contact. Territorial instinct is expressed moderately. Some dogs are capable of protection, but more often their guard qualities are limited to barking. With the owner and other family members behaves kindly and friendly, very attached. She lives well with cats and dogs with whom she grew up together. Not recommended for sharing with small animals, rodents, birds, which are perceived as prey. With the joint keeping of dogs of the same sex there is a possibility of conflict.
CCM is not the best option for families with small children. For adult children who respect the personal space of the dog, is tolerated, can become a companion in games, but should not be regarded as a dog for a child.
The Karelian Bear Dog is a born hunter with a well-developed sense of smell, malice towards the beast and hunting passion. Inspired by the pursuit, he can run far, but is rarely lost, especially if there is close contact between the dog and the owner. CMS sees prey not only in the small beast, but also in the large one. Can learn to ignore large farm animals: cows, sheep, goats, but rabbits, poultry, cats are too tempting to resist. Life in the city for the CCM is full of difficulties and dangers. For complete happiness, the dog needs long walks in the forest and realization of inborn talents.
The owners of the CCM claim that dogs start walking on small fur-bearing animals on their own from literally three months of age. Marten, squirrel are showered. At a young age can go far away on the trail, but then return, check where the owner is. Large animals: elk, bear, barking, but, as a rule, keep a distance. Although there are such stupid and brave and evil that come to grips.
Maintenance and care
Karelian bear dogs are not intended for housing maintenance. Most of them fit a spacious aviary with a warmed booth.
Keeping in an urban setting is possible, but the dog requires daily walking and active movement. Keep in mind that the dog is aggressive and must be muzzled while walking.
Important. For several years, in the State Duma's draft law “On Responsible Treatment of Animals”, the Karelian Bear Dog is counted among potentially dangerous dog breeds.
Care of a bear dog is not difficult:
Karelian bear dog is better to keep in the aviary with a warm booth.
- Daily brushing with hard teeth, metal comb. During the molting period, a Pucherda furminator is used. Even from the wet animal there is no peculiar smell of dog.
- After walking or hunting, inspection and rubbing of the ears, nose, eyes with a wet swab is mandatory. Paw pads inspect for injuries, inspect the fingers and remove debris stuck between them. Prickles, twigs are extracted from wool, examined for the presence of ticks, fleas.
- With full walks and the absence of dewclaws, claws are not required.
- Bathing just before the shows. In everyday life, it is enough to wipe a dirty dog with a damp rag.
- Vaccination against the plague of carnivores, enteritis, rabies.
- Regular antihelminthic and antiparasitic treatments.
- Removal of tartar, if necessary.
Feeding a Karelian Bear
Active, energetic bear cubs require a well-balanced, quickly digestible high-calorie diet. However, for its size, the diet of bear dogs is quite economical.
Dogs have a strong digestive tract and are not susceptible to food allergies, so their diet can include both natural and industrial dry food or canned food. Dogs can, without prejudice to their health, move, if necessary, from one type of food to another.
Of the dry feed most acceptable:
The photo shows Acana pellets for dogs.
- complex food for hunting dogs EMINENT Hubert 23/12,
- Savarra ADULT ALLBREEDS DOGS LAMB,
- Purina Pro Plan,
- Husse Optimal,
- ACANA SPORT & ADGILITY,
- Pro pac,
- Belcando Dinner,
During a long hunt, “human” canned food is quite suitable - buckwheat, millet porridge, stew, fish canned food with added oil. You can take along canned food for dogs: Kredo, Happy Dog, Dr. Alders, Huberts Gold, Almo Nature.
When feeding natural products follow the general rules for dogs of medium and large breeds. About half of the diet of young dogs should be meat, meat trimmings, offal, chicken, fish. As a "side dish" porridge (millet, buckwheat, oatmeal), cottage cheese, boiled eggs, vegetables, bran, fruit.
- pork, fat lamb,
- tubular bird bones,
- grapes, raisins,
Vitamin complexes, calcium, and cod-liver oil are additionally administered to puppies for good growth, strengthening the musculoskeletal system. As they grow, the amount of meat in portions is reduced.
Health and life expectancy
With free keeping and regular hunting, the Karelian bear dog lives 11-15 years.
A sedentary dog, deprived of the opportunity to implement hunting instincts, quickly gains excess weight, it develops hypodynamia, disrupts metabolic processes, which leads to early aging and death of the pet.
Important. Bear cubs are practically not affected by hereditary diseases. Of the genetic diseases, they rarely show Ratke's Cysts pocket, which is expressed in the compression of the optic nerves and pituitary gland. The disease is detected in puppies under six months.
Where to buy a Karela puppy
Since the breed is today quite rare, there may be certain difficulties when buying a puppy. There are very few kennels involved in breeding purebred Karelian dogs, so you have to order a puppy in advance and maybe wait your turn for a long time.
You can buy a puppy from your hands or search the Internet on any special sites, but it is unlikely that you will be able to guarantee its pure breed. These may be “half-breeds” or puppies with defects, some genetic abnormalities, and may be completely unhealthy.
The rarity of the breed and causes a high price for puppies. So, on average, the cost of a purebred puppy of a Karelian husky is at least $ 1,300, but it can be higher, because transportation and delivery also significantly increase the price.
The Karelian Bear Dog is a rather complicated dog with a sharp temper, requiring special conditions and a firm hand, suitable for people who have strong will, are steel-like and love to hunt. Therefore, Karel is not suitable for everyone, especially since he is not suitable as a room dog that entertains and touches the whole family.
Upbringing and training
Karelian bear dogs are very capricious and temperamental, intelligent and independent, so often there are difficulties in the process of training and education. In general, they are capable students. Monotonous tasks quickly get bored, the dog starts to get bored and distracted. You can not give a puppy descent. From the very first minutes of his appearance in the house, he must understand who is the leader. Personal contact with the dog is very important; without him, no training will give results. Basic commands are usually learned by standard patterns. It is very important to train a Karelian dog to always respond to the command “come to me”, but even this does not guarantee that, in hunting passion, it will carry it out.
Karelian husky should be educated in strictness, the last word should be left to the owner, but at the same time strictness should be reasonable. You can not shout or punish, without serious misconduct.
CCM is not recommended for inexperienced dog breeders or families with small children. A dog needs an owner who can become a leader and is willing to pay a lot of attention to the issue of socialization and to continue learning throughout the dog's life. Karelian bear dogs start working very early. Буквально с первых месяцев жизни собаку знакомят со шкурками животных. Натаску по крупному зверю начинают ближе к году.
Карельская медвежья собака плохо подходит для жизни в квартире и в городе вообще. Otherwise, it is absolutely not demanding of conditions of detention. Can live in an aviary or in a booth in the yard. It is not advisable to start a Karelian if the yard is fenced with a frail fence, it is likely that the dog will not be able to control his instincts and will run regularly.
Karelian bear dog needs a long hunting leisure. Otherwise, its content often becomes problematic. The dog acquires bad habits, becomes conflict, disobedient, runs away. The CCM is very energetic, active and enduring, it needs long walks, it can become a companion for jogging or cycling. During walking and trips to nature, the dog is not allowed to work independently and especially in conjunction with another husky. There is a possibility that in the future she will independently go hunting.
A Karelian bear dog has a short, but very dense coat. Seasonal moult is strongly pronounced. The rest of the time weekly enough to comb the hair with a comb or brush to maintain a neat appearance and in time to remove overripe hairs.
Since the dog belongs to the northern breeds, the specific smell is not typical for it, as is excessive salivation. Full bathing is shown rarely, once in 3-4 months. Claws are cut as necessary, usually every two to three weeks. Ears are inspected once a week and cleaned when excess sulfur accumulates. Given the tendency to the formation of tartar, it is better to teach the dog to brush teeth from an early age and to perform the procedure at least once a week, to give toys that help to clean the enamel from plaque. If necessary, resort to other methods of prevention.
In terms of food, a Karelian bear dog is usually picky. Well gets used to any type of feed and mode. Among the owners there are supporters of natural food, feeding with dry food and a mixed diet. Each of the options can be considered as suitable if all feeding rules are followed. The dog gets a balanced diet that meets its age size, activity.