Mycoplasmosis is the most serious infectious disease. Even when the owner is confident in the diagnosis, the pet must be shown to the veterinarian. Only a specialist can prescribe treatment taking into account all the individual characteristics of the animal: the breed, age, weight, state of health. This is especially important because there are two causative agents of the disease: Mycoplasma Gatae and Mycoplasma Felis.
What is mycoplasmosis in cats?
The causative agents of the disease are called mycoplasmas. These are single-celled microorganisms. Once in the body, they attach themselves to the cells and parasitize them. The danger is a waste product of mycoplasma. For cats, the microorganisms Mycoplasma Gatae and Mycoplasma Felis pose the greatest threat, but there are others in nature.
In their effects on the body, mycoplasmas differ from each other. Mycoplasma Gatae causes polyarthritis. Mycoplasma Felis affects not only the joints, but also the liver, the reproductive system. Infection often manifests itself in the form of rhinitis, and in advanced cases pneumonia, pulmonary edema occurs.
A carrier of pathogens can be any cat. However, only under unfavorable conditions for it, does mycoplasma have a chance of reproduction. Reduced immunity, hypothermia, prolonged fasting, concomitant infections lead to infection with mycoplasmosis. There are several transmission mechanisms: airborne, sexual, and also from mother to kittens. The disease is well treatable.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis in cats
The fact that the cat is ill, its owner will know immediately. At the initial stage, the symptoms of mycoplasmosis in cats appear as follows:
- Sneezing (rhinitis).
- Tearing, reddened and swollen eyes.
- Breathing with a whistle and wheezing.
If the animal’s immunity is strong, even if untreated, the symptoms may temporarily disappear. This does not mean that the cat was cured by itself. The disease just turned into its chronic form. The danger of mycoplasmosis in cats is a devastating effect on the lungs. On the background of bronchitis, pneumonia develops, and then the animal dies.
Penetrating into the urinary system, mycoplasmas provoke cystitis, vaginitis and endometritis. Males suffer from prostatitis and urethritis. Erosive lesions appear in the joints, leading to the development of arthritis. Digestion is disturbed. Diarrhea alternates with constipation. Discharge from the eyes, nose, urethra become purulent. The skin can change color, and around the formed ulcers the hair falls out.
Kittens and juveniles up to 2 years of age are most easily infected. A pregnant female transmits the infection to the offspring. The danger of late treatment is that if the pathogens are eliminated, the acquired complications can remain for a lifetime. For example, impaired vision, impaired sense of smell, dysfunction of internal organs.
And if there are no symptoms?
Explicit symptoms during infection is not always traced. It happens that there are almost no external signs, and the disease is progressing. In this case, the master's observation is important. Changing the behavior of the cat, its different from the usual reaction should alert the owner. Usually the infected animal becomes lethargic, drowsy, weakened. All this is due to the reduction of the body's defenses. The cause may be another disease. It is best to immediately visit the vet and get tested.
How to help?
The first thing to do is to visit the veterinary clinic. Diagnosing mycoplasmosis in cats is quite complicated, since dangerous microorganisms can merge with healthy cells. However, it is very important to establish the exact cause of the disease. Only in this case, the doctor will prescribe drugs that will help and not harm.
In modern veterinary practice, the following types of tests are used to identify the causative agent of mycoplasmosis:
- A smear from the conjunctiva.
- PCR analysis of swabs from the upper respiratory tract.
- ELISA blood test to identify the virus.
When the results are ready, the doctor will be able to suggest the optimal treatment regimen. Detection of mycoplasmosis in cats (symptoms) and treatment on the basis of a diagnosis will give a greater effect, the earlier the owner turns to a veterinary clinic. It is likely that tests will show the presence of co-infections. This happens quite often. Then it is necessary to carry out therapy taking into account an objective picture of the animal's state of health.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats
Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for this disease. Therapy in any case will be long in time. Since mycoplasmas affect all internal organs, treatment should be comprehensive. No less important is the recovery period.
In the composition of prescribed drugs can be:
- Tetracycline antibiotics.
- Immune drugs containing azithromycin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin.
- Treatment of the mucous membranes of the eye drops: ribotan, roncoleukin, cycloferon, immunofan.
- To maintain the function of the liver prescribe Kars.
- Probiotics to restore digestion.
- Painkillers, antiemetic, antidiarrheal drugs are prescribed if there are appropriate symptoms.
- Interferon is selected individually.
- To increase the resistance of cells to mycoplasmas, Feliferon is prescribed.
What about man?
This question is the owners of sick pets most often ask veterinarians. Indeed, how dangerous is mycoplasmosis in cats for other animals, birds, humans? There is no consensus on this score, but general recommendations have been developed.
It is believed that for each species of living creatures there are 1–2 dangerous varieties of mycoplasmas. A sick cat does not carry a direct threat to the owner. However, pregnancy, weakening of immunity in the background of any disease, a state of stress can lead to the fact that a person will also get sick.
The first thing that must be taken care of by the owner of the sick animal is to ensure a strict hygiene regime. Trays, stove benches, pet feeders must be regularly thoroughly disinfected. Communication of a cat with children is better to limit. Wash hands after each contact. For a speedy recovery to the animal it is very important to ensure peace and comfort.
The only available method to protect the cat provides for an annual scheduled examination by a veterinarian. The specialist will offer a vaccine against viral diseases. The second component of success is a well-chosen diet rich in vitamins and proteins.
Mycoplasmas are considered permanent "inhabitants" of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and are also in the genital tract. They are opportunistic organisms, and the development of the disease occurs when there is a decrease in the body’s resistance and immunodeficiency. If the bacteria are localized in the joints, the cat may limp, feel unwell, and lie most of the time. Sometimes there may be swelling of the limbs.
Manifest mycoplasmosis in cats can in the form of diseases of the genitourinary system. In this case, diseases such as endometritis, balanoposthitis, or urethritis are common. The animal, as a rule, refuses from water and food and practically does not move. Sometimes the disease first affects only one eye, and then goes to the second. After that, the nasopharynx suffers, and in severe cases - the lungs. The incubation period of the disease ranges from three days to five weeks.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of a complete examination, and clinical signs are also taken into account. The most reliable way is to conduct a PCR study.
There is no vaccine for mycoplasma, therefore it is very difficult to completely protect the animal from the disease.
How does the disease manifest itself?
Mycoplasmosis in cats in the early stages manifests itself in different ways, but most often there are such symptoms:
- Cough and nasal discharge.
- Unpleasant sensations in the ribs. A cat can scratch this part of the body and lick.
- Sneezing and runny nose.
As a rule, the doctor can diagnose in addition to mycoplasmosis and other diseases: chlamydia, worms, influenza or rhinotracheitis.
What should the pet owner know?
Mycoplasmosis in cats is sometimes transmitted by airborne droppings and sexually, as well as through objects of general use. The animal may become infected in utero and in the natal period.
When an accurate diagnosis is made for a cat, it must be immediately removed from other animals, since they may become infected during contact. A person may not be afraid for his health, this bacterium is not dangerous for him.
During treatment, as well as some period after it, it is necessary to give the cat preparations that increase immunity. This is due to the fact that the bacteria of this species make the body vulnerable, so other diseases may occur. Antibiotics adversely affect the health of the animal and, in order to reduce their impact, the veterinarian must prescribe special preparations to the pet.
Cats that have suffered diseases may suffer from infertility, miscarriages and give birth to sick, non-viable offspring. This bacterium poses the greatest danger during pregnancy and childbirth. But sooner or later, the disease will begin to show itself aggressively, so ignoring the mycoplasmosis in cats, whose symptoms are still very weak, is still not worth it.
How to treat a pet?
Specialists isolated two groups of mycoplasmas in cats: M. Felis and M. Gatae. Pathogenic is the first group, but both can be accompanied by other infections, such as herpes viruses or chlamydia.
The final diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats can only be done by a veterinarian, you should not self-medicate. But for those cases where, for whatever reason, it is not possible to visit the doctor immediately, you should know effective treatment regimens based on antibiotics.
- The drug "Enrofloxacin" can not be taken kittens that have not reached one year old. And adult pets can give it during the week at 5mg / kg per day.
- Means "Sumamed" must be taken seven days at 10 mg / kg.
- The drug "Clarithromycin" (5 mg / kg) must be taken together with the drug "Ofloxacin" (10 mg / kg) twice a day. To use drugs can not be more than 6 hours.
- The drug "Doxycycline" is taken at 10 mg / kg, and the course of treatment is 10-14 days.
In addition to antibiotics, the veterinarian prescribes eye drops or ointments. As immunomodulatory drugs, you can use the means "Cycloferon", "Immunofan" or others.
To reduce the negative impact of antibiotics on the cat's body, it is necessary to give it medications that normalize the work of the liver, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic processes.
Disease in dogs
Mycoplasmosis in dogs is far from uncommon. They secrete a group of bacteria M. Cynos. In the external environment, they are not very active and do not pose a danger to humans. Mycoplasmas are part of the constant flora, and cause an infection in the case when the body is weakened. Often the disease is accompanied by fibrous exudate.
Dogs may suffer from urogenital diseases. Transmission of bacteria occurs through airborne droplets or sexually. If the fetus is infected, the puppy can be born with various pathologies and underdevelopments. In addition, there is a high mortality rate in the first days after birth.
Mycoplasmosis in dogs can affect the respiratory tract and joints. Conjunctivitis is also characteristic of this disease. The dog moves a little, the limbs swell, mucus is released from the nose and eyes. The animal suffers from general malaise and fever. Mycoplasma can lead to diseases of the bronchi and pneumonia.
This disease occurs when the red blood cells are affected by the myoplasma Haemocanis. The disease may not have pronounced symptoms, sometimes the dog is worried about severe anemia. The owner should be concerned if the pet does not eat anything, is sluggish, and the color of the gums has turned pale or has acquired a pale purple hue.
Where can I get infected?
Mycoplasma can enter the body through the bites of insects that feed on infected blood. Fights between animals that are accompanied by injuries are also dangerous. Sometimes bacteria are transmitted by blood transfusion. If mycoplasmosis is observed in dogs, the symptoms should be treated as a whole and reported to the veterinarian. So it will be easier for him to prescribe treatment.
There is a high risk of infection in the case when the pet lives on the street or spends a lot of time there. Therefore, he needs to pay enough attention not to miss the disease. In the advanced stage, all airways are affected, which can cause cardiac arrest. If therapy is started on time, treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats will give a good result.
As a preventive measure for the disease, it is necessary to provide the pet with proper and balanced nutrition, to carry out vaccinations in time and not to skip examinations at the veterinarian.
Day regimen and care
A week after the diagnosis was made, the animal should be examined by a veterinarian and take the necessary tests to accurately determine its condition. It is worth remembering that a pet that was infected, even after treatment, becomes a carrier of infection. No mating is allowed until the vet resolves. We must take care that the dog's diet was complete, and she received all the necessary components.
Mycoplasmosis in cats symptoms and treatment
As mentioned above, mycoplasmosis has no obvious symptoms. Chronic form manifested by lacrimation and runny nose, which quickly pass on their own. With acute form all the signs of rhinitis and conjunctivitis are diagnosed: the eyes are watery, the eyelids are swollen and red, the third eyelid falls out, after sleeping the cat finds it difficult to open the eyes - the hair is plastered with dried purulent droplets. From the nose flows. If we neglect the treatment, hoping that Murka will overcome the disease, mycoplasmosis progresses, affecting the bronchi, lungs (up to life-threatening pneumonia), joints - arthritis develops. Also neglected mycoplasmosis females provoke vaginitis, cystitis, endometritis, infertility, and in males - inflammation of the prostate, urethritis, also cystitis.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats depends on competent diagnosis. Mycoplasma bacteria can begin to actively proliferate as a result of the "prosperity" of a bacterial infection, fungal or various viruses. Herpes or staphylococcus can cause mycoplasmosis in a carrier cat.
For diagnosis and prescribing an effective treatment, the doctor is obliged to take an analysis for the presence of mycoplasmas, conduct a test for the body’s resistance to antibiotics, and identify the presence of parasites.
The treatment regimen for mycoplasmosis should consist of:
- hepatoprotectors (this is important because the liver is very heavily overloaded with antibiotics).
For the treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats use Ofloxacin - 5 mg per kg of body weight twice a day, Azithromycin (or Summamed) - 10 mg per kg, the course - 7 days, Enrofloxacin (or Baytril) in the dosage per kg - 5 mg, the duration of the course - up to a week. - to raise immunity.
For the treatment of mucous suitable drugs - Immunofan, Roncoleukin, Ribotan, Cycloferon. For eyes - Tetracycline ointment.
As a hepatoprotector prescribed Karsil Forte. For the digestive system - Katazal.
Feliferon - Mandatory for treatment. Increases resistance of cells to infection.
To enhance immunity - Gamavit.
The vaccine against mycoplasmosis today is not removed. To protect your pet from background diseases, vaccinate against them.
For prophylaxis, disinfect the bowls, bedding of the animal regularly, and keep your outdoor shoes, entrance mat and floor at the front door clean.
What is mycoplasmosis and where does it come from
Mycoplasmosis is an infectious pathology, the pathogens of which parasitize on red blood cells, causing disruption of their functioning. Microorganisms whose activity is the cause of mycoplasmosis, are classified as opportunistic. Mycoplasmas may exist throughout the life of the carrier and not affect its state of health. There are several varieties of these microorganisms, but only two of them can cause pathology in cats - Mycoplasma felis and Mycoplasma gatae. Mycoplasmas are present in the body of most animals and, without affecting the condition of a particular cat, can cause another animal to become infected. Bacteria are also present in the environment, but, not differing in vitality, quickly die. Therefore, to get infected from the outside is almost impossible. Microorganisms are transmitted in several ways:
- alimentary, when the penetration of bacteria occurs through the mouth,
The causes of mycoplasmosis
Activation of mycoplasma activity caused by certain conditions leads to the disease. This happens, as a rule, with an insufficient level of immunity in the animal. At risk are weakened, having chronic pathology of the cat, as well as young individuals up to 2 years. In the period of prenatal development or at the time of passage through the birth canal of the mother, the cubs can also become infected. Начиная стремительно размножаться, бактерии, не имея клеточной оболочки, прикрепляются к клеткам организма носителя и начинают поглощать питательные вещества.In addition, releasing harmful substances in the course of their vital activity, they cause intoxication. The animal becomes weaker, other symptoms begin to appear.
Mycoplasmosis can infect a newborn kitten
Is there a danger to humans?
Mycoplasmas affecting a cat are not dangerous to humans. But still, most experts advise to follow the rules of hygiene when in contact with sick animals, especially when the disease is in the acute stage. It is desirable during this period to protect from contact with the pet of small children and people with weakened immunity.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis
It is difficult to name the specific manifestations of mycoplasmosis in cats. Pathology affects many systems - respiratory, urinary, can cause conjunctivitis or joint problems. It happens that mycoplasmosis is asymptomatic or is characterized by a whole complex of symptoms, which may include:
- general weakness, apathy,
- redness of the eye membranes, lacrimation, conjunctival inflammation,
- respiratory problems
- swelling of paws, joint pain,
- problems with urination and digestion.
None of these manifestations can accurately indicate the development of mycoplasmosis, but any change in the state of the animal is a reason to consult a specialist. In the absence of timely treatment, an animal may experience urethritis, cystitis, infertility, arthritis, bronchitis, or pneumonia.
Conjunctival inflammation, redness and tearing can be symptoms of mycoplasmosis
It happens that mycoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In this case, a sharp decrease in the protective functions of the body due to the activity of bacteria is manifested in weakness and chronic drowsiness.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis
Due to the fact that at the initial stage of the manifestation of mycoplasmosis are not specific, therapy can be administered only after an appropriate examination. It includes the study of blood and swabs from the oral cavity and mucous membranes of the genital organs, taking and analysis of smears from the conjunctiva. The actual method of polymerase chain reaction, which is based on the identification of the pathogen DNA. These diagnostic methods allow to detect the presence of mycoplasma and determine its type. If Mycoplasma felis actively reproduces in the animal, then it usually develops conjunctivitis or problems with the respiratory system. Mycoplasma gatae causes negative changes in the joints. In order to further be able to determine the dynamics of pathology, experienced experts photograph the animal.
When any change in the state of the animal, you should contact a specialist
If the diagnosis confirms the presence of mycoplasmosis, the specialist will prescribe a complex therapy that can be successfully performed at home. The following drugs are prescribed to get rid of the disease and alleviate the condition of the animal:
- antibiotics for oral use - tetracycline, azithromycin, levomycetin, baytril,
- Immunostimulants - Immunofan, Ribotan,
- to restore the normal functioning of the internal organs - Kars, Katozal, probiotics.
In addition, the mucous membranes are regularly washed with water and treated with tetracycline ointment. The dosage and duration of the course of therapy should be established by a specialist. If all recommendations are followed, the pet's condition will improve in a few days, and full recovery will occur in 2-3 weeks.
Not all antibiotics are permissible in the treatment of mycoplasmosis in cats that bear offspring, and kittens for up to three months. Pregnant pets and fluffy babies specialist usually appoints Vilprafen.
Prevention of mycoplasmosis
Vaccines to prevent the development of mycoplasmosis does not yet exist, but compliance with certain recommendations can help protect the animal from this pathology. To preventive measures include:
- compliance with the principles of proper and balanced nutrition when feeding an animal,
- exception of contacts of a pet with domestic animals,
- enriching the pet's diet with vitamins and immunomodulatory additives,
- regular check-ups with a specialist.
Video: Mycoplasmosis in cats
Having started a fluffy pet in the house, you must remember that this is not a toy, but a living creature that requires attention and care. Pets can get sick at any time - today they are affectionate and active, tomorrow they already look sluggish and apathetic. A caring and responsible owner should have information on how to recognize a particular disease and, at the slightest change in the behavior of the animal, not postpone the visit to the veterinarian.
Mycoplasmosis: source of cat infection
Mycoplasmosis most often affects the body of a weakened animal.
The source of distribution are the weakened animals that have suffered various diseases, carriers.
Is transmitted by airborne droplets , contact , sexually and during labor from mother to baby. The main habitat of mycoplasmosis is the conjunctiva and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, but these systems have minimal effect.
With the manifestations of symptoms, the pathogen M.felis plays the main role, which acts as a secondary factor of the lesion.
The exact cause of the occurrence of the disease will be able to find out only an experienced veterinarian.
The clinical signs of mycoplasmosis are rather vague, since several systems and organs can be affected at once, and the symptoms will be similar to many diseases that have no relation to mycoplasmosis.
Exact reason and the type of pathogen can be identified only in the clinic . Symptoms may be similar to signs of colds.
- The animal sneezes, coughs.
If your pet starts to cough and sneeze, this is a cause for concern.
Purulent nasal and eye discharge is a characteristic feature of mycoplasmosis.
Pneumonia is a frequent complication after mycoplasmosis.
Complications that may occur:
- pulmonary disease - pneumonia,
- diseases of the stomach and intestines,
- development of pathologies of the urogenital system,
- serious eye damage.
Asymptomatic mycoplasmosis in cats
Quite often, the only sign of mycoplasmosis in cats is the weakness of the animal.
The greatest risk in kittens. Symptoms are manifested, as well as in adults, but the course is more severe due to the fragile organism.
Mycoplasmosis is also a cunning possibility of an asymptomatic course.
The only sign of an asymptomatic course can only be a change in the behavior of the pet. The animal has chronic drowsiness and weakness. So a sharp decrease in the protective properties of the organism due to the effects of the disease manifests itself.
How to treat mycoplasmosis in cats
Mycoplasmosis requires competent and long-term treatment.
Therapy for such a disease is very long, as it aims to eliminate a large number of lesions of various organs.
There is no vaccination against mycoplasmosis. and the only warning of the disease is attention to the pet. The presence of the pathogen M. felis requires immediate medical intervention. The type of these microorganisms necessarily creates a pathogenic environment in the body and provokes various diseases, so treatment should begin immediately.
- Recommended antibiotic therapy in the form of drugs of the tetracycline group.
- In parallel, they use immune agents, since stable immunity is the key to the effectiveness of treatment. Recommended substances: azithromycin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin. Even the slightest deviation from the regimen prescribed by the doctor is unacceptable.
Veterinarians are prescribed azithromycin to maintain pet immunity.
Kars is a good remedy for maintaining a cat's liver.
The drug "Feliferon" enjoys good recommendations.
Does cats have mycoplasmosis in humans?
Mycoplasmas are unicellular microorganisms that do not belong to viruses or bacteria. There are six species of this pathogen and one or two individual pathogen species inherent in a particular group of living beings.
Feline pathogen is not dangerous for other animal species, including humans. List of dangerous diseases here.
But, it is believed that risk of infection still exists , if at the moment of contact with a sick cat a person is weakened by the presence of any pathology in the body.
Men may be in an increased risk group during a period of reduced immunity due to a recent illness or if there is one at the time of contact with a sick cat.
It is for these reasons that it is worth strongly recommending mandatory compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and safety when in contact with animals.