Chicken meat, chicken eggs are healthy foods that everyone has on the table. Therefore, the breeding of chickens is not only profitable, but also payable. However, before deciding to start breeding chickens, it is still worth exploring in detail all the nuances of chick breeding, housing and rearing.
In this article, we will talk about growing chickens at home for beginners, learn how to raise chickens, why chickens diarrhea, what to give broilers from diarrhea and about other pressing issues.
How to choose chickens when buying?
Growing chickens from an incubator at home is a profitable business, because in addition to meat and eggs, you can successfully use the feathers of birds, manure as organic fertilizer. But in order for this to be beneficial, it is necessary to choose the right chickens.
The right time to buy chicks is April-May.. It is advisable to acquire daily chicks. It is better to acquire chicks in poultry farms, because in these places there are guarantees that individuals are healthy and strong. However, in order to choose chicks, it is necessary to know the nuances of selection, depending on the age of individuals.
In order not to make a mistake and acquire healthy day-old chicks at the time of purchase, it is necessary to pay attention to a number of criteria for the appearance of young individuals:
- Chick must be driedhealthy and active
- Pooh should not be stuck together. In appearance he must be fluffy, without dirt and debris,
- At daily young stock at the time of sale the umbilical cord should overgrow,
- Be sure to carefully examine the umbilical cord. If it has a discharge, then this young should not be bought. Discharge is the first sign of an infectious disease,
- Cloaca must be clean, pink color with a wet structure. It should not be dirt, traces of litter,
- Chicks should be reaction to sounds,
- The back should be straight
- The head must be flat,
- Smooth and regular beak with pigmented structure.
Sometimes poultry farmers buy week-old chicks to save money and time. However, this is not always the right and right decision. Juveniles at this age are prone to disease. In addition, their bodies are weak and not strong.
But if you decided to purchase weekly chickens, the following selection criteria should be considered:
- Individuals must be active and healthy
- Plumage should be fluffy, no dirt, no litter marks,
- The stomach should be soft to the touch,
- The head is even, proportional,
- Beak straight with pigmented structure,
- Good response to sounds
- Must already be worked out pecking reflex
- The wings should be tightly pressed to the body,
- The cesspool should be clean, pink without dirt and discharge.
Chicks of one month of age are rarely purchased for divorce. But still some farmers believe that during this period, individuals survive better and have developed immunity against infectious diseases. Perhaps this is true, but do not trust this criterion. Sometimes monthly individuals get sick much more often.
In any case, the criteria for selecting monthly chicks are the same:
- Activity and mobility
- Good response to sounds
- Plumage - fluffy, without dirt, droppings, with a smooth structure,
- The belly should have a soft texture,
- The head must be level and proportionate.
- The bill should have a smooth outline with a pigmented structure,
- Chicks should already be well developed. pecking reflex,
- It is worth paying attention to the wings, they should be tightly pressed to the body,
- The cesspool should be clean, pink, free from stains from litter and discharge.
Features hatching with a hen for beginners
How to grow a chicken from an egg at home without an incubator? Some experienced farmers prefer brooding under the hen because it is a natural process.
But do not immediately lay under her eggs, it is advisable to observe the behavior of an individual for some time. It is necessary to let the chicken sit around it. The ready-made hen to incubate, when pulling it out of the nest, makes a bubbling sound and rushes back with all forces to incubate into the nest. In this case, the cultivation of day-old chicks at home will be quite economical.
Depending on the mass of the individual under it lay from 11 to 21 eggs. Place for incubation must be separated from the rest of the chickens. For the incubation site, you can use a separate cage or install a nest in a dark corner of the hen house.
Be sure to feed the henso that she does not die of hunger and exhaustion, which often happens. It is necessary to force the chicken to be removed from the nest and feed, water 2 times a day.
Chickens with a hen hatch after 20-21 days. Sometimes there are cases when the hen, without waiting for a complete hatch, can throw the remaining eggs and go for a walk with the hatching individuals. Therefore, to prevent these unpleasant problems, those individuals that have already been bred, are deposited in a box or in a warm place, a lamp is pre-installed above them. At 22-23 days the family is combined.
- Natural process
- High survival rate
- Chicks from the time of breeding and in the subsequent period are together with the hen,
- Economical. This method will require fairly low financial costs.
- Long process,
- Low amount of hatching per chick,
- There is a possibility during the incubation of the chickens hen eggs,
- Withdrawal of chickens in this way can be obtained only once per season and only in warm weather.
Features of growing chickens in the incubator at home and their feeding
Breeding chickens with an incubator is in great demand, and for this they say the advantages of growing chickens after an incubator, among which the main ones should be highlighted:
- Favorable application. In one season, the incubator is used up to 10 times,
- Simple use. It is easy to handle with this device, it does not need to be fed, watered, and there is no need to worry that the hen will crumble the eggs,
- At a time, you can lay 50 eggs and above,
- All year round chicks. These devices provide all the functions that provide output in the winter and summer.
Depending on the functions, the incubators are mechanical, manual and automatic.
In a manual incubator, each egg is turned over manually.. The use of a mechanical incubator is almost the same as that of a handheld device. However, in this type of incubator, turning not one egg, but all of them at once. In addition, compliance with the control of humidity and temperature in both types of devices lies entirely on the owner.
But devices with automatic turning of eggs greatly simplifies the life of the farmer, because they have a digital thermostat installed. During the laying of eggs, it is necessary to establish a certain temperature, and it remains stable during the subsequent incubation period.
If the temperature rises sharply or drops, the mechanism makes a sharp sound.. In addition, every hour the eggs are turned over, which prevents the embryo from sticking to the shell and increases the survival rate of the chickens. However, these devices are expensive. But the only way you can grow healthy chickens.
Proper maintenance of newly hatched broiler chickens
Conditions of detention
Keeping chickens after an incubator at home is easy. Remember a few rules for the care of the room for chickens:
- An important condition of the room is cleanliness. Be sure to clean every day at the place where the chicks are housed, scavenge garbage, half-eaten food. Otherwise, infections may quickly appear in an uncleaned area.
- If there is a litter in the house, then it is regularly changed. It should always be clean and dry.
- It is not desirable that a large number of bird stock be present at the place of detention. It is important to provide young animals with free space so that they can freely walk, run, fully exercise all motor functions,
- Number of livestock directly depends on the area of the place for keeping chicks.
The second important condition for keeping chicks is light. Duration of daylight depends on the age of the young.
Since the first days of the chicken's life, it is necessary to maintain the duration of daylight at least 18 hours. This value is then reduced to 10 hours before the chicks reach 4 months of age.
These figures do not depend on the type of breed of chickens. In addition, it is absolutely unimportant why the bird is grown - for eggs or meat, this indicator should remain unchanged. The duration of daylight in the winter time can be maintained by the presence in the room where the individuals are kept, additional lighting.
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Temperature for breeding healthy individuals
Temperature parameters depend on the age of the bird:
- For diurnal individuals up to 5 days of age, a suitable temperature regime in the room is considered to be +32 degrees Celsius,
- With the onset of 6 days of life and up to 9 days, the temperature gradually drops to +28 degrees Celsius,
- From day 10 to day 20, the temperature regime is reduced by another 3 degrees +25 degrees Celsius,
- In the subsequent period, the temperature should be maintained from +20 degrees to 24 degrees Celsius.
What to give in the first days of life
Feeding the chicks should be started immediately after hatching.. Still, it is worth waiting for some time to dry, to get a little stronger.
In the feeder with a flat base or just at the bottom of the box should be poured a small amount of corn grits. This croup has a small structure, so this feed will be most suitable for newborn chicks.
Feeding day-old chicks
Nutrition of diurnal specimens, in contrast to newly hatched chicks, is already more diverse. In addition to corn grits, individuals can be given other types of feed:
- Barley grits,
- Oatmeal in the form of a hammer,
- Wheat groats.
The feeding process of day-old chicks should be carried out every two hours.. Feed should be given in small portions. It is advisable not to mix cereals, otherwise some individuals will start to choose the most favorite food and will eat only it. Therefore, it is best to give the feed mixture separately and in dry form.
For full growth and development, in addition to croup, chicks should be given other components. Cottage cheese is very useful for young individuals. Thanks to this product, the chickens are saturated with nitrogen and calcium. Cottage cheese can begin to give from 2-3 days after the appearance of chicks in the morning, pre-mixed with cereals.
Feeding Chickens Organization
It is worth remembering that dairy products provide high value for babies. Instead of water, you can pour whey or liquid kefir into the drinker. On the third day, individuals can be fed greens. For feed, you can use plantain, clover, dandelion, nettle, snapper. On the 5th day should enter the green onions. Chives have a beneficial effect - it provides high protection for the body against various intestinal diseases.
Individuals of a week old can already begin to give a mixture of corn, barley, oat and wheat cereals. Cereals are mixed in equal proportions - 1: 1.
Additionally, you can add chopped greens and dairy products to the mix. During this period, individuals can be fed less often, but the portions should be large. Up to 4-5 feeds should be received per day.
From the month and more, chicks are released outside for walking. For this reason, the diet during this period is green. While eating herbs and other greens, individuals get the vitamins necessary for their growing body.
Besides coarse grain is introduced into the ration. From one and a half months, adults should be fed whole grains. You can give meat and bone meal and food waste.
How to determine the sex of a chicken: chicken or rooster?
How to determine the chicken from the cock in the egg? Not many poultry farmers will be satisfied when, after hatching, the percentage of males will be almost 80-90%. Therefore, in these cases, the method of determining the sex of the cockerel or hen by egg is used. It would seem that this task is difficult and almost impossible, but this is far from the case.
To determine the sex of the egg recommendations will help:
- First you need take the egg in your right hand, while the sharp end of the egg should be pointing up,
- Further hold the finger of his left hand on its top,
- If there is a ring and tubercles at the upper end, then these criteria indicate that a cock appears. If the top of the egg has a smooth structure - chicken.
In 2 months
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken in 2 months? At this age, gender can be determined using several methods:
- By plumage. Individuals with abundant plumage are females, and those with poor feathering are males,
- By this age, the cockerel has a scallop, the beard turns red, and the face is rounded,
- In males, legs are longer, you can already see spurs on them,
- The males on the tail appear regrown braids.
At 3 and 4 months
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken at 3 or 4 months At the age of 3 months, the sexing of individuals occurs much easier, with the roosters you can see the following external characteristics:
- Scallop gets bright color,
- The comb, the beard and the earrings are big,
- Paws are high,
- On the legs are already clearly visible spurs
- On the tail there are long braids.
How to distinguish a rooster from this chicken? This method is based on determining the age from the karyotype of a fast-acting cell of the pulp pen. Usually in males that do not yet have a month, the Z-chromosome acts as the longest metacentric.
In females, the number of these chromosomes is 10 times smaller, the W chromosomes - submetacentrics - dominate in their bodies. If, during analysis, it was found that the Z chromosome is present in the body in a single copy, then this is a chicken, if there are many of these chromosomes, then it means a cockerel.
Determining the sex of chickens by different methods
This method of how to distinguish chickens chickens from cockerels allows you to determine the sex of chicks most likely. It is based on blot hybridization of blood DNA with primer.
The young individual can be determined with high accuracy by using a sample analysis or whole blood of washed red blood cells. The disadvantages of this method include the high cost and complexity.
Determining gender using this method:
- The first way is to inspection of the color of the wings. At the age of 2-3 days, the wings of the chicks are inspected - in males they are slightly lighter than in females,
- The second way is in counting feathers. Need to delay the wing of the chick and straighten it. Chickens feather first, for this reason, 6-7 primary feathers are large in size, unlike others. But male feathers are all the same.
Gender chicks determined depending on their size. Typically, this method uses high-precision scales. If an individual has a large enough mass for its age, then it is a cockerel. If the mass is small, then it is a female. Usually the weight difference is about 5 grams.
On the subject of growing chickens, read the following articles:
How to distinguish the sex of chickens in color?
Gender determination by plumage color is mainly applied to pedigreeds:
- Crosses. Approximately at the age of 1 day, sexual characteristics are determined: beige color is characteristic for females, and white for cockerels,
- Autosex breeds. Chickens have a monochromatic color - gray, white, black, and males have stripes,
- Brahma. Females have clear stripes on the back and points on the head. Males also have stripes and dots, but they are slightly blurred,
- Rhode Island and New Hampshire. On the second day after hatching, females can see dark spots and stripes on the head, the males do not have these characteristics,
- Adler silver. The females are yellow and the males are lemon-colored with a black stripe on their heads.
Before you begin to determine the sex using this method is to understand the structure of the genitals of chicks and find out their differences.
Males can be separated from females by detecting a tubercle in the anuswhich is absent in future chickens:
- First of all, the cesspool of the chick is cleared of traces of droppings,
- Next, the individual should be taken in the palm, turn, spread the legs so that the cesspool can be clearly seen
- The hole must be pushed apart, at the same time it is necessary to press the abdomen. As a result of these manipulations, the cloacal structure will be clearly visible.
External differences of cloaca females and males:
- In females, the cesspool looks like a neat knot with no bulges,
- In males, a sexual knob is often found.
Во избежание неприятных последствий, этот метод должен проводить только опытный птицевод или фермер.
Organizing a place for newly hatched chicks
How to distinguish chickens by sex by this method? This method of sex determination is performed using two methods:
- Chicks should be taken by the scruff of the neck and some time to look behind the legs. Usually chickens try to twist their pawsand claw claws. The paws at the same time it raises a little. And on the contrary, cockerels do not curl the legs, and do not move them, they hang in an even position,
- It is possible on the contrary to take the chick by the paws and look at the position of the head. Chickens usually raise their head up, and on the contrary, males hang without moving.
How to distinguish a rooster from a chicken on a voice?
Usually this method is applied to the people of Orpingtons and Cochinchins. The voice of the males is the roughest, similar to the quack. In females, on the contrary, the voice is more tender, they mostly squeak. This method is not always possible to accurately determine the sexual characteristics of individuals. It is mainly used by experienced poultry farmers.
How to determine the age?
Usually the age of chickens is determined by the plumage. It is desirable to remember the features of plumage depending on age:
- At the age of between 8 and 12 days the plumage appears in the shoulder area,
- In the period from 12 to 16 days, feathers appear on the goiter and breast,
- In chicks of three weeks of age, the first molt is observed, with all the fluff falling out of the tail,
- At the end of the fifth week fly feathers grow, and also feathers appear on the back of the body,
- At six weeks of age, the head and lower body are covered with a feather,
- Full plumage is observed at the age of 3 months.
Chickens, as well as chicks of other species of birds, are subject to various diseases. The most common diseases are:
- Digestive disorders,
- Typhus and many others.
In order to properly cure diseases, it is worth knowing what symptoms are characterized by diseases in chickens.
Broiler White Diarrhea: Can It Cure?
Chickens often have white diarrhea. It is also called pullorosis. This disease usually occurs in an acute form and quickly affects the weak intestines of chickens. The causative agent of this disease is a bacillus called salmonella. The disease usually spreads at a high rate., in a few days, almost all bird stock can get sick.
White diarrhea in broilers
How to cure diarrhea in chickens? For prevention, you need to clean the room from debris, all sanitized. Also be sure to check the temperature in the room and ventilation.
Yellow diarrhea in broilers: why it occurs and how to treat?
This diarrhea can occur during infectious diseases, as well as non-compliance with the conditions of detention. Sometimes yellow litter is observed in Gumboro disease. In these cases, the survey, testing.
Besides yellow diarrhea can result from stress, hypothermia, due to poor-quality feed. In these cases, use of folk remedies for treatment and disinfect the premises.
Yellow diarrhea in chickens
Bloody diarrhea in chickens: a symptom of what diseases?
Bloody diarrhea usually occurs with coccidiosis. This disease is dangerous and often leads to the death of the entire bird population. This disease arises due to poor hygiene, namely the untimely cleaning of the room. This disease affects the intestines. In addition to diarrhea, the following conditions are observed:
- Loss of appetite,
- Lethargy, inactivity,
- Disheveled plumage
- In the litter there are impurities of blood and mucus.
How to treat if the chickens have diarrhea with blood? For treatment and prophylaxis, it is necessary to clean and disinfect the premises in a timely manner, to vaccinate and to give appropriate chemicals.
Light brown diarrhea in broiler chickens and its treatment
Brown diarrhea in broilers observed with amerioze. This disease is caused by various parasitic protozoa that accumulate in the intestines of chickens or hens. Infection usually occurs through feed, dirty litter, gadfly.
- The individuals sit in one place with their eyes closed,
- Disheveled plumage
- The wings are hung to the floor,
- Lack of appetite,
- Brown diarrhea with mucus.
The disease is determined by the research process. Treatment is best done at the initial stage. For the treatment of drugs used - coccidiostatics.
Light brown diarrhea in chickens
Chickens diarrhea green
Green diarrhea can occur with pasteurellosis. In this case, surveys, analyzes are conducted. If the diagnosis is confirmed, then appropriate treatment is prescribed.
In the absence of pasteurellosis, green diarrhea can cause poor quality expired feed. In this case, the treatment is performed using adsorbing agents (activated carbon). Suspicious feed must be disposed of and given only high quality.
Green diarrhea in chickens
Often in chickens there is such an unpleasant disease as helminthiasis. This condition is particularly dangerous, and in almost 50% of cases, late treatment leads to death. Signs of worms in chickens - severe exhaustion.
What to do if the worms appeared worms? In order to save all the livestock of birds, it is necessary to sow the infected chicks in time, clean the room, clean all bedding and disinfect everything. Infected individuals should be watered with antihelminthic drugs and fed with nutritious food. Medicines against worms for chickens should be given as soon as possible.
The following recommendations apply to pre-tactical measures for various chick diseases:
- Timely cleaning and disinfection of the room salt solutions, caustic sodium, bleach,
- Observance of the density of livestock in the house. It is desirable that the number of chicks in the same room was moderate,
- Quality feed with high nutrient content,
- Be sure to equip the room ventilation
- Compliance with the temperature of the room,
- Otpaivanie birds preparations against infectious diseases,
- Timely vaccination.
Breeding chickens is quite a laborious process that requires a lot of responsibility. In order for the livestock to be healthy, it is necessary to follow all rules of keeping. The main condition for the full growth and development of chicks is care and care!
Now you know how to grow chickens at home, how to treat chickens, what to do if chickens have worms and how to treat diarrhea in chickens and adults. Follow all recommendations and watch for chicks.
And a video on how to feed chickens:
Where to begin?
Novice poultry farmers first need to decide on the goals of breeding domestic chickens. The goals of breeding chickens can be:
- Getting meat
- Getting eggs
- Cultivation and sale of chickens,
- Decorative targets.
Not only the choice of breed, but also the method of placement of chickens, as well as the number of their livestock, will depend on the goals set.
Acquire for breeding better day chickens from trusted breeders. When purchasing adult poultry to inexperienced poultry farmers, markets often sell elderly individuals whose meat is tough and their egg production is low or absent.
Choice of breed
If the main purpose of raising chickens is to obtain eggs, then for breeding should be selected egg breeds of birds. These breeds include:
- Russian white,
- Kuchinsky anniversary
- Loman Brown,
Chickens of oviparous breeds rush, starting from six or seven months of age, bringing up to three hundred eggs a year, but gaining a relatively small weight - from two to four kilograms, and their meat is suitable only for broth.
Chickens breed Leghorn begin to rush already from 4 months. The egg production of German breed Broma Brown reaches 330 eggs per year, but the maintenance of this breed requires a good warming of the chicken coop in winter. Chickens of the Minor breed do not have high egg production (up to 240 eggs per year), but carry the largest eggs weighing up to 80 grams.
Chicken meat breeds carry few eggs (about 100 pieces per year), but quickly gain a lot of weight. The average weight of meat chickens is from 3.5 to 7 kg. Among the most popular meat breeds are:
Breed Bharama is popular in Russia because of its good cold tolerance and its ability to quickly adapt to different conditions. The weight of adults reaches five kilograms by the fourth month of fattening.
Chickens Orpington breed are suitable for dietary meat, as their meat is the most lean and easily digestible among meat breeds.
A compromise option would be the choice of meat-breeding breed for breeding, since chickens of such breeds gain good weight with relatively high egg production. Meat-breaking breeds include:
- May Day,
- Bress Gallic,
- Plymouth Rock,
The next step after selecting the breed will be the choice of the method of keeping chickens. There are three main ways:
- Free range,
- In nests with aviary,
- In special cells.
Free range means keeping chickens in an open henhouse with perches and a large layer of litter. Chickens can freely go outside and walk to the compound. This method is suitable for keeping a small number of chickens (up to 20 individuals) in rural areas.
For chickens of egg breeds, free walking is more suitable, since mobility has a beneficial effect on the egg production of birds and the abundance of natural food in the form of greenery, insects and small pebbles will provide the layers with intake of vitamins and calcium for the shell.
Nest for chickens are floor or suspended covered boxes installed in chicken coops. Usually, a small (3 by 5 meters) enclosure made of metal mesh for summer poultry is attached to such chicken coops.
The content in the nests with an open-air cage is suitable for hens of an egg and meat-breed, as it provides chickens with comfortable conditions for laying eggs and hatching chicks while ensuring moderate mobility. The density of placement of adults in a chicken coop with nests is from two to four heads per square meter.
In the cages for chickens the highest density of poultry landing is up to 12 individuals per square meter. A sedentary lifestyle with the cellular content of chickens allows meat breeds of chickens to gain weight quickly, but is contraindicated for egg breeds, since, due to the limited mobility of the hen, they are obese and have difficulty laying eggs.
It is important to remember that keeping poultry in cages requires regular disinfection of cellular cages and good ventilation of the room, since a large density of birds, together with high humidity, can lead to the spread of infection and mass death of the livestock of chickens.
Features of the content of layers
It is preferable to keep hens of egg breed on the open range or in nests with a small aviary. There are three options for obtaining chicks for the reproduction of poultry:
- Buying young
- Incubation in an incubator
- Hatching with a hen.
Buying one-day stocking is a quick and convenient way to increase the poultry population, but there is a risk of acquiring sick and outbred chickens from unscrupulous breeders. To avoid this, it is necessary to require from the seller certificates of veterinary control and pay attention to the appearance of the chickens - they should not be wet or dirty.
Reproduction of chickens with the help of an incubator allows you to get young, without removing the layers from laying eggs. In incubators, fertilized eggs are kept at about 38 degrees for twenty-one days, after which the chicks hatch from the eggs. It should be remembered that the use of an incubator requires a responsible approach and experience from the poultry farmer.
The most economical way to get chickens hatching is their hen. In order to incubate the chicks, the hen must be kept quiet by placing it at some distance from other hens.
It is important to remember that in order to fertilize eggs, it is necessary to keep one individual per 8-12 hens in the rooster population.
Feeding and care
To ensure high egg laying hens, you must follow a number of important rules for their maintenance:
- Comfortable rooms,
- Balanced complex nutrition,
- The correct mode of lighting and ventilation,
- Providing protection
- Disease prevention.
If the birds are kept year-round, the room should be insulated, since at temperatures below +8 degrees the chicken production rate drops sharply. To protect against the cold, it is recommended to place the nests in the chicken coop at a certain height from the floor and not to attach directly to the walls. Using the entrance vestibule and infrared heaters will also help to keep warm in the winter.
To feed the hens you can use:
- Homemade feed,
- Factory feed,
- Hard food.
Grain food is suitable mainly for open content, chickens, in which layers can receive the missing vitamins and trace elements due to the natural natural food. Compound feed is a mixture of crushed grain with the addition of vitamins, minerals and fiber. In the nesting method of keeping feed is the best solution.
It is important to maintain the presence of sufficient calcium-rich minerals in the forage for laying eggs, which is necessary for the formation of eggshell in the chicken's body, and a lack of calcium in the diet can lead to chickens spitting eggs.
Great for feeding chickens mash - It is a compound feed, filled with warm water or milk cream. To make it you need to mix the following ingredients:
- Crushed barley - 500 g,
- Sunflower cake - 200 g,
- Meat bone or fish meal - 80 g,
- Cut greens - 50 g,
- Boiled carrots chopped 120 g,
- Shell shells crushed - 50 g.
After stirring, pour water (200-300 ml) until a thick crumbly gruel is formed.
Remains of uneaten mash can not be stored for more than an hour, so it is important to calculate the amount of ingredients in advance, based on the number of birds. An adult requires 70-80 grams of finished feed twice a day.
An adult chicken drinks a day to half a liter of liquid, so drinkers with fresh drinking water should be installed in the hen house. Drinkers of vacuum or nipple type provide a metered flow of water and do not require maintenance during the day.
The presence of a full day (12-14 hours) supports the well-being and high egg production of the bird, therefore, when laying hens in the nests, it is necessary to have artificial lighting at the rate of 100 W per 4 square meters. meters of space. Installation of photosensitive machines and timers will help maintain the light mode in the winter.
When placing the enclosure is important to ensure the safety of chickens. Pieces of metal mesh should not have sharp edges, about which birds can hurt. The presence of a tape or pile foundation will help prevent rodents eating eggs from entering the aviary and hen house.
The correct location of the chicken coop and the enclosure directly affects the egg production of chickens. The basic requirements for a place to house chickens are as follows:
- Quiet place,
- Good light.
The location of the chicken coop near the roads is unacceptable, since the presence of extraneous noise will reduce the productivity of chickens, and representatives of the leggorn egg-bearing breed tend to fall into noise hysteria.
The location of the chicken coop on the hill will help to avoid moisture due to the accumulation of rain or melt water in the aviary or wetting the chicken coop.
It is important to remember that the exit door of the chicken coop and the aviary should be located on the south side, and the construction of the chicken coop should also be avoided in the shade of large buildings.
To avoid contamination of the hens with pathogens and parasites, it is important to maintain a low level of moisture in the hen house and a good level of ventilation. Ventilation is achieved due to the location of special windows 0.5 by 0.5 meters on opposite walls of the hen house.
To get rid of chickens from skin parasites and feathers, it is necessary to install containers with ashes and fine river sand in an open-air cage. In such tanks, chickens bathe and clean insect feathers.
It is useful to add edible salt to the feed as anthelmintic once a week. Salt is taken at the rate of 5 grams of salt per kilogram of feed.
Features of the content of broilers
Broilers are chickens raised by a method of rapid intensive fattening in a period not exceeding forty-five days until they reach a weight of 2 kilograms.
Usually for broiler breeding take chickens obtained from crossing the meat breed Cornish and meat breed Plymouth. Broiler chickens, resulting from such a cross, gain weight faster than each meat breed separately, but these abilities are not inherited.
Cross-breeding chickens of different breeds is beyond the power of novice poultry farmers, so it is better to buy day-old broiler chickens from special breeders.
Advantages and disadvantages of home keeping chickens
К основным плюсам домашнего разведения несушек и бройлеров можно отнести:
- Получение натурального мяса и яиц,
- Личный контроль над процессом выращивания кур,
- Возможность получать дополнительную продукцию.
The meat of chickens grown in a private farmstead significantly differs in taste from the purchased one at the expense of better housing conditions than in large poultry farms. At home, birds do not overfeed with antibiotics and growth hormones, with the result that the meat of such birds is more suitable for dietary nutrition.
The owners of farms can get additional profit by selling chicken feathers for filling pillows and chicken manure as valuable organic fertilizer.
It should be understood that the maintenance of chickens at home requires constant monitoring by the poultry farmer, even when using modern automatic equipment, the installation of which is not cheap. Therefore, it makes sense to raise chickens at home if done with the expectation of a year-round content in the long term.
Thus, the home method of breeding chickens is suitable for those who permanently live in their home with a land plot and is not economically feasible for summer residents who spend only summer in their home.
A novice poultry farmer should bear in mind that not every breed of hen will be suitable for subsidiary farming. Their selection should be made taking into account the conditions of detention. In this case, chickens can pick up simple or pedigree. The first of them are less demanding in terms of conditions and balance of the feed. However, the greatest interest for home cultivation are:
- Meat Chickens They grow very fast while gaining weight. From such a bird get juicy carcasses. However, it should be borne in mind that this bird is carried very badly.
- Egg Kvochki. These chickens are excellent laying hens, which delight their owners all year round with selected fresh eggs. As a rule, these are small-sized lungs of birds, loving activity and well flying. Many of these breeds have not yet lost the chilling instinct.
- Meat-egg. These hens are universal. On the one hand, they serve as an excellent source of tasty and high-quality meat, and on the other hand, they do not lag behind in terms of egg-laying.
Before buying chickens, you must first select the variety that has the right orientation. Small farms prefer to grow universal birds. After all, they grow quickly and ripen and carry well.
In order for chickens to be raised and further maintenance of chickens to be simple and beneficial, breeds must meet certain requirements, including:
- Endurance and unpretentiousness. This is especially important in the case when the owners do not have enough free time for classes with feathered farms.
- Good adaptability. Birds need to take root in a new place. That is why they need to be able to easily adjust and get used to the new conditions of life.
- Unpretentious in matters of nutrition. When a person is engaged in growing chickens at home, he will not be able to calculate the exact dosage of feed for each bird. It is unlikely that in this case there are opportunities for acquiring an unusual food or making a special diet.
- Profitable in content. Surely no one wants to be engaged in home raising of chickens, if in the end, after spending money and time, the brood will not bring any benefit.
- Good immunity and good health. This breed factor is important. The fact is that factory chickens are often literally stuffed with antibiotics. On the one hand, it allows them not to get sick, but on the other hand, it fills the meat with harmful substances. That is why it is desirable for domestic chickens to possess congenital resistance to the most common avian ailments.
It is necessary to know about some nuances of choosing a bird at the stage of buying chickens from an incubator. Attention should be stopped only on the most mobile individuals. Activity always indicates that the chicks are healthy. Otherwise, the money spent on the purchase may not be justified. A weak bird may die already in the first days or after it will be very stunted.
What kind of chickens are bought for growing? According to the recommendations of experts, the main sign of health of small fluffy lumps is their ability:
- keep your feet steady
- move well and smartly
- try to peck around objects.
In addition, the chickens should have a taut and at the same time soft belly, a clean cesspool of pink color, bulging and shining eyes, always adhered to the body of the wings. When choosing to pay attention to the umbilical cord of chicks. By the time of purchase, it should already heal.
First days. Care
And the cultivation of chickens in the initial period of their stay at home, and care for them - a very responsible matter. Indeed, in the first weeks of their lives, chicks are especially vulnerable to the most various infections. That is why the care of them must be especially thorough.
In order to create optimal growing conditions for chickens in the first weeks of their life, the necessary temperature should be created, high-quality food should be provided, and sufficient water should be supplied.
After the chicks hatching in the incubator are completely dry, they are planted under a hen or in a prepared box that can be either cardboard or wooden. The bottom of such a container is covered with newspapers or a piece of matter, folded in several layers, on which a feeding trough and a trough are placed. Over the box on a tripod have an incandescent lamp. Its height is adjusted so that the air temperature at the bottom surface is within 30 degrees. On the first day the box with chickens is illuminated even at night. After that, daylight hours can be reduced to 8 hours.
How at the initial stage to carry out the care and cultivation? Chickens at home should always be provided with food and drink. Dirty newspapers should be cleaned at least 2 times a day. In the case when the chicks start to knock together, you need to warm the air in the box. In the “heap-little” chicks gather only when they are cold. But not only low temperature is dangerous for them. In a heap, the upper individuals can crush the lower ones. Harmful to chicks and heat. You can find out about the uncomfortable temperature by the behavior of chicks, who are trying to get away from the light, stretch their heads and spread their wings. Starting from the fifth day of the future carrier’s temperature, it will be necessary to lower the temperature to 26 degrees, then decrease by 3 degrees every week to 18. After it becomes clear that the chicks become cramped in the box, they are transferred to bedding. This increases the area of their location.
House for chickens
In the first days after the purchase of young stock, it can be placed not in a box, but in a brooder. This device is designed to heat the young in the first weeks of life. At their core, brooders for growing chickens are artificial substitutes for chickens. Of course, such a house can be purchased already ready. However, many poultry farmers still prefer to make a brooder with their own hands for raising chickens.
After procurement of materials and necessary equipment, you can safely get down to work. At its first stage, the frame of such a house of plywood is assembled. Its dimensions are determined individually based on the number of chickens. The height of such a structure should not be above 50 cm. Otherwise, the poultry farmer will have difficulty heating the young. Due to the lack of heat, the chicks will begin to freeze.
The bottom of the brooder is made of a fine mesh, the cells of which have dimensions of 1x1 cm. Through such openings all the garbage will fall down on the bottom tray. This design allows you to quickly and easily carry out cleaning for the care of chicks.
A DIY broiler for growing chickens is equipped with incandescent bulbs with a power of 60 watts. But for heating it is best to purchase special lighting. Their cost is low, and the efficiency is much more than ordinary lamps.
After 10 days, the youngsters can be moved to the barn, where a place will be prepared in advance for future laying hens. According to the recommendations of experts, it will need to constantly maintain cleanliness, which will be an excellent prevention of a variety of avian diseases. After all, with a high crowding of chickens, the presence of numerous food debris and litter in the room, the chicks are unlikely to remain healthy. In addition, the place where chickens are raised and fed should be constantly heated and adhere to the following rules:
- conduct high-quality disinfection before placing the bird in the barn,
- maintain an optimal level of humidity in the room within 60 percent,
- have no more than 13 individuals in an area of one square meter,
- to spread on the floor a thick layer of bedding from an absorbent material without mold, which can be, for example, fresh hay.
Placing a bird in the barn, you need to take care of its safety. This is especially true when growing broiler chickens. After all, this breed is considered very shy. In case of danger, such chickens immediately come together in a pile, injuring each other. Some of the chickens may even die. But in any case, cats and dogs, rats and mice should not penetrate into the shed.
Already from the age of a week, the bird can be started to be let out into the yard. Fresh air and solar energy will have an excellent effect on metabolic processes occurring in the body of chickens. In addition, these walks will be a remarkable prevention of rickets.
At first, the duration of walking should not exceed 90 minutes. And only after animals grow a little, it can be left in open space during the whole daylight hours. To do this, you need to build a small pen, which will be fenced with a fine grid. Such material will not allow the bird to escape and at the same time protect it from predatory animals. It is also worth making a stout canopy over this pen. In this case, the chicks will not get wet from the heavy rain and will not get sick.
The diet of young
About how to breed hens at home, can tell in detail any resident of the village. However, only one of these hostesses sell surplus eggs all year round, and the latter constantly curse their birds, considering them to be lazy.
In order for the costs incurred in purchasing the chicks to pay off, in addition to taking good care of the birds, they will need a balanced diet right from birth. Need birds and water. Small chickens are given it twice as much as feed. For the first time, daily 5% glucose solution is poured into daily babies instead of water.
Up to the age of seven days, food is simply poured onto cardboard sheets. Next, you need a device feeders, the design of which, ideally, should be suspended.
The first feed for fluffy clumps are:
- fine crushed groats,
- hard-boiled eggs
- skim dry cottage cheese (it contains calcium, which promotes plumage).
Somewhat later, the egg is excluded from the diet. From the second day it is advisable to add finely chopped greens to the feed for the chickens. In the summer it can be a clover, and in the winter it is independently sprouted cereal. From the third day chickens will be happy to eat mash. Cook it in meat broth and yogurt. Blender should always be fresh. After an hour, her remains should be thrown out of the feeder, which should then be washed and rinsed with a solution of potassium permanganate. By the way, containing this substance a weak, slightly pink water, you should feed the chicks twice a week in the morning.
At the age of five days, chicks are already distinguished by their vitality. They need to gradually increase the amount of feed, adding to it fish oil and vitamins. From the first day, coarse sand or small gravel is recommended for their stomachs, which can be replaced by an eggshell. Up to the age of two months, only crushed cereals can be produced from cereal to a young bird.
For adult birds will need to buy feed. Its ideal composition is that which contains:
- 40% corn,
- 8% wheat bran,
- 20% barley flour,
- 10% sunflower meal,
- 14% of fish and meat and bone meal (1: 1),
- 3% feed yeast,
- 5% salt and mineral supplements.
Such a mixture, either dry or as a mash, is given 2-3 times a day. In order for the chickens' stomach to work well, they should be fed with dry grain, on which it is desirable that there are fewer films.
It is known that homemade eggs are always different from the factory ones. This is made possible by the diversity of feed. The yolk acquires its orange color due to the presence of a large amount of vitamin greens in the diet of the hens.
In the feed for chickens can be added and the remnants of the table of the person who diversify the menu of birds. Experts say that the more ingredients in the feed, the tastier the egg will turn out.
But for those who keep chickens, it is worth bearing in mind that you cannot overfeed them. Irrational diet leads to obesity of the viscera. It will be difficult for the bird to be carried along. Her eggs instead of the shell will begin to be covered with a very thin film. This will cause the contents of this product to pour directly under the chicken. This circumstance will have a negative impact not only because eggs begin to pollute the nests. The taste of their contents will be known to the chickens, which is further fraught with peck.
The golden age of layers lasts up to 15 months. After that, they give less eggs, and their meat starts to get rude. By this time, the hosts should prepare a new brood.
How to ensure that the bird of this breed met its purpose? To do this, it will require competent care. And the cultivation of broiler chickens should be carried out with a carefully selected diet.
If the bird of this breed will not be used for the continuation of the genus in the future, then its stay at home lasts no more than 70 days. After this, the cultivation and care and feeding of broiler chickens will not bring any benefit to the owners. Physiologically, in birds older than 70 days, weight gain begins to fall. At the same time, feed consumption remains the same. Comparing these two factors, it becomes obvious that growing broiler chickens at home is not profitable for more than this period. This must be considered when choosing this breed.
Broiler chicken feed
What are the features of the content of this meat poultry? The breeding conditions for broiler chickens in the first stage do not differ from those recommended for young stock of other breeds. But for such birds this is not enough. It is important for them to get the proper amount of feed. Only in this case the bird will be large and well-fed.
How to produce feeding and growing broiler chickens, it is especially important to know those who first started this meat breed in their household. During the first weeks of life, chicks should be fed wet mastiffs. They are prepared using millet and boiled eggs, crushed oats, and wheat, which should be just over half of the feed intended for poultry.
After the chickens turn 3 weeks old, boiled potatoes are introduced into their menu, which replaces one fifth of the cereals. You should not forget about protein feeds when growing broilers. They will allow the active growth of bone and muscle mass. To do this, the bird must eat yogurt and cottage cheese, skim milk and other dairy products.
Starting at the age of 10 days, animal protein, which is contained in meat and bone meal and fish meal, should appear in the chicken’s diet. Such products first give 5-7 grams per day per individual. Somewhat later, flour consumption may be doubled.
In the diet of broiler chickens must be present and vegetable products that are rich in protein. These are the crushed seeds of bean, cake of seeds of sunflower, various sort of meal.
From three days of age, broiler chickens should receive green feed. In spring and summer this is the tops of crops grown in the garden, juicy grass and shredded carrots. On one individual should fall on 3-5 grams of green. During cold periods, the presence of grass meal is necessary in the diet. It is added to the feed at the rate of 2-5 grams per individual. As the greenery can be used seedlings of cereals.
In order to avoid digestive problems, broilers should receive:
- pink solution of potassium permanganate as a drink (every other day),
- small gravel, the diameter of which does not exceed 5 mm, to enhance the work of the intestines and improve digestion.
From the fifth day of life, broilers start giving crushed shells to chickens (2-3 grams per one chick).
Use of compound feeds
In order for broiler chickens to gain weight more intensively, experts recommend giving them food that fully meets the physiological needs of the birds. Today it is ready-made or homemade feed. Especially good results such a diet allows you to get in the first four weeks of life of birds.
Комбикорма значительно улучшают показатели веса растущего поголовья и значительно упрощают уход за цыплятами бройлерами, их кормление и выращивание, а также контроль над потреблением пищи. На начальном этапе это позволит укрепить иммунитет птицы и создать все предпосылки для ее быстрого набора веса и крепкого здоровья. During active growth, compound feeds are a complete source of calcium and proteins, fats and vitamins, which provide an increase in muscle mass. At the end of the period of detention, before slaughter, it is recommended to use finishing mixtures that contribute to improving the fatness.