In the XVIII century in France, in the town of Fireol, a breed of chickens was bred whose meat was intended for the preparation of delicious broths. Three hundred years of breeding added chickens external charm and egg production.
In a number of countries, faeries are bred exclusively for exhibitions. But beauty is not their main advantage.
Exterior breed: how to distinguish chickens, roosters and chickens
Fireball is derived on the basis of the breeds Gudan, Brahma, Cochinquin and Silver Dorking.
On the left in the photo you can see a rooster and a chicken fireball.
In the poultry yard, chickens stand out for their harmonious constitution, characteristic plumage, five-fingered paws.
Description of breed of chicken fireball:
- Head slightly flattened flatsmall
- Beak powerfulShort, white, light yellow or pink color.
- Comb simple type medium. Erect, leafy, low. High teeth evenly cut.
- Neck tight, medium length with a lush mane that goes over to the back. The faeroleum is distinguished by a characteristic neck collar, some feathers are oriented horizontally, others look up towards the back of the head.
- Eyes red-orange, medium size.
- The face is pubescent, red. Red lobes are supported by tanks, a beard, located under the beak. Earrings undeveloped.
- Trunk slightly elongated, trapezoidal, set horizontally, with a massive chest and well-developed muscles. The back is rather long. Turns into a strong, dense waist with a rich top cover.
- Belly faberoles deep. Chickens are more squat, heavy constitution.
- Tail raised. Steering feathers are short. Roosters have short curved braids. Chickens have a roof-like tail shape.
- Wings snug fit, high up on the torso.
- Legs with magnificently feathered short legs without a “hawkish” shred, well developed. Hocks are white, medium length. A distinctive feature of the chicken faerol breed - the fifth fingerwhich is located above the rear finger, with a clearly separated long claw pointing upwards. The fourth finger is placed horizontally.
- Plumage friable, fluffy, soft. Abundant feathering helps the fireballs in the winter season. Small feather pillows are noticeable.
- Skeleton thin. The skin of all varieties of faeries is creamy white.
- Chickens hatch with yellow, yellowish-white fluff. To know how to distinguish the sex of chickens, you must wait. Gender Differences appear two months after birth, tanks and a beard form at males, feathers at the ends of males wings are darker than at chickens.
- Coloring varied. Salmon and Colombian (silver) color are considered traditional.
Species: salmon, blue, colombian
Chicken and roosters are slightly different in the breed of chicken salmon faverol (lahshuner). In females, the feathers are salmon, pink-red in color with a white border, and a lighter shade on the belly and chest.
The core of the pen is white. Tail, neck dark brown, with a reddish tinge. Legs, belly, breast milk. On the right you can see photos of this breed.
Roosters have tail, chest, abdomen, buck and beard, legs, tarsus — black, brown-red, interspersed with yellow and white. Ivory feathers on the back. On white neck collar and wing feathers there is a black-green or brown-copper strip with a mirror shine.
To breeding is not recommended:
- Roosters without red plumage on feathers of the first order and back, colored spots on the neck, excessive variegation of the abdomen, beard, blotches of white on the abdomen and chest.
- Chickens are not salmon-colored, with black feathers in a beard, with a white feather core.
Standards secured birds with blue, salmon blue, white, ermine, fawn, black, light birch (berken), splash, red and white, striped plumage.
Colombian (silver) market silver-white on the main color. Chickens and roosters are identical in color.
On the mane and tail along the feather rod there are blue-black stripes with green tint. The contour of the pen is clearly delineated by a white border. According to the standard, the tail feathers of females and large males of males can have the same border.
On the wings, the feathers are black with white edging; on the folded wings, the black color is not noticeable. Feathers of the second order and white fluff, without inclusions.
- Birds with gray pattern.
- Birds with a solid black color feather on mane, yellow feathers.
Whites — pure white coloring of hens and roosters.
Blue faberol - determining the color of the plumage of blue of different intensity. The outline of the pen is delineated.
Signs of imperfection
- Does not pass the standardization of the bird with underdeveloped muscles. A short, squat or too high, untrapied body, a curved or convex back, a sharp narrow stiff (back of the body).
- Individuals are withdrawn from the herd fifth finger, with blue, yellow metatars, irregular position in relation to each other of the fourth and fifth fingers, a yellow beak, overly prominent cushions in the area of the nakhhvostiya, a large crest, a long tail.
- Not allowed short and narrow neck, low-feathered tanks and beard, the presence of "hawk shred" cuffs on the plusus, the lack of hair in chickens.
Description of production characteristics
Firelongs belong to the general user, with a bias towards the meat direction, early-breed.
From two months chickens quickly gain weight, suitable for slaughter by 4-4.5 months of age. The weight of cocks is 3-4 kg, chickens - 2.5-3.5 kg.
White, tender meat is valued for its small fiber, juiciness. Gourmets prefer fragrant poultry meat of pasture content. Its taste is similar to pheasant.
Thin skin is easily plucked, no need to singe the carcass. The bones are thin, light.
Egg production is average. In the first year of egg production - 160-180 units per year, in the second - 130.
A mass of eggs is 55-60 g. Usually a hen brings two eggs in three days. Strong shell of yellow, brown, pink color.
The fireballs begin to rush to the age of six months, with a day length of at least 13 hours. Good rush in the winter.
Conditions of detention
Chickens fireball poorly tolerate cells and aviaries. Easily getting fat birds need conditions for the manifestation of physical activity.
Free-range chickens are less likely to get sick, they are distinguished by a large percentage of egg fertility, as they have the ability to obtain trace elements, vitamins, and minerals from pasture.
Mistresses appreciate the market for delicacy, when searching for insects, they do not tear the beds and flower beds.
Do not like to fly. High fencing paddock is not necessary.
Fireworks are lodged in a spacious chicken coop. In the chicken coop make dry litter, monitor the humidity of the air. Chickens do not tolerate high humidity.
Do not allow crowding. With a large number of birds in a small space there is a danger of disease. Feed consumption increases, chickens trample it.
Feeders are hung up or crossbars are made in troughs for feeding, so that chickens do not scatter feed.
In order to avoid fractures when falling from a height, they make round wide perches with a ladder for lifting.
Breeding chickens of this breed
Pure chickens are rare. The German and Hungarian breeding materials have proven themselves well. There are several domestic breeding lines.
The cost of weekly chicks from 300 rubles, two weeks from 350 rubles, eggs incubating from 600 rubles, half a year old birds from 5000 rubles.
The optimal time for breeding chickens is February. In the spring, chicks can already be released for walking, and in the summer the chickens will start to nest.
In order to avoid closely related crossbreeding, leading to the degeneration of the breed, the appearance of defects and deformities in chickens, a decrease in productivity, they contain at least 5-6 chickens and a rooster of another line. However, it is not recommended to contain more than 10-15 heads.
- Eggs for breeding chicks are taken from chickens over one year oldStore at a temperature not exceeding + 10 ° C for no more than two weeks.
- Chickens are more often brought in an incubator. Chickens are not very good hens.
- The temperature in the incubator is kept exactly in + 37.6 ° C. A drop of even 1/10 of a degree results in twisted fingers and toes.
- Hatching goes together on day 22. Newborns are immediately planted on warm, dry bedding, keep the room temperature + 38 °.
- During the period of short daylight spend dosvechivanieespecially in cloudy, dark weather.
A balanced diet is required. Preference is given to dry feed, feed.
Wet mash bags stain the plumage of birds. Pecking out the stuck leftover hens cause each other injuries, get an untidy appearance.
In the summer, 1/3 of daily consumption is green mass, pasture. Of grasses, legumes, and grains, nettle, meadow clover, wood lice, dandelions, purslane, pig, alfalfa, peas, oats, and wheat are considered the most suitable.
After walking the bird is fed with grain, mixed fodder.
The daily allowance of feed, grains (corn, wheat, oats) per head is 150-155 g. At the onset of obesity, they put on a diet, reducing the issue of feed to 80 g.
In winter and springtime, green mass is replaced by germinated wheat grains, pumpkin pulp, zucchini, carrots, steamed nettle, dried beetroot and carrot tops, spruce, pine, and fir needles.
Required vitamin supplements. When eggs are low, oatmeal is added to the diet. In winter, wet food is heated.
With a combined diet feed set 3-4 times a day, alternating dry and wet mixtures.
Chickens: description, photo, video
After hatching, the chickens are fed chopped boiled eggs, cottage cheese, and corn porridge.
On day 11, they start giving full-fat chicken feed.
- 1-30 days 6-8 times, at regular intervals,
- 30-60 day -- 4 times,
- after 60 days - 3 times a day.
Chickens are resistant to diseases, unpretentious. The main danger lies in the high humidity of the chicken coop, bedding. At non-observance of the optimum mode of keeping the bird gets sick and dies.
Features and advantages of the breed
Differ in endurance, resistant to harsh climatic conditions. Quickly reach food maturity and egg production.
With good production characteristics have a beautiful view. Specific features - five-fingered, characteristic tanks, beard, cervical collar.
Among the disadvantages of poultry farmers noted a tendency to obesity, difficulties in acquiring and maintaining the purity of the breed.
Reviews on breed of chicken fireball
We offer you a few reviews about this breed:
Firewalls ... my dream ... Just in our climate, and the foragers are excellent, and myasco, and beauties. They are all good. farmers forum
I admire not only the beautiful flower garden of fireworks in my hen house, I also admire their meat in the kitchen and on the table. The meat of a 6-month-old rooster is fried as fast as the meat of a young broiler. Gentle, juicy, and the taste of meat market favorites has no competitors.
I am engaged in the breed krill. My weight in six months is from 3.200 to 3.800, the weight of the gutted carcass is 2.200-2.600, the weight starts to gain good after 2 months, I would say that they are firing, by 4-4.5 months the carcass looks decent, round and appetizing. With age, the meat does not become tougher and rougher. It is very convenient for me that the time of slaughter is stretched indefinitely, always the freshest, tender meat.
And one more thing, maybe even ridiculous. Their carcasses are not hairy, singe is more for pro forma, Zagorskaya salmon compared to the favorite party after plucking is just a curly punk. The skin of the hen's faberol is thinner and whiter than that of other breeds. And the carcass looks very attractive - pale pink. For us, a favorite, like meat, is an undisputed favorite. farmers forum
Initially bred as a meat table breed of chickens, a fireball, thanks to many years of breeding, acquired high egg production and decorativeness.
Despite the difficulties with the acquisition of rock material and its high cost, the hen breed firewall occupy more and more places in the poultry houses of fans and farmers.
You can watch an interesting video about this breed:
The head is small, the crest is simple, leaf-shaped, of medium size, the eyes are orange-red, the beak is short yellowish-white, under the beak there is a large "beard" covering the small earrings. The ear lobes are red, hidden by "tanks", the neck is short and thick with a lush "mane."
On the photo is a hen from the farm of Alexey Grivtsov (Nizhny Novgorod).
The firewall has a massive body, a broad, somewhat elongated and horizontally set, broad chest, and a small fluffy tail, legs are low, with five fingers, feathered.
The plumage of the bird is loose, “rich”, which allows the Firewall to endure harsh winter conditions safely. The color of plumage is quite a lot, but not all of them have passed the procedure of standardization. The main are salmon and Colombian. Other types of coloring: white, black, striped, blue, ermine, fawn. There is a variant "Berken" (light birch).
Daily chickens are covered with yellowish-white down, in two months there is a "beard", formed "tanks".
In the photo - salmon firewall, this color is most common.
Distinctive features of the breed
The main distinctive feature of Firewall includes not only its decorative appearance, but also a rapid growth rate and resistance to cold. It can even tolerate the severe frosts of the north.
All reviews of the breed Firello unanimously say that, because of their phlegm, they do not know how to quickly establish contact with new neighbors, and at the same time, thanks to natural calm, it is easy to get along with any fellow walkers.
Lack of temperament can cause obesity, especially in chickens. This circumstance must be considered when drawing up the diet and feeding schedule.
Chickens are considered good chickens and caring mothers (some poultry farmers dispute this statement), but in any case breeding is usually carried out by incubating eggs.
According to most reviews, the cockerel looks a little less exotic.
In chickens at the age of two weeks, the sex can be determined by the color of the tips of the wings, in males they are dark, and in chickens they are light. This feature is, of course, not 100% autosexual, but it can help novice farmers.
A lively mass of 3–3.5 kg chickens, 4–4.5 kg of roosters, in the first year, egg production can reach 160 eggs, in subsequent years, 100–130 eggs (on average, one hen carries 2 eggs in 3 days). Egg mass 55-65 g, pinkish-yellow shell. Chickens rush well in the winter, without stopping egg laying, even during severe frosts. The period of egg production begins at about six months, with a light day of at least 13 hours.
The meat at Faverol is tender, with a rich taste and a slight taste of game. Particularly fragrant poultry meat pasture content. The weight of carcasses is 2.8 - 3.4 kg. The Fireball begins to actively gain weight after two months, from 4 - 4.5 months the bird is ready for slaughter. With age, the meat does not become rough and tough. The skin of the carcass is thin and easy to pluck. There is no "hairiness", which on other breeds is cleaned by scorching the carcass.
When breeding the cockerels of Faverol with outbred chickens, meat chickens are obtained, so that the meat properties of domestic livestock can be improved.
Adult bird feeding
When planting a pedigree bird, one should understand that it will be necessary to approach the issues of feeding organization very carefully. Nutrition Fireball must be necessarily balanced, this can be achieved only with the help of animal feed.
It is better to feed the fireworks with dry feeds, the remains of wet mash can stay on the beard of the bird. Pitting up food leftovers from each other, chickens can pretty spoil the look of their furry little beards.
In summer, the ration of birds should consist of one third of the green mass: nettle, wood lice, dandelions, clover and other herbs. I must say that Firello loves greens and all sorts of footstool food, which diligently seeks out on the free range. The rest is feed for adult birds (150–155 g per head per day), corn, wheat, and oats. In the presence of obesity, the bird is put on a rigid diet: 80 g of feed per head per day.
Most representatives are excellent foragers!
In winter, fresh greens can be replaced with pumpkin, carrots, hay, spruce and pine needles, dried greens (birds like topped carrots very much), and germinated grain. We should also not forget about vitamin preparations, which are presented in a sufficient assortment in any specialty store.
With the combined form of feeding, adult birds are fed three to four times a day, alternating mash with dry food. In winter, wet food is better to give warm. Brooms should be eaten within 40 minutes, the rest of the food should always be removed.
Standard feeding scheme: up to 1 month PC-5, up to 2.5–3 months PC-6, then PC-4. After the formation of the breeding herd, extra cockerels are deposited for fattening. To do this, the birds organize free feeding with PC-5 feed and around-the-clock lighting.
Adding corn to the diet will help prevent obesity.
The sooner chicks start feeding, the better they grow. The first feed - crumbly corn porridge, cottage cheese, chopped boiled eggs. Then the chicks are transferred to vitaminized feed. До 10 дней молодняк кормят 6–8 раз в сутки с равными промежутками, от 30 дней до 60 дней – 4 раза в сутки, после 60 дней – 3 раза в сутки.
This photo of chickens for 3 days.
The incubation temperature of the eggs of Faveroli should be strictly equal to 37.6 ° C. Even a slight overheating of 0.1 ° can lead to defects such as twisted legs and toes in young animals, chicks hatch for 22 days. An egg can be selected for incubation not earlier than 9 months, better after a year.
This breed due to its large size is not adapted to the cellular content. It is very desirable to allocate a separate cage and organize a spacious walking. Fireball is a large bird, so to avoid injury to the bird, perches should be made low with ladders.
Breed is hardy and resistant to diseases. In spite of the fact that Firelle tolerates cold well, it can get sick and die when the room humidity is high.
The big plus of the breed Firewall is that the representatives do not have a tendency to rake the beds and flower beds, which allows them to be let out for a walk around the site even by summer residents.
The origin of the breed faverol
The history of the faeries is traced to the XVIII century. It was during this period that the first reliable information appeared on top-quality bouillon chickens, which were bred in the villages of Woudan and Faverol, located close to each other, which is fifty kilometers west of Paris.
Gradually, the Faverol birds improved, and over the next century they were crossed with the best meat breeds at that time - kokhinhin, brahma, dorking, etc. This allowed the hens of the fireball to increase their average weight and turn from a bouillon into a fowl. As a full-fledged independent breed, the faeries were officially registered in 1866 and got their modern name.
In the second half of the XIX century, the breed began to rapidly conquer France, taking advantage of its great popularity among poultry farmers for its unpretentiousness, and among gourmets - for its excellent taste. At one time, Parisian restaurants preferred to use the meat of only those hens. Soon, the faeries came to the international arena, widely spread not only in Europe, but also went to the New World. Toward the close of the century before last, the breed appeared in the Russian Empire.
For a long time, breeders were completely focused on the productive characteristics of the breed, paying almost no attention to its exterior. However, as soon as the faeries came to England, local experts decided to improve the appearance of the chicken so that it could be used as an exhibition breed.
Also a huge contribution to the improvement and consolidation of the exterior characteristics of French hens was made by German poultry farmers. It is to them that the merit of breeding salmon faerolias, the beautiful light red hens that have become the standard of the breed, belongs. Later, other color options were also obtained, including white, black, blue, etc.
Breed chickens fireball - description
Fireballs are rather large birds with a visually heavy build. They have a small and slightly flat head, topped with an erect crest. The ear lobes are completely hidden under the plumage, so their color is unprincipled. Short strong beak has a white or slightly pinkish tint.
The head is seated on a strong, but relatively short neck, which is covered by a lush feather collar that covers even part of the back. Chickens and roosters have a wide, deep chest and a long back, turning into a short tail. The wings fit quite tightly to the body.
It is important to note that the chicken breed firewall has a heavier and squat body than the rooster. Also, in females, the upper part of the neck is covered with a lush, bulging plumage that visually resembles a beard or huge whiskers.
The classic color of this breed is the so-called salmon color. In cocks, the back, as well as the upper feathers on the wings and tail, have a characteristic red-brown color with a slight touch of yellow. Some feathers are bordered with copper. The neck collar and the lumbar zone of the rooster are a firewall colored ivory, but there are red-brown spots on the sides of the neck. On the wings, there are certainly several black feathers with a blue-green tint. Also, black plumage is on the tanks, beard, lower neck, chest, abdomen, legs and metatarsus.
Salmon-colored hens are covered with light red feathers. Moreover, their neck, back and tail are of a darker red-brown color, and the rest of the body is covered with milky-colored feathers.
As mentioned above, in addition to salmon, there are several variants of color, but they are much less common.
Finally, the character of the fireworks is very calm and balanced.
This breed has a reputation for being very unpretentious and convenient for keeping birds. Nevertheless, as is the case with many other heavyweight breeds, some features of the content still need to be known in advance before getting these birds on their farm or private farmstead.
First, the classic cellular content is not entirely appropriate here. It is better to use large spacious open-air cages, or to keep the bird according to the classical village scheme: a chicken coop and a large walking yard.
Secondly, although the powerful plumage on the paws helps the fireballs to tolerate the winter frosts easier, the increased humidity in the room where the bird is kept inevitably provokes an increase in the incidence and death of the livestock. For this reason, you need to constantly monitor the state of the litter and change it as needed.
Many poultry farmers note that the content of the fireball in ordinary village conditions with a chicken coop and a large walking yard (or without any fences) is more preferable. Birds that have the opportunity to walk for a long time, independently search for bugs and vegetable food in the garden, are not only healthier, but also provide more tasty and healthy meat. Yes, and the feed is a good economy.
Speaking of feed. It is necessary to form the diet of the faruleles taking into account the fact that the chickens of this breed are prone to overeating and obesity. Farmers have to wage an endless struggle with this, perhaps the main drawback of the French birds. To prevent obesity, you need to accurately calculate the rate and composition of feed, depending on the number of livestock, its age composition and time of year.
Of course, with all this feed must be fresh and well balanced. Calorie is better to keep at a minimum level, but proteins and proteins should be included in the diet to the maximum. The lack of these substances in the feed of chickens with a fireball has a sharply negative effect on the growth rate of the young and egg production of the hens. The basis of the diet should be whole grains, vitamin flour, fresh and boiled vegetables, chopped grass, lean and unspoiled kitchen and garden / vegetable waste.
Advantages and disadvantages of chicken fireball
Currently, there is a very ambiguous situation with the fireballs. On the one hand, the breed has no obvious flaws that would make it strictly unsuitable for breeding. On the other hand, with the available characteristics, it does not stand out in any way from the total variety of chicken breeds, and to some, in many respects, is far behind. So it turns out that a good, in general, the breed is not particularly popular even in the West, not like in Russia.
However, the strengths of the faeroli should be pointed out:
- Rates of growth. Young stock gains weight fairly quickly and matures for slaughtering in just four months. This, of course, is much longer than that of the same broilers, but in comparison with ordinary meat and universal breeds, this is quite a good result.
- The weight of the carcass. Being rather large, the breed compares favorably with small ones in that an adult cockerel is a fireball, for example, can be used to prepare whole carcass dishes.
- The taste of meat. As many farmers note, the market is very tasty meat, far surpassing other meat and especially meat and egg breeds. Not in vain, in their time, the French considered the market for the best bird for the restaurant menu.
- Conditions of detention. These birds are completely undemanding to the conditions in which they are kept. The main thing is to adhere to the most basic requirements for keeping poultry.
- Character. Fireballs have a reputation for calm balanced, albeit rather mobile birds.
Now we need to honestly point out those weaknesses, because of which the breed of hens, a firewall cannot find real popularity:
- Addiction to obesity. It is perhaps the main problem that is not so easy to handle. If you do not monitor the health of the bird herd, the situation will deteriorate very quickly. Juveniles will slow growth, and layers will reduce productivity. It can take from several weeks to several months to eliminate a running problem.
- Egg production. Taking into account the fact that some sources indicate the average egg production rate of market animals at the level of 100-130 eggs in the first year, even in comparison with meat and egg breeds, these birds are unproductive. What can we say about specialized egg breeds and crosses?
Prospects for breeding fairlands in Russia
In view of the foregoing, it is not difficult to draw a general conclusion about the prospects for the breeding of these chickens in Russia. Due to the very average productivity indicators, most poultry farmers prefer more productive breeds, for example, the same orpington or amrox. At the same time, by and large, there are no serious reasons for not starting a private market in a private residence or on a small farm. And if you take into account the reviews about chicken chicken, indicating the exceptionally high taste characteristics of their meat, you can even talk about some of the advantages of the French breed.
Large poultry farms use firewalls somewhat more actively than small owners. However, the breed is not used directly to produce, but to breed cross hens. In other words, a mixture of faerolas with other top breeds is used.
The breed of chickens the fireball was obtained during a lengthy selection and crossbreeding of chickens in the breeds of Brahma, Gudan, Silver Dorking and Kochinquin. As a result, very unusual birds were obtained, which stand out among their relatives by an unusual species (Figure 1).
Among the main features of the exterior of the fireball can be identified:
- The head is small, has a slightly flattened shape. The beak is powerful enough, but short. A characteristic feature of the breed is that the beak must have white, light yellow and pink colors.
- The ridge is erect and low, but its teeth are evenly cut.
- Representatives of the breed have a dense neck of medium length. It is a lush mane of feathers, directed both horizontally and vertically. It is this feature that explains the decorative value of the breed. There is a similar edge on the faces of the birds.
- The body of the birds of this species is slightly elongated, but has a massive chest with well-developed muscles.
Due to the fact that the breed was received by crossing different species, it is distinguished not only by its high decorative value, but also by good egg production, and poultry meat has a high nutritional value and good taste.
The origin and description of the breed
The name of the breed indicates the region where these birds first appeared, namely, in the French city of Faverol. In fact, this species appeared due to popular selection, because the locals actively crossed the local Manchesky chickens with Kohinquin, Brahma and Dorking roosters.
Note: The selection work was completed in 1866, and it was decided to give the resulting breed the name of the city in which the birds were bred.
Gradually, the chickens fireball gained popularity not only in his native France, but throughout Europe, in the United States and Russia. It is noteworthy that initially the breed was not considered as a decorative one, and the first hen that met international exhibition standards was bred in the UK. Further breeding work was carried out in Germany, as a result of which the birds acquired more pronounced features characteristic of modern representatives of the breed (Figure 2).
Active breeding work has led to the fact that the breed has formed many subspecies, which differ in the color of feather cover:
- Salmon faverol (lahshuner) has a characteristic feature, which is expressed in the fact that the color of the plumage of females and males is slightly different. The feathers of the hens are salmon or pink-red with a white border, and the shade is much lighter on the belly and chest. In cocks, the belly, chest, tail, beard, and lower legs are black or brown-red with slight patches of yellow or white. The back is covered with ivory feathers. The neck collar is white, but all feathers have a black-and-green or copper strip.
- Colombian, or a silver fireball is considered another popular species of the breed. The main color is silvery white, and this is typical for chickens and roosters. This subspecies is characterized by the presence of black stripes with a greenish tint along the feather rod on the tail and mane. In addition, a white border runs along the contour of the feathers.
- White the subspecies is unusual in that all the plumage is snow-white in both females and males. If there is any other shade on the feathers, this is a reason for culling the individual, since it is not suitable for breeding work.
- Blue the subspecies also has a characteristic uniform color throughout the body, but the intensity of the color varies depending on the location of the feathers. In addition, the contour of each pen is clearly defined by a border.
Relatively recently, breeders from Germany bred another breed - dwarf faulaeles, which in color do not differ from their larger relatives, but are characterized by higher mobility. In addition, these chickens have quite acceptable productivity: for the season, one chicken can produce more than 120 eggs.
At home, you can grow faulaeis with any hues of plumage, but if the bird is going to be used for breeding, the choice of the individual must be approached carefully. First of all, birds with poorly developed muscles or an uncharacteristic shape of the body are subject to rejection.
In addition, the breed is characterized by the presence of the fifth toe, so all individuals that do not have it, are also subject to rejection.
Keeping and breeding chicken. Firewall
Peculiarities of the content of chickens are a fireball, primarily focused on the physiological characteristics of these birds. The fact is that they are very easy to overeat and are prone to obesity. As a result, the meat loses its characteristic taste and is much less appreciated. To avoid this, it is necessary not only to adhere to a balanced diet, but also to ensure optimal livestock conditions for the population (Figure 3).
Note: Since the faeries do not differ in mobility, they are not recommended to be kept in cages or small aviaries. To prevent obesity, it is better to equip them with a wide range of walking and house.
The content of chickens of this breed on the run is preferable, since with such cultivation they are much less likely to get sick, get more nutrients from the pasture and have a high egg production rate. At the same time, if you plan to keep chickens not in the garden, but in a certain area, it does not make sense to erect a high fence, as the faeries do not like to fly. However, it should be borne in mind that if there are other breeds in the farm, they are best grown separately from the market for keeping the breed clean and productive.
Separately, attention should be paid to the construction of the chicken coop:
- The room should be spacious enough, as with a lack of space in chickens reduced egg and meat productivity.
- Fireworms normally tolerate cold, but are very sensitive to moisture, so the house must be dry, and a layer of dry bedding must be laid on its floor.
- Do not allow crowding of birds in the hen house. In such conditions, the consumption of feed increases significantly, as chickens stomp out most of the food. In addition, such content may lead to a surge of diseases.
- Indoors, it is advisable to equip not ground, but suspended feeders, or to make small partitions in the troughs so that the birds do not scatter the food.
- Considering that the faeries do not like to fly, the roosts must be low and wide, and in order for the birds not to get hurt by sitting on them, a small ladder should be placed on the roost.
The maintenance of chickens is a firewall on an ongoing basis and implies their independent breeding. Despite the fact that the birds have a large enough weight, females are considered very good chickens. Since the nature of these birds is very phlegmatic, the chickens are sitting very calmly on the eggs, and a surge in the activity of the maternal instinct occurs in the spring.
Note: Planting chicken on eggs is best in May. In this case, the chickens will be born in the summer and will have time to get stronger to the onset of cold weather.
Под одну наседку подкладывают не более 15 яиц, а гнезда желательно располагать в самых темных и укромных уголках птичника, чтобы самка не отвлекалась от насиживания. Когда цыплята появятся на свет, их можно оставить возле несушки, так как самки фаверолей отлично воспитывают молодняк. Однако, если птенцы вылупляются неравномерно, их лучше сразу отсадить в коробку, чтобы курицы их случайно не затоптала (рисунок 4).
If a chicken fireball appeared in your household, which showed maternal instinct and agreed to sit on eggs, appreciate it, because for this breed this behavior is not very typical. If the hens in the farm were not found, and the livestock must be replenished by young, you can use the method of artificial breeding in the incubator. As a rule, the duration of incubation is three weeks, and feeding newborn chickens is better with boiled chopped egg and steamed corn grits. Starting from the fifth day of life, chopped greens, fresh vegetables, wheat bran, or yeast are gradually introduced into the diet of the young.
Figure 4. The stages of breeding chickens breed Firewall
From the age of two months, crushed grain is included in the diet of chickens, but maximum results can be achieved when feeding chickens with special feed. From the age of three months, chickens are considered adults and are taken to a common walking distance with adults.
Peculiarities of feeding chickens
Since chickens breed fireball are prone to obesity, special attention should be given to feeding when growing them. In order to balance the diet on the main nutritional components, the priority should be given to special feed or dry food (Figure 5).
Note: Unlike other breeds that willingly eat wet mash, the fireballs do not relate very well to this feed. First, the liquid porridge can get stuck in the plumage, because of which the hens get an untidy appearance. Secondly, in an attempt to peck up the leftover food from the feathers, the birds can injure themselves and each other.
In the summer, it is easy to feed the market: since at this time of the year they are almost always on the run, a third of the daily ration is pasture. In the morning and in the evening, birds can be fed with grain or mixed feed. The average daily rate of these feeds is 150 grams per individual. If these parameters are exceeded, birds may become obese. If you notice that birds begin to grow fat, the amount of these feeds is reduced to 80 grams per day per head.
Figure 5. Features of feeding birds
In winter and early spring, when there is no fresh greens, it can be replaced with fresh vegetables, dried herbs and tops, needles and germinated wheat grains. Vitamin supplements should definitely be included in the diet, and if the chicken production rate has decreased, you can add oatmeal to their menu.
In more detail the breed of chickens the fireball is reviewed in the video
Birds of this breed are famous for soft juicy small-fibrous meat. Their skin is thin, feathers are plucked easily, the bones are thin and light. Chicken gains weight very quickly, starting at two months of age. In 4 - 5 months the birds are slaughtered for meat, by this time the males gain 3–4 kg, and the chickens 2.5–3.5 kg. Especially prized meat of chickens that are found on pastures.
From six months old chickens begin to run. In the first year, each brings up to 180 eggs with an average weight of 55 - 60 g. In the second year, the number of eggs decreases slightly - up to 130 pieces. Their shell is pink, yellow, brown. An important condition for egg production is light day no shorter than 13 hours, so additional lighting is arranged in chicken coops, it is used even in the summer in cloudy weather.
Still, it is a meat breed of chickens, so the number of eggs is much less than that of egg breeds, but they have excellent quality. In addition, laying hens lay eggs quite regularly, even in winter.
Maintenance and care
The mere description of the birds, “Faverol”, says that they cannot be kept in cages, they are too massive for that. It is best to arrange them a spacious chicken house and a great place for walking. Having the opportunity of free-range, chickens are less sick, movement helps to avoid obesity, to obtain additional elements to the main diet. You should not make a high fence around the place for walking - these birds do not like to fly.
The chicken coop should be quite spacious, protected from drafts, equipped with additional lighting. The litter must always be dry, it must be changed more often, otherwise the plumage on the legs may suffer, the chickens are not insured against bacterial and infectious diseases, which may be caused by a damp, dirty litter. Wood sawdust and hay are great for it. Excessive moisture should be avoided in the hen house.
Since large imposing birds do not like to fly, perches (strong, rounded under comfortable grip by paws) need to be set low, no higher than 50 - 70 cm from the floor, and gentle stairs should lead to them. Feeders arrange so that the chickens could not paddle in them with their paws, it is better to let them reach out for them, the food should be limited to the sides so as not to wake up on the floor. Due to the fluffy fluffy plumage of chickens, it is better to feed them with dry feed, so that the wet remnants of mash bags do not remain in the feathers.
The coop needs to be ventilated, periodically disinfected feeders and drinkers. Several times a year it is necessary to do general cleaning with obligatory disinfection of the room and inventory. Maintaining cleanliness helps to avoid disease.
When drafting a diet, you need to remember that the food must be balanced, and that these birds are prone to overeating. Usually the emphasis is on dry food, because wet food can remain on the feathers of chickens, they start to peck at it, and they can hurt each other.
In the summer, at least one third of the entire supply is occupied by green fodder; on the run it is self-harvested greens. The main emphasis should be placed on the consumption of green nettle, clover, wood lice, dandelions, purslane, alfalfa, peas, oats, and wheat. In addition to greenery, give birds grain and feed. Since "Faveroli" are prone to obesity, their daily ration is limited to 150 grams of feed, if obesity is already observed, it is reduced to 80 g.
In the cold season, greens are replaced by germinated grain, dried vegetable tops, and vegetable pulp. Birds are fed with vitamin supplements. If the food is combined, then dry and wet food alternate, food is given 3 to 4 times a day.