Fish and other aquatic creatures

Aquarium fish


In the preparation of the first launch of the aquarium and the subsequent maintenance of the aquarist requires separated water. It is strictly not recommended to pour unburied tap water into the aquarium.

Its bay can lead to a massive death of fish in the next five minutes, since there are impurities in tap water, the presence of which aquarium fish may not transfer.

Impurities are divided into the following types:

Defending tap water, to replace or before running the fish, helps to get rid of two types of impurities: Gaseous, which evaporate into the air, and solid, which fall as sludge to the bottom of the vessel to be settled. Liquid impurities are not removed by settling of water, but the concentration will not be dangerous, thanks to the work of the city water supply system. In general, water settling is used to remove the chlorine that is present in tap water and related substances.

How to defend water for aquarium tap

The way is simple. Pour water into a container for settling and leave for some time. The best choice for a settling tank is a tank with a wide surface and shallow depth. Gather water with a strong pressure from a tap or spray with a shower. This will remove most of the chlorine contained at the stage of water recruitment. Additionally, you can filter the prepared water with an aquarium filter.

How much water should be defended for the aquarium

In forums, novice aquarists encounter the following values ​​for settling time:

It is known that tap water contains solids. But, they precipitate in a few hours. Gaseous impurities in the form of chlorine volatilize when typing water or with vigorous stirring of water for a couple of tens of minutes. It can be concluded that settling water overnight or day is sufficient for an aquarium.

Where did the week come from? I do not know, and experience does not confirm the need for water settling for such a long time, if we are talking about a home aquarium.

Do I need to defend the water for the aquarium

To defend the water need for another reason, in addition to the removal of impurities. This is the equalization of the water temperature during settling to the value of the water temperature in the aquarium. If a sufficient amount of cold tap water is poured into the aquarium, the aquarium fish are at risk of temperature shock, which will lead to poor health or mass death.

Rapid sedimentation with Tetra Aquasafe or Sera Aquatan

Quickly get defended water through the use of special compounds, such as Tetra Aquasafe or Sera Aquatan. The composition is added to the aquarium water, disinfecting it, volatilizing or removing impurities in the sediment. Water is ready for use immediately after adding the composition. The dosage is indicated on the package.

I recommend keeping Tetra Aquasafe or Sera Aquatan in reserve, and defend the water for the aquarium in the traditional way, if time permits.

The importance of defending aquarium water

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of water settling in the aquarium. First of all, it is necessary in order to get rid of all kinds of parasites that may be in its composition. Since all microorganisms need living organisms for their vital activity, in this case the goal of the parasites can be fish. And at the time when the water is settled, next to each other, not a single living object is observed, which leads to the death of all sorts of microorganisms.

Also during this procedure occurs and the complete destruction of bleach, which is also present in large quantities in water. And this is not to mention the possible saturation of moisture with various poisons or hazardous substances that begin to disintegrate only after a certain number of days. In addition, the settled water equalizes its temperature, which allows the fish to not feel any discomfort.

What should be done to reduce the time of settling water?

But if you follow all the rules, the water should be defended for at least a week, and sometimes life conditions and modern realities do not give so much time and then you have to urgently look for ways to speed up this procedure. In this case, special reagents, called chlorinators, are a great help because of their combination of chlorine and ammonia. With their use, literally within a couple of hours, the water will become completely ready for pouring into the aquarium. In addition, due to its diversity and accessibility, it is possible to purchase such reagents absolutely at any pet store.

In addition, the use of sodium thiosulfate is another way to reduce the time spent. These drugs are easily purchased at any market or pharmacy kiosk. But it is worth remembering that they are applied in the ratio of 1 to 10.

Prepare the water

As already mentioned, the quality of moisture directly affects the environment of the aquarium, as well as the level of comfort of its inhabitants, namely the fish. That is why it is necessary to clearly understand that the water flowing in the tap is completely unsuitable for replacement without prior preparation.

And first of all we check the quality of the water that flows in the tap. If it does not have an unpleasant odor and visually does not show signs of rust, then it is allowed for the gulf into the vessel. But even here one should be careful and use only cold, but not hot water, in order to avoid chlorine and other conditionally harmful elements in the aquarium. So, they include:

  1. Solid, precipitated to the bottom.
  2. Gaseous type, with the ability to volatilize into the environment.
  3. Liquid, dissolving in water and continuing to remain in it.

That is why you need to defend the water, so as not to give the slightest chance to affect harmful bacteria on the life of the fish in the aquarium.

Water filtration

The process of water settling is recommended to be held once every seven days. But the replacement is best done not all of the liquid, but only only 1/5 parts. But besides upholding, there is another way to support the beneficial environment in the aquarium. And it lies in the filtration of water. Today there are several types of filtering. So, it happens:

  1. Mechanical plan
  2. Chemical
  3. Biological

What you need to remember when defending water?

Based on all of the above, it becomes clear why it is necessary to conduct water sedimentation. But in order not to disturb the existing balance of the environment inside the aquarium, there are a few nuances to keep in mind. Thus, in the first place, the replacement of water should in no case be carried out too harshly, thus risking to cause the strongest stress among the tiny inhabitants of the vessel, which can even lead to the most deplorable results. The replacement process itself must be carried out in parts and only after the complete purification of the soil.

Also, in the absence of a coating in an aquarium, after a while a thin film appears on it. Therefore, when it is detected, it must also be removed with a clean sheet of paper, the size of which should correspond to the size of the aquarium. To do this, gently put a sheet of paper in the water and lift it, holding the edges. If necessary, the procedure is repeated several times.

And most importantly, it should be understood that the cleaning procedure should be carried out without the use of any chemical agents and without making sudden and rapid movements, so as not to frighten the fish in any way.

Why do you need to defend the water?

The main reason for this is harmful impurities that can harm the inhabitants of our aquarium. After settling, solids sometimes appear in the sediment. Initially clear water after a while can grow turbid.

Many aquarists leave the water for the substitution to breathe for several days, and so that all harmful suspensions evaporate for a week. This assumption is partly true, but it cannot guarantee the quality of the prepared water.

Before we do something, we always know why we need to do it. By keeping tap water out of the pipeline, we are trying to improve its performance so that it does not harm our fish. In other words, when defending water, we get rid of most of the malicious components.

Conditionally harmful substances in the water can be divided into:

  • solid (precipitates to the bottom),
  • gaseous (evaporate from water into the environment),
  • liquid (initially dissolved and remaining in water).

The process of settling can affect only solid and gaseous mixtures, and it does not affect liquid substances in any way.

What should be the temperature of the water in the aquarium?

Water temperature for the aquarium plays a crucial role. It depends on the health and ability of fish to breed. For each species of fish, a completely different water temperature is suitable. Conventionally, all the inhabitants of the aquarium can be divided into heat-loving and cold-loving.

By heat-loving include fish living in water, the temperature of which is not below 18 degrees. Cold fishes are individuals that easily adapt to low temperatures. They can safely live in an aquarium, the temperature in which, will not exceed 14 degrees. The maintenance of cold-loving fish is possible only in large and spacious aquariums.

It is noteworthy that if the heat-loving fish are planted in cold water, then they practically stop swimming. This suggests that significant damage has been done to their health. Preparing water for the aquarium, you should use the tips for beginners, which can be found in the special literature. So, it is possible to choose the optimum temperature for water only after it becomes known exactly which species of fish will live in it.

The thing is that in the literature for each species of fish is given the permissible threshold of the highest and lowest temperatures at which the fish will feel comfortable. In accordance with these parameters, you can choose the future inhabitants of the aquarium so that they all feel comfortable in the same temperature conditions. This will avoid a huge number of problems associated with the maintenance and care of the fish.

How much to defend the water for the aquarium?

To finally get rid of all the harmful substances contained in the water, it must be defended for 1-2 weeks. For the backlog of water is better to use a large bucket or basin. Also, when buying a new aquarium, leave the water in it and drain it at least once. At the same time, this way you can check if the aquarium is leaking. Some pet stores sell special products that neutralize chemical compounds in water. But experts recommend not to neglect the settling of water, even using these drugs.

Solid type impurities

The best result is water settling in the fight against solid impurities. Yes, and standards of sanitation indicate the complete absence of such elements in the water. But, unfortunately, the old water pipes and pipes which have been out of service for a long time, rare preventive repairs and unqualified personnel lead to their presence in the water consumed by people. To avoid such a situation would be possible only if there is a plumbing pipe with plastic pipes. In all other cases, to completely clean the moisture you need to adhere to the following rules. First of all, the water collected from the tap is poured into a transparent container and left for some time (2-3 hours). After a certain time, a visual inspection is carried out for the presence of precipitated sediment and small pieces of rust. If such are detected, the water is poured into a new container and again left for a certain time period. Such actions are carried out until the water is completely clean.

Gaseous elements

Unlike solid, gaseous elements, based on their name, evaporate into the air. But since they are combined with other soluble elements in the aquatic environment, they do not pose a particular danger to the fish. The method of water purification itself is quite simple. It is enough to take water in any of the weights and leave for a few days. Monitoring the volatilization of harmful substances is more expedient to carry out after 10-12 hours. So, the absence of chlorine is very easily determined by the change in the smell of water. If a specific aroma was felt before, then after the settling, it should completely disappear.

Soluble substances

One of the main hazards for fish, are substances that are completely dissolved in water. And the process of getting rid of them also carries with it certain difficulties. So, they do not precipitate and do not evaporate into the air. That is why in the fight against such impurities it is best to use special conditioners that can not only cope with chlorine, but also combine chloramines among themselves. You can buy them in specialized stores. It is also recommended to consult with the seller before buying. In addition, it is recommended to install a biofiltration system in the aquarium that can transfer these dangerous elements.

How much time should be defended water for a small aquarium?

Maxim ka

At night, set aside, in the morning for 30-50% change the water. Substitute twice a week for a third, until you have created normal conditions. Then it will be possible once a week. And read about the conditions of keeping cockerels. They do not like hard water (stones with lime, shells, marble). Glass balls only take away the useful volume of water and spoil the view, that is. The rooster needs pace. 25-28 degrees, tobish in the aquarium should be a heater. Live plants are necessary, the filter is very desirable. Males are unpretentious, but do not mock the fish. In such conditions. she will get sick sooner or later.

Natalia A.

For substitution, it is enough to defend the day, once in 7-10 days you change about a quarter, the labyrinth loves old and soft water, you don’t need to change it completely, and you can’t kill all biology, water starts to settle for at least 12 days; - the pet will only thank you, the heating pad is also necessary, the filter is also desirable to maintain the quality of the water and the mixing of the layers

How to prepare the water?

Freshly tap water is not suitable for animal settlement. Reptiles, fish, amphibians and snails can adapt to it, but on condition that it infuses for several days.

Fresh, domestic water from the tap will kill animals, because chlorine compounds are toxic to the sensitive organism of small creatures. On certain days, tap water contains different amounts of volatile substances, experts recommend turning on a shower and checking the steam and the presence of chlorine to check. If the smell is harsh, you shouldn’t get water on that day.

Regardless of the season, weather and air temperature, domestic water will be different. Be observant if you want to settle the animals in clean water from impurities. Infused tap water is recommended for many pets and plants, it has an acceptable level of acidity: pH 7.0.

It forms an active reaction, creating an alkaline and acidic aqueous environment. The reaction is determined using litmus paper, which is sold in pet stores. Infusing water should not be in plastic containers; it is better to use glass jars with the lid open. The main thing is that in the prepared water, while it is infused, do not get dust and insects.

To increase the pH to the required, you can use baking soda. Peat is recommended to lower the pH. Sometimes before the launch of a new aquarium in the water put samples of trees, reducing the acidity of the water. The aquarium can be filled not only with tap water, but also distilled water, which is sold in pharmacies or in auto shops.

It is filled with small aquariums, but with an experienced razvodchiki warned that such water is poor in the mineral components necessary for animals. Rarely use a liquid from another aquarium, in which there is a stable biological equilibrium for normal life.

How to prepare water with permissible hardness?

Reduce stiffness by filtering and infusing. Sometimes in infused water (a period of 2 days) from the tap add distilled, thawed or rain water. Plants such as roach and elodea, reduce stiffness. There is another way - freezing. The collected water is frozen, and then thawed, defended and poured into the tank.

Increases the rigidity of the aquarium water by adding brine, pieces of chalk or limestone, coral chips to it. Coral chips are recommended to be boiled (2 hours) to soften and prevent parasites. Only after all the procedures it is lowered into the tank.

It is better to run the fish in a day or two, until the water has acquired the necessary parameters. The temperature of the water in which the purchased fish, animals and plants lived should be identical to the aquarium. Again, use a thermometer, litmus paper to test. Не стоит пренебрегать рекомендациями, чтобы жизнь питомцев была здоровой и безопасной, ведь при содержании в некачественной водной среде они могут пострадать.

На что влияет температура воды?

Вода для аквариума, имеющая определенную температуру, может стимулировать нерест. Это касается повышенной температуры воды. Однако это не всегда полезно для рыб. Так, рыбок, которые мечут икру, не стоит постоянно держать в таких условиях. Otherwise, to get offspring from them in the future will be simply impossible. Thus, when harvesting water for an aquarium, it is better to ensure that it is one degree below the norm.


The sedimentation of water gives the most obvious result in the presence of solids. In accordance with sanitary standards, in their tap water should not be.

However, considering the quality of old water pipes (rust in pipes), maintenance of pumping stations by unqualified personnel and other factors, it is impossible to exclude the presence of solid components in drinking water.

If the water supply system is modern, made of plastic pipes and fittings, there will be no suspended solids in the water.

Lime sediment on the inner walls of the kettle says that you have a high carbonate hardness of water and it appears only when boiling. High rigidity is harmful only to certain types of fish. If it is necessary to lower it, then there are other ways to do it. Defending such water will not give any result.

If water is collected from a well, well or spring, the solids may be present in the form of clay particles or grains of sand, which create turbidity. Such a suspension for aquatic inhabitants is not dangerous.

True, not one aquarist will not use such water for his fish.

The presence of clay particles in the water gives a slime, which does not precipitate quickly. Messing with cleaning is not worth it. To accelerate the achievement of full transparency, you can plant floating plants with a developed root system, it perfectly collects clay particles.

Summarizing the solids in the water, you can say:

  • Type water in any transparent container and leave it for several hours.
  • If there are impurities discussed above, then it will be noticeable after an hour (a precipitate will appear on the bottom, or pieces of rust).
  • In the presence of visible constituents of solid impurities, each time before the substitution, it is necessary to defend water (no more than 12 hours, further ineffectively). In the absence of suspensions in water (and they are extremely rare), settling to remove solids is impractical.
  • Once a year we take water samples to control solids.

Gaseous constituents of water

This type of substance evaporates through the surface of the water. Here we can consider the quantitative and qualitative compositions of dissolved gases in water. Gaseous substances in natural water enter into chemical reactions with other dissolved elements, due to diffusion they constantly circulate through the water mirror and the fish are harmless and harmless.

The method of water disinfection for your area can be found in the local water utility, this information will not be superfluous. At new water treatment plants, ozone and ultraviolet cleaning is applied, and such water can be added without fear (it is pointless to defend against oxygen and photons).

The outdated chlorine cleaning method is gradually becoming a thing of the past, but is still in use. Chlorine and its derivatives are poisons. They allow the destruction of both harmful bacteria and beneficial ones, as well as depending on the concentration of large animals and even humans.

Method of elimination of gaseous chlorine from water

Unpleasant smell of chlorine coming from freshly poured water, everyone knows. Water, being in a cup, ceases to smell after a while, which means that chlorine molecules have evaporated.

Having made some observations on settling, it can be seen that chlorine evaporates quite quickly. It is not necessary to stand for water from the tap for more than a day, since the residual chlorine cannot affect the health of the fish.

The important point is the choice of dishes. The greater the area of ​​contact of water with the environment, the faster the gas exchange occurs, and chlorine disappears. From this it follows that when settling water in a large diameter basin, it will become suitable for an aquarium much faster than using a plastic bottle.

Ozone and its effect on fish

With ozone, things are somewhat different. It has no pronounced smell, although it carries freshness. Under natural conditions, we feel it during a thunderstorm, during the operation of air conditioners (ozonizing) and laser printers. Before water is supplied to the drinking pipeline, the process of its ozonization takes place, the ozone molecules are unstable and quickly pass into a stable compound - oxygen. Well, oxygen is not dangerous to fish.

Other gaseous impurities

If you pour fresh water from the tap, then you can observe a certain amount of bubbles on the walls of the tank. They are formed due to the presence of excess gases dissolved in water. When refilling fresh water directly into the aquarium, gas compounds appear on the plants, fish skin, aquarium.

If the fish gets an excess of gas, then bubbles form in the circulatory system, which leads to blockage of blood vessels, gas emboli and, as a result, to death.

Also, the appearance of bubbles can be caused by the method of pumping water into the water supply system. Cold water pumped into the pipes under high pressure loses it abruptly at the exit, and the gases evaporate into the atmosphere. If this water is collected in a glass, then it will be covered in bubbles that pop up along the walls to the surface. It is necessary to defend a little.

With regular water changes in the aquarium, most likely, there will be no bubbles. Fresh and clean water does not greatly increase the number of gas-containing mixtures in the total volume, so you can not be afraid of the appearance of single bubbles on the fins of the fish.

From all of the above for gas mixtures it can be noted that:

  • the greatest danger is chlorine,
  • upholding spend more than a day makes no sense
  • in order to speed up the process of settling, it is necessary to provide strong aeration in the water tank (even simple mixing with a pump will significantly shorten the time for gas mixtures to exit),
  • For the use of fresh water (without upholding), you can add special components to it, which are very large in the sale, and after 10-15 minutes the liquid is suitable for adding to the aquarium.

Substances dissolved in water

The most dangerous components of water are dissolved impurities. They do not precipitate to the bottom, do not fly away into the environment and are invisible. Defending them does not affect.

There are a large number of such substances, and many are not classified. It is almost impossible to say exactly what harmful substances are in tap water without special chemical analysis. In addition, the composition of water is not constant.

You can only say that in water with chlorine antibacterial cleaning there is a mass of liquid chlorine constituents (the most chloramine), which remain on settling. From this it follows that in the presence of chlorine water it is necessary to use special conditioners that will remove not only gas chlorine, but also bind chloramines.

In water, ammonia, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide may be present in large quantities. If the dose is large, then the fish will suddenly become bad when changing water.

The most unstable period in terms of the composition of the water in the water supply is spring. Melting snow on the fields that were treated with various chemicals in the past season form streams that flow into reservoirs. And from them there is a water intake for the needs of the population.

Therefore, it is very important at this time of the year to process water for substitution with conditioners that bind nitrites, ammonia, chlorine, metals, etc. The choice of conditioner depends on your capabilities and the aquarium. This market is now widely represented. It is better to consult on this issue directly with the sellers.

Is there a need for water settling?

In order for the tap water to be normalized for replacement in an aquarium, it is necessary to remove from it all the harmful components - solid, gaseous and liquid.

Today, upholding is very rarely relevant. Solid components in the water supply system have isolated cases, chlorine water derivatives must be removed by air conditioning (chlorine gas is also removed), and liquid ones - only by special air conditioning. Polluted water settles for several hours, and with strong aeration much faster.

From all of the above, it is clear that it is best to use special additives for water. Settling water does not completely remove harmful substances, and in some cases it may even be harmful (a dusty film, stuffiness, etc. appears).

From personal experience:

  • I collect the necessary amount of water for the substitution,
  • add air conditioning according to the instructions
  • perform aeration for 15 minutes
  • I bring the temperature of fresh water (with air conditioning) into accord with the aquarium one,
  • I fill, and that's it.

The advantages of this method of water treatment: remove all harmful substances, no need to wait until the water settles, the pots do not harm the interior of the room.

Video from the company Tetra on how to properly prepare the water for the aquarium:

What is pH and hardness?

pH is a pH indicator of the acidic environment. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, as it is more favorable for most aquarium dwellers. In the case when it is less than 7, the water is alkaline. In order to easily determine the pH of water, it is necessary to purchase litmus papers with a color table, or specialized aquarium tests.

The second parameter of water is hardness. It is divided into temporary and permanent. Water hardness may also affect aquarium inhabitants.
In order to avoid unpleasant consequences, aquarium water should also be checked for permanent and temporary rigidity. It is measured in degrees and is calculated by adding the temporal and constant rigidity.

In the case when spawning of a certain type of fish is necessary, for example, such as neons, in which caviar can survive only in very soft water, water with a low content of hardness is used. However, for most avkarium fish species, water with a hardness content of less than 5 is not suitable for life and breeding. At the same time, too high water hardness, such as 25 degrees and above, is also destructive for most aquarium species. Of course, there are exceptions.

The norm, it is considered to be hardness from 5 to 25 degrees, which is favorable for the vast majority of different types of aquarium fish.

Aquarists who do not want to bother themselves with various dimensions can simply pick up certain types of fish that feel great in ordinary tap water.