Perhaps for people who do not understand the question, the goat content is only needed for milk. But not everything is so simple. The fact is that when choosing a breed, you need to understand what result you want to achieve. The maintenance of goats can be started either for business, or simply for the production of natural products in the household for their own family. Depending on this, you need to choose between 4 main breed directions.
- Dairy. Traditional subspecies recommended for beginners. When buying you need to pay attention to the udder of the goat.
- Meat. Goat meat is very rare on the shelves, so there will be little competition. But the care of such a breed is somewhat more difficult, because it is necessary to provide the herd with special food.
- Downy. The cold winter frightens those who do not have mittens or shawls of goat down. But we must understand that care is not limited to feeding. Regular combing and haircuts may seem complicated for beginners.
- Decorative. Mini goats can even be kept in apartments. Small yields are compensated by modest care requirements.
Council It is best to start goat farming with traditional dairy goats. Care of them is simple, the benefits are obvious.
Content: necessary training
Goats are good grazing. If climatic conditions permit, it is advisable to arrange for the herd two kinds of housing: closed and open. The stall is perfect for wintering, and in the warm season it is better to let the animals go to grass. To ensure the most comfortable atmosphere in the barn, you need to take care of the following:
- Heat. If low temperatures are assumed, the room must be insulated or heated. You can sheathe walls with foam plastic or modern insulation.
- Shine. In the barn must be a window. For good productivity, it is important for animals to receive the necessary dose of light rays.
- The beds. Of course, the goat can sleep on the floor, but it increases the likelihood of disease. It is recommended to install plank beds from boards, slightly raising them above the floor level.
- Company. Inheritance animals are loyal to the neighborhood with other animal species. It is only necessary to observe the separate keeping of goats from goats and goats.
- Leash. It is not necessary to bind the cattle in the barn, it will adversely affect the performance, animals will not be able to rest fruitfully.
Goats please owners with their omnivorous. Of course, to get good milk you need to provide high-quality nutrition. The path to success is through a simple formula: juicy and nutritious. The diet is divided into two types, depending on the season.
- Summer. The easiest way to feed the goats in the summer, because throughout the day, animals can eat grass. Apples, cabbage leaves are suitable as a vitamin supplement. Pears should be given with caution - only in small quantities. It is useful to include coarse food in the menu - branches, concentrates from milled cereals. Goat grazing eats up to 8 kg of greenery, they can be used for thinning overgrown areas of the garden.
- Winter. In the summer, you need to plan the harvesting of hay. It is optional to dry only a grass, perfectly goats eat brooms from fir and deciduous plants. Waste from the table can be given raw or boiled and mixed with feed. Juice needs to be added by means of fruit or vegetables, cleaning will approach.
Attention! Goat body requires salt, so all year round you need to monitor the supplement in the animal's body. Salt-lizunets well fill the need, but you can give an additive and with a spoon.
Milking can begin 3-4 weeks before lambing. It is important to carry out the manipulation carefully, without causing discomfort to the animal. It is possible to carry out preliminary easy massage - the stroking movements will calm a goat and stimulate production of milk. After the appearance of the goat, the goat is ready for milking in an hour, but you need to focus on your well-being and not follow the path. For the milk content of goats are shared with kids and fed calves artificially.
The milking process is slow and you need to take care of comfort for both humans and animals. A goat must first be treated with an apple, stroked and soothed, otherwise it will not let go to milking. Sitting on a low chair, leaning over the udder for 15 minutes can be uncomfortable, so it is recommended that you consider an elevation for the goat.
A good alternative to manual milking may be an automatic machine. This information will be useful to owners of livestock that are brought up for business purposes.
Like all living things, goats are subject to disease. In most cases, diseases can be managed, but you should not engage in self-treatment. A competent specialist will quickly identify the cause and prescribe the funds.
- Tympania of the scar. The reason is a violation of the diet: swollen sides and rubbed appetite should alert the owner. As a rule, goats are cured of tympania by relieving the scar from gases and setting up a belching.
- Mastitis. Milk goats are at risk, so you need to carefully follow the recommendations for the content, not to allow hypothermia, moisture in the barn, always on time and properly milk the animal.
- Foot and mouth disease. Ulcers on the mucous membranes, udder and hooves are characteristic. Disinfection of the room and isolation of the sick animal is necessary. Milk can be eaten, but it must first be boiled.
- Listeriosis Motions unusual for an animal, loss of coordination, convulsions indicate damage to the nervous system. Treat need antibiotics. Meat is suitable for food after cooking for 2 hours.
Keeping a goat will not be a severe test if the necessary conditions for keeping animals are taken care of. They will not deliver much trouble even to an inexperienced breeder.
How to start breeding goats
For a start it is worth deciding on the purpose of breeding and the goals of the future economy. Most often at home dairy breeds of these animals are bred. However, sometimes goats are bred to obtain angora fluff, then it is worth choosing meat and feather breeds for breeding. To start goat breeding, you can purchase the uterus already at demolitions or bred kids. It is best in this case to acquire the offspring or one goat from the uterus, which has well confirmed its positive qualities - the quality of its milk or wool has been accurately verified. The properties of the mother are transmitted to the offspring and, thus, there is a guarantee of its good properties.
When animals are selected, you need to arrange a place for them to live. Keeping a goat at home is not too difficult for beginners. Most often, goats are kept in stall and walking in half. For stall maintenance need a dry barn, which will not be drafts. On the floor will require provide a thick layer of bedding, make a bench for hedgehogs, as goats like to sleep on high ground. Such beds should be placed on an elevation of 30-40 centimeters from the floor. In the stall animals are kept without a leash. In addition, you need a feeder with hay and a basin for drinking.
In the case of buying young stock females need to be kept separately, the first mating should occur after one and a half years. It is necessary to know the time of the lambing of females, it is impossible to carry the newborn goats into the house immediately after the lambing;
In the summer, goats graze on grass and feed on fresh grass. Need to to force animals walk at least four hours a day, as they constantly grow hoofs. Or they will have to be specially grinded.
When there is no fresh feed, the animals feed on hay, root crops and mixed fodder. Hay must be present in the diet in winter. The temperature in the stall must be maintained not lower than 10 degrees, and for the kids, not less than 12 degrees.
It is extremely important to equip a solid pen, as goats always explore their place of residence and look for opportunities to escape. In the case of escape, the goat will easily end up in a neighboring area, and therefore a scandal can arise To graze livestock is also necessary under supervision or tied it to the pegs, otherwise it will be taken anywhere, including neighboring areas and fields. Communication with goats should occur in a gentle tone.
Goats are very unpretentious and eat almost everything. They can to give besides the main feed:
- Weeds remaining after weeding.
- Edible kitchen waste.
- Chopped root vegetables.
- Hay, grass, straw.
They feed on bread and, in general, on almost everyone, including hanging laundry, if they are not followed up. That is why it is necessary to monitor the movements of animals and not allow them to escape.
This is minimal goat breeding information for beginners. With time and experience, the goat breeder will learn new information, including on raising and keeping kids, milking females, caring for newborns, feeding rations for kids, and much more.
Keeping a goat in a household
The strongest offspring is obtained in early spring. And, therefore, the mating needs to be planned in early autumn. Females need to be with males not on related lines. Understand that the mating did not happen will be possible by the fact that after a fortnight the animal will again become restless. In the case of mating, the offspring appears approximately 147-150 days after it.
Care for kids
The kids must be properly taken: wipe the kid, remove the mucus from his nose and mouth, be sure to let his mother lick it. After that, the goatling is applied to the mother's udder, or colostrum is applied in the first hour after birth. If the temperature in the room where the kids were born is below 15 degrees, they should be taken to a warmer room, where the newborns need to be treated and disinfected with iodine. If kids are on artificial being fed, they are fed from the nipples and kept separate from the mother.
The goat is considered an adult from three months and begins to receive food on a different diet. From two months, kids start to accustom to porridges, root crops and concentrates. From three months the following have already been included in their food. items:
- Grass and branches of a bush.
- Straw, hay.
- Compound feed.
- Crushed grain.
- Be sure to have vitamins and minerals.
Goats must be kept separate from goats and castrated in time. Goats feel hunting since five months, but to get good and strong offspring they should not be allowed to mate up to one and a half years. If dairy females are kept near the goats, the smell of their milk becomes unpleasant. Therefore, goat enclosures are always located away from the herd.
Adult goats need to be given food that is seasonally balanced. Summer grass is indispensable, but it should be provided to goats on pastures. They can not graze in the marshland, because of this they can get sick hooves. But goats perfectly cope with any mountain obstacles and shrubs. These animals are capable of foraging in places where no other will pass. An adult individual eats about 6-7 kilograms of grass per day, and young goatlings about 2-4 kilograms. If the grass in the fields too few goats will need to be further fed in the evening. Twice a day they need to be given a drink.
In winter, the main feed is hay, straw and other dry food, as well as feed and root crops. But, besides this, it is useful to give brooms harvested from the summer, they will serve as a good vitamin supplement and a delicacy for animals. Both food and water in winter should be warm. In the feed you need to add a mixture of bone meal and salt, as mineral additives. Even in winter, goats need to walk in the fresh air.
In addition, you need a day comb out goats in winter to avoid parasites. Once a week, their hair is moistened with a solution of soda to avoid the appearance of lice. When the goats are more in the stall, their hooves are cut to stop unlimited growth.
Choice of breed
Breeding Goats are divided into three main areas:
Depending on the chosen direction and the breed is selected. Although, of course, all the goats provide related products in all three areas, but there are breeds that are most suitable for a particular purpose.
Such breeds as Zaanen, Russian White, Alpine, Toggenburg, Megrelian are well suited to obtain the maximum amount of milk. These breeds can produce about 4-5 liters of milk per day. And productivity increases after the second lambing, and then remains at the same level for life. Goat milk is extremely useful and has hypoallergenic properties, which further increases its value.
It is worth paying special attention to the correct method of milking goats. To do this, the novice farmer should refer to the video tutorials or ask the advice of experienced breeders.
For breeding downy goats, the Don, Black Down, Angora, Kirghiz, Altai, Orenburg breeds are excellent. With such a goat you can get up to 700 grams of fluff per season. Skins are also suitable for sewing warm clothing. Such goats give about 300 liters of milk per year.
Goat down and wool are highly valued. They are among the most expensive on the market. In addition to the fact that goat down gives heat, it has healing properties. Helps in the treatment of radiculitis, rheumatism, arthritis and other such diseases.
Goat meat is also appreciated due to the mass of useful properties and special taste. Gorky, Boer and Zaanen breeds are well suited for breeding goats in the meat direction. These goats gain weight from 75 to 115 kilograms. The meat industry of goat breeding in Russia is rather poorly developed, therefore, the main meat breeds, like Nubian, Bur, Anatolian, Spanish and others, are extremely rare. Most often, the meat trend in Russia exists as a side from the milk or down.
Due to the fact that goats are very unpretentious and hardy, and any of the breeds gives several products, regardless of the main direction, with proper experience their breeding can be extremely profitable. More or less settled down in the breeding and maintenance of goats, a farmer can easily cover his costs for goat production in the first year. And in the future, expand your farm and get a decent profit. To keep these animals while observing the minimum rules is not a concern, but practically a pleasure.
Where does goat breeding begin
The various recommendations and tutorials that tell you how to start breeding goats are right in one thing: first, it is important to define the scope and goals. To meet personal needs, it is enough to purchase two or three animals. If a decision is made about a larger investment, the sequence of actions may be as follows:
- The goal is determined. The most common business is the receipt and sale of milk. Much less often it comes to the processing of milk into cheeses sour cream, butter, whey, cottage cheese, cream for subsequent sale. But you can grow goats and for meat, wool, down, hides.
- Having determined the goals, select the number and breed of goats.
- Build a stable, rent or buy land for pasture.
- Determine the mechanisms and places of sales.
- Prepare a fodder base. Equip a room for storing feed.
- Buy breeding material.
Interesting! Goat milk is a hypoallergenic product with a high content of vitamins A, C, D, PP, H, and vitamins of group B. The vitamin complex, beta-casein and low content of alpha-1s-casein and lipase enzyme, have a beneficial effect on the immune system, digestive organs, blood formation, prevents anemia, stabilize metabolic processes.
What breed choose a beginner
There are more than two hundred breeds of goats and even more pedigree subspecies registered in the world.. Traditionally, the breed is divided by production purpose into three main groups: dairy, meat and downy. However, in some reference books there are several more types:
For beginners, it is most convenient to breed dairy goats.
Most of the dairy breeds can be attributed to the mixed milk-meat or milk-wool type.
Goat zaannenskoy breed.
Breeds are popular in Russia:
- Russian white.
Selection of goats and goats for further breeding is based on a comprehensive assessment of individuals. Properly selected herd includes animals selected by pedigree, constitution, exterior, as well as on the basis of data on the productivity and quality of the previous offspring. Based on the assessment results, the best animals are selected, and individuals that do not fit the selection criteria are slaughtered for meat or sold to other farms. It is necessary to save all data on the results of selection, since they will be necessary when selecting pairs (Figure 1).
Note: When selecting goats for breeding work, one should take into account the direction of breeding: woolly, downy or milky. For downy and woolly breeds, the volume of pile and downing of wool plays a leading role, and for dairy breeds, the volume of milk yield per lactation.
Criteria for selecting animals for breeding include:
- Evaluation of individuals by origin: these data can be obtained only with the help of zootechnical accounting and tagging of goats, since for breeding an important role is played by the productive and breeding qualities of males and females.
- Conduct Bonding - the process of dividing goats into groups (or classes) according to indicators of exterior, constitution and productivity. Montage can be carried out individually and class. The first method is used only for animals of the first and elite class, which are kept separately. The results of bonding are recorded in the log book. For class bonatirovka use the same indicators, but the test results are not recorded in the journal.
- Performance evaluation, in addition to bonding, includes weighing animals, measuring the amount of down and wool, as well as the fat content of milk and its quantity.
- Evaluation of goats by the number of offspring: The first selection of future producers is carried out in 2-3 weeks after birth. This allows you to immediately castrate individuals unsuitable for further breeding. Initially, 5-6 times more young goats are selected than are required to replenish livestock. The selected kids together with their mothers form a separate group, which is contained on the best pastures and gets enhanced feeding. The second selection is carried out at weaning goats from mothers, that is, at the age of 4-6 months. The third selection takes place at the age of one year and is based on productivity indicators and individual bonding. In the autumn period, the best goat on the exterior is selected from the group of selected animals. Their number should exceed the required three times.
During the last selection of goats, about 70 queens are selected for them, which are suitable for productivity. Animals are kept in one flock, and provide good feeding and living conditions. The resulting young animals are also kept separately and evaluated taking into account the performance of each specific goat producer.
An important role in the process of breeding is the correct selection of goats to the uterus. To do this, it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate animals at the stage of selection of individuals for breeding.
There are several types of selection, each of which has certain features.:
- Individual selection animals for mating is carried out only among individuals of the elite class. The essence of the selection lies in the fact that for each female a separate goat is selected that best suits her in terms of productivity, exterior, fecundity, constitution and origin.
- Group selection often used for females class herds. For queen of the same class, individual goat-producers are prescribed. The essence of this method is to breed the offspring better than the previous one, therefore, the indicators of goats should be better than those of queens. This type of selection is most often used in non-tribal farms.
- Uniform selection aims to consolidate and improve a certain type of animals in the herd. The basic principle: the best with the best gives the best. Therefore, with this type of selection of the uterus and the goats-manufacturers must fully comply with the necessary requirements. In addition, a uniform selection can be used to improve certain characteristics. For example, if the uterus has thick, but short hair, they are mated with goats with long hair of medium thickness, in order to get the most productive offspring in wool.
- Heterogeneous selection based on the principle of "the worst with the best is improving." For example, for second-class queens, elite goat manufacturers are selected to improve the performance of down and wool. Interbreeding and hybridization are also referred to as heterogeneous selection.
An extremely important role for breeding and non-tribal farms is played by the choice and further maintenance of the goat-producer. In most farms, it is used for only three to four months during the year, and the rest of the time they are kept on a balanced maintenance diet. Already by the beginning of this season, the goat must be ready for reproduction, therefore, preparation for the mating begins three months before it starts.
For this, the goats must be fed with concentrates (up to 1 kg per head per day) in order for the animals to reach factory condition more quickly.
The main requirement for the manufacturer - full compliance with the qualities that tend to improve in the herd. Therefore, when choosing an animal, the key role is assigned to its origin and ancestral productivity.
Physical characteristics of a good goat makerthe following:
- Sound health and constitution
- Vivid manifestation of signs characteristic of the breed,
- Origin from a fertile family (it would be better if the goat is from twins or triplets)
- High mobility and sexual energy.
Too heavy animals, with a loose constitution and phlegmatic character cover a considerably smaller number of queens. In addition, for breeding, individuals with a large amount of prepuce are not suitable. A good goat genitals should be normally developed.
With the wrong diet or insufficient feeding, the goat may experience problems with the reproductive function. First of all, insufficient content of phosphorus, protein, vitamins A, E and iodine negatively affects this. These components are necessary for the normal development of the testes, improving libido and sperm quality.
Also, problems with reproduction may occur when magnesium, zinc, cobalt and copper are insufficiently present in the feed. An important role for mating is the weather and conditions of detention. If the air temperature is too high, the goat's libido decreases or completely fades, therefore, in summer, animals should be kept in cool, shaded rooms.
For the maintenance of producers use individual pens of 2 * 1.5 * 1.5 meters. The height of the walls of the pen should be one meter (Figure 2). In each pen there should be an individual trough for feed, water and concentrates. Twice a day they are released for a walk or a separate pasture. For mating is better to allocate a separate room to facilitate the process. During mating, even males with a calm and balanced temperament become more active and difficult to keep. Therefore, a goat is first brought into the mating room, and then the uterus is admitted to it.
Figure 2. Drawing of the stall for the content of the male sire
Goats designed for mating should be regularly examined by a veterinarian. In particular, you need to feel the testes, and if you find any abnormalities or diseases of the goat or treated, or slaughtered for meat. Lame goats are not suitable for breeding, so their hooves should be regularly cleaned, trimmed or treated.
If off-season mating is required (from May to July), hormones can be included in the animals ’diet, but the veterinarian should determine their dosage.
Downy goats are distinguished by a strong constitution, bulk chest, strong coarse hoofs. From representatives of the best downy breeds get good milk yield, skins are used for furrier work, the meat has good taste.
The most common breeds found in the farmsteads are:
- pond water
- black downy
- white cross goats of Dagestan,
- Soviet wool goat.
Less common are cashmere, Volgograd, Turkmen down goats.
Goat meat in taste and quality is similar to lamb, but is considered more useful. In the Middle East, goat meat is used in the medical nutrition of people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular, circulatory, respiratory systems, gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis, and diabetes.
Interesting! Of great interest are the dwarf goat breeds. Despite its small size, Nigerian dwarfs are able to provide the family with delicious milk. Cameroon goat meat is considered a delicacy. Miniature goats are often bred in mobile and contact zoos, kept as companion animals.
Traditional meat breeds - Anatolian, Bur, Nubian, Kiko, Spanish, Greek are extremely rare here. In Russia, unlike in many European and Middle Eastern countries, meat goat farming is poorly developed. Usually, meat is a “by-product” of breeding goats of the dairy and down direction: Saanen or Gorky.
Goats meat of the Boer breed are famous for the delicious taste of meat.
Care and maintenance requirements
Goats easily adapt to any climate, unpretentious to feed. The best performance is achieved with stall-grazing. It provides for grazing animals in the warm season and their transfer to the room with the onset of cold weather.
Reproduction and maintenance of goats in a small farm requires proper preparation of the premises:
- The area of the room is calculated from a standard of 4 m² per animal.
- Provide ventilation and comply with moisture conditions. Goats need constant access to fresh, dry air. Animals do not tolerate high humidity.
- Maintain optimum temperature.
- For lighting in the barn make windows.
- The floor is covered with a dry bed of straw, hay or sawdust. Thick bedding on the floor generates heat and can significantly reduce the energy consumption for heating in the winter. The litter is changed at least twice a year.
- Equip beds from dies or benches.
- The shed is divided into separate sections for keeping the goat, females, milking goats, young and milking.
- Construct individual drinkers and feeders.
- Near the barn enclose walking with a canopy and scab.
Nutrition and Diet Required
In the summer, goats have enough pasture and a small amount of hay, delivered 2 times a day. A supplement of 200 g of feed and a kilogram of vegetables, roots, and fruits is desirable daily. 3-4 single watering of animals is organized on the pasture.
In winter, the diet consists of branches of trees and shrubs, hay, beets, Jerusalem artichoke, vegetables, grain, corn, silage, chalk additive, a small amount of salt. Hay is harvested at the rate of 2-3 kg per animal daily. Feed the animals at the scheduled time 3-4 times a day.
Content in winter
In addition to transferring goats to another diet, in winter they provide comfortable conditions:
- To maintain high rates of milk production and good growth of young stock, they provide room coverage in the dark season.
- Maintain optimum temperature in the barn. It is enough for kids to be + 10-12º C, for adult animals + 6-8º C, but the most comfortable temperature for animals is + 18-20º C.
- During the period of stalling great attention is paid to the fight against worms and parasites that weaken the immune system and cause various diseases.
Dairy goat conditions
For dairy goats make up a balanced diet, observing the norms of fiber and protein. In winter, vitamin and mineral supplements are required. Water milking and dry females shall be watered with a temperature of at least + 10º C. For convenience, equip a place for milking. It is best to milk a goat on a special machine that limits its movement.
Important! In order for milk not to acquire a specific odor, goats are kept separately from milk goats.
Content without grazing
When stall animals are fed on the principle of the feeding table. In the summer, more than half of the diet should be freshly cut grass and branches. In addition, the menu includes succulent and concentrated feed wet mash of bran, hay.
Goats do not tolerate the neighborhood of rabbits, poultry, pigs. But with cows, horses and sheep, they quickly find a common language.
The organization of feeding for beginners
Organizing feeding, pay attention to the important points:
- On pasture, it is desirable to have a natural watering place, trees and shrubs.
- The diet of animals should include juicy (grass, silage, vegetables, fruits), coarse (hay, straw, brooms) and concentrated feed (barley, corn, oats, bran, feed).
- When building a crib, a room is provided for the separate storage of all types of feed.
When making a mating you need to know on what grounds you can recognize the hunt. At the beginning or end of the case period, these signs may appear weakly or completely absent. Hardest signs of hunting occur from September to February.
The duration of the sexual cycle (from the first day of the hunt to the beginning of the next) is 18-24 days depending on the breed and the individual characteristics of the animal. Hunting can last from 12 hours to four days.
It should be borne in mind that the hunt is stronger in the middle of the season (from October to December). At this time, there is a greater number of fruitful fertilization (Figure 3).
The signs of a goat hunt are as follows:
- The external genitals become swollen, pinkish or even red.
- Behavior becomes restless, it often bleats.
- The goat begins to smell more often, as it attracts the smell of a goat. To enhance the manifestations of hunting, you can stock up with a special "goat rag." A piece of cloth rubbed glands located behind the horns of a goat, and store this rag in a jar with a tight-fitting lid. If necessary, a jar of rag can be given to smell the female.
- The animal constantly twists its tail from side to side.
- Vaginal discharge appears. At the beginning of the hunt, they are thick and opaque, then they become pure and liquid, and at the end of the hunt they become thick again and turn white.
The hallmark of hunting is changing behavior. The uterus begins to incite other animals in the herd to anxiety and jumping on themselves. In goats, like other animals, in the hunting period, the so-called standing reflex appears, when it calmly allows you to sit on it.
How to hold the mating correctly
The first hunt in young goats begins as early as four months, but the animal can only be reached after reaching a weight of 32 kilograms. Depending on the mode of feeding and maintenance, females reach the body weight necessary for mating by 7-9 months.
In some farms, goats do not happen until 12-18 months. This reduces the amount of milk, but prolongs the productive life. However, it should be borne in mind that later mating (at the age of one or a year and a half) can lead to obesity of the animal, which will adversely affect the receipt of offspring. The obese goat is less likely to go into the hunt, and cysts can appear on the ovaries that prevent fertilization and offspring. To lose weight, you need to revise the diet and increase the motor activity of the animal.
Note: Usually, signs of hunting begin to appear ten weeks after the longest day of the year. Between September and February, most goats are ready for mating, and are easily fertilized. In April, the signs of hunting begin to weaken and practically do not appear until September of the following year. A small percentage may show sexual activity a month before and after the start of the season. But this figure mainly depends on the conditions of detention and feeding of animals.
For a good hunt and getting high quality offspring, it is necessary to create an animal ration correctly.:
- An insufficient amount of phosphorus and copper can delay the hunt or lead to its irregularity,
- Magnesium deficiency is able to delay the hunt and reduce the fertility of animals,
- With a lack of vitamin A, ovulation is delayed and fetal development worsens,
- Hot weather impairs the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus,
- Strong stress also negatively affects the implantation of the fetus and may even lead to an abortion,
- Some of the herbs that goats eat on pastures, in particular white and red clovers, contain large amounts of estrogen. This can lead to the formation of cysts on the cervix, which will complicate the promotion of sperm and delay fertilization.
After mounting on the goat, you need to make a mark, and during the next hunt, repeat the mark in a different color. An adult and healthy goat can cover up to 50 queens. Young animals should not be given more than one cage at six o'clock, and the daily rate should not exceed two pairings.
Some animals exhibit a phenomenon called the “goat effect”. If the uterus had little contact with the male before the mating, its transfer to the goat can stimulate the signs of the hunt and result in successful fertilization.
Farms that sell milk should spend winter and summer (or spring) goat. The goat, fertilized in September, will produce offspring in February, and the queen, which passed the mating in March, will bring the goat in August. Animals with the same fertility differ in lactation depending on the time of the goat. Uterus, which brought offspring in February, will produce more milk than those that produce offspring in August.
Note: The complexity of the off-season mating is that the goats show no signs of hunting until September, until the length of daylight begins to decrease. In order to cause off-season ovulation, a hormonal or light method is used.
The essence of the light method is that the goats need a certain length of daylight (approximately 12 hours) to manifest the hunt. Поэтому для его искусственного сокращения, помещения, в которых содержатся козы, затемняют. Этот способ стимуляции охоты хорош тем, что для его использования не требуется применение химических препаратов.
Рисунок 4. Проведение случки
Для проведения внесезонных спариваний используют средства с содержанием прогестероноподобных веществ. The tampon is moistened with similar preparations and injected into the goat's vagina, where the hormone begins to be absorbed into the body and provokes hunting. This method can be used at any time of the year to increase the herd population.
However, these drugs can not be used for already covered goats, as this may lead to an abortion. In addition, during the processing of hormones, goat's milk is forbidden to eat. After mating, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the goat, and immediately start the lambing (stop milking). How to do it, the author will tell the video.
Content of females
Pregnancy lasts 5 months (145 -155 days). During the sucrose period, the goat is transferred to an enhanced diet, enhancing the ration of legumes. Childbirth at home usually does not cause trouble.
A goat's pregnancy lasts 5 months.
For successful formation of the fetus during pregnancy, the yield should be reduced. If this does not happen, the goat is started in the second half of pregnancy, that is, it reduces the number of milks. The proportion of succulent, concentrated and green fodder is reduced.
After cessation of lactation, they return to the previous diet. It is important to maintain a balance: the female should receive enough food to form the fetus, but obesity should not be allowed, which leads to complications and heavy lambing.
The birth of kids and keeping young
After the goat has licked the newborn, it is fed from the udder or expressed milk using nipples. Indoors for kids keep the temperature not below + 15 ° C. If the common barn is not heated, the kids are taken into the house.
There are two options for keeping young:
- Under the womb. The offspring fed by mother's milk is stronger. To obtain a full herd, it is worth refusing milk in favor of the young.
- Without a goat. Kids are not allowed to goat. Up to ten days watered milk from the nipples. Then add hay and green grass to the ration. At three months of age, milk is completely weaned off, babies are transferred to adult feed.
Even with good care, animals can get sick.
Goats suffer from non-communicable diseases:
- udder inflammations,
- respiratory tract,
- cracked nipples
- swelling of the scar (tympania),
- digestive disorders or diarrhea,
- foot and mouth disease,
- infectious mastitis,
- hoof rot.
Diseases caused by parasites:
Diseases are different, but have common symptoms in which you should immediately contact a veterinarian:
- behavioral disturbances, depression, rapid breathing and pulse,
- temperature increase to 41-42º, hot udder,
- mucous discharge from the nose, ears, eyes, swollen eyelids,
- raid on the gums,
- a sharp decrease in appetite and milk production.
In an interesting video, a former city dweller tells about his experience in organizing a small goat farm:
Which mating is preferable, manual or harem?
There are several types of mating. Most of them are used in all farms specializing in goat breeding.
- Free mating It is considered the most simple. Males and queens are kept together during the entire hunting period, that is, up to two months. In this case, the goats cover the queens without human control. And although this method of mating is the easiest and most cost-effective, it is considered ineffective from a rational point of view. In the first place, with a free mascara, the productive period of using goats is shortened. In addition, in this case it is difficult to conduct breeding work. Often there are cases when after free mating the goat is not interested in goats for several months. To avoid this, the male must be given daily rest from the females and kept separate for five to six hours.
- Harem hood It is also considered not rational, but still more thoughtful from the point of view of breeding work. A goat is kept together with a certain group of queens during the breeding season. In this case, it is impossible to regulate the use of a goat, but control is exercised over the quality of the offspring.
- Manual mating carried out under complete human control. To the manufacturer lead a certain uterus, which suits him on the basis of the breed. For proper mating, the uterus is fixed in a special machine. For fertilization to occur, one normal cage, which can be determined by a characteristic jolt, is sufficient. We can not allow the goat to cover the same uterus several times.
All the methods described for mating have their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, harem mating does not require human intervention, since males and females are kept together, and fertilization occurs as soon as the goats enter the hunt. Manual mating requires human intervention, since only one uterus is attached to a specific male. In the case of harem mating, a large number of pregnant goats can be obtained in a short time, but in this case the purity of the breed is not observed and the resources of the goat are used uneconomically.
How to determine goat pregnancy
It is easiest to determine the presence of pregnancy by observing the manifestations of the hunt. If three weeks after mating the goat does not show signs of hunting, then fertilization has taken place successfully. If after a three-week period, the hunt resumes, it means that the embryo, for some reason, has resolved. Such an animal must be examined and in the absence of disease, repeat the mating.
You can also determine pregnancy by the level of progesterone in milk. Testing is carried out during the alleged renewal of the hunt (approximately 18-22 days after the last mating). In most queens, a hormone test can be carried out already 20 days after mating. If progesterone levels are elevated, there is every reason to assume that the goat is pregnant.
Figure 5. Definition of pregnancy in goats
Another way to determine pregnancy is to test for estrone sulphate in milk and urine. You can do the analysis in 35-50 days after the intended fertilization. The most accurate and modern way to diagnose pregnancy is an ultrasound examination, but this method is not very common due to the high cost.
Note: In some farms, abdominal palpation is performed to determine hardening and enlargement of the uterus.
In goats with the first pregnancy, the udder begins to increase in size in the fourth month of gestation, and in older dry-looking individuals, it does not begin until the fifth. In addition, in pregnant queens, the belly increases in size and becomes barrel-shaped (Figure 5).
How long does a goat's pregnancy last?
The duration of pregnancy in goats is 145-155 days. Fertilization of the egg occurs in the oviduct, after which the egg moves into the uterus, is fixed on its inner wall and the fetus begins to develop. Within 60 days after birth, the fetus is fully formed and during the rest of the gestation period it will simply gain weight. Quite often, the simultaneous fertilization of several eggs and the development of fruits, as in goats, during one ovulation, two or three eggs are often released. After birth, fruit shells emerge from the uterus, which are called afterbirth.
During pregnancy, the goat must be consistently gain weight. This is especially true of queens that bear several fruits. Therefore, the diet of animals should be full and rich in vitamins and nutrients. The most intensive nutrition is necessary in the last 4-5 weeks of pregnancy, when the most intensive growth of the fetus occurs (Figure 6).
Recommendations for feeding pregnant goats include:
- Top dressing and selenium injections for 4 weeks before goat.
- Enhanced intake of pregnant A goat vitamin A, which is responsible for reproductive function. Most of it is contained in green hay, but for a pregnant uterus and this amount may not be enough, therefore, the vitamin is administered artificially.
- In sunny weather, goats should be taken for a walk to produce vitamin D.
- It is recommended to gradually increase the amount of grain in the diet of pregnant goats, in order to saturate their body with nutrients.
Lean goats have a high likelihood of ketosis. If the animal refuses to feed, and she begins to convulse, you must immediately enter the propylene glycol to prevent the death of the individual.
Signs of lambing (video)
The main features of approaching births in goats are as follows:
- The animal may refuse to feed
- There are signs of anxiety,
- The goat begins to bleat quietly, dig the litter, often looks back,
- The animal is strained every 5-10 minutes,
- With the approach of labor, the udder begins to fill: in adults, this occurs immediately before the birth, and young dams - about a month before the goat,
- A week before delivery, a depression forms between the ischial bones because the ligaments connecting the pelvis and caudal vertebrae relax,
- After the fetus is generic, the goat becomes less voluminous, and cavities may appear in the groin,
- The external genitals begin to swell,
- With the beginning of the attempts from the vagina, the cervical cap comes out - transparent mucus of straw color. If the color of the mucus is white or cream, you should contact your veterinarian, as the animal could have vaginitis,
- About one day before birth, the rectal temperature decreases by one to two degrees (normally it is 39-40 degrees).
And although in most cases childbirth does not require human intervention, it is still necessary to be present during the process in order to assist the animal if necessary. The video shows the main signs of lambing and childbirth in a goat.
How to run a goat before the lambing?
Pregnancy is a difficult time for the goat’s body, so the animal is started before the lambing (stop milking) so that the body has time to gain strength.
Note: Most often, the goat stops producing milk on its own, but if this does not happen, about a month and a half before the birth, milking is stopped artificially.
From the diet exclude all juicy and green food for the launch period. After the cessation of milk production, they are reintroduced into the diet, but they are eliminated when the first signs of lambing appear, or, better, several days before.
Do not abruptly stop milking. Starting requires gradualism:
- First, reduce the number of milkings (for example, two milkings instead of three)
- When a goat is milked only once a day, they begin to reduce the amount of milk produced. In other words, it needs to be slightly underperformed,
- Gradually go to the milking every other day and after two, and when a one-time amount of milk reaches one glass, milking is completely stopped.
It is important that in a few days after launch, the udder of the animal will become hard. In order to prevent disease, you need to carefully drain the stagnant milk.
Lamb Date Calculator
The duration of a goat’s pregnancy is approximately 149 days (5 months). Determine the time of fertilization simply by the absence of re-hunting, increased milk yields immediately after estrus and a gradual increase in the abdomen.
Since it is desirable to be present at the birth of a goat, using the table below, you can determine the date of delivery to the nearest week.
Figure 7. Approximate calendar of lambing in goats by the time of mating
A more accurate period of lambing is determined by the signs of upcoming labor.
The data in the table can be considered sufficiently accurate, if you know the week of fertilization. It should be borne in mind that the duration of pregnancy is not always 149 days and can vary from 148 to 151 days.
How to feed a goat after lambing
After the cessation of milking (start-up), it is necessary to correctly formulate the diet of a dry goat so that the animal receives enough nutrients to develop the fruit and support the vital activity of its own organism.
Concentrates should form the basis of the diet (up to one and a half kg per day). Two weeks before lambing, their number is reduced by half, and the goat returns to a normal diet three days after delivery.
Special attention should be paid to the quality of feed. Rotten, spoiled, or moldy foods can cause illness or even cause miscarriage. The diet is desirable to complement the warm water with bran, boiled root vegetables and high-quality hay.
In adult goats, the first attempts pass almost unnoticed. Young animals may show anxiety already during the day before they goat. After attempts from the vagina, the amniotic fluid bubble appears, which almost immediately burst. In it you can see the front legs, on which lies the head of a kid. This is the correct position of the fetus, which does not require human intervention. If the pregnancy is multiple, goats appear at intervals of 20-30 minutes (Figure 8).
Human intervention in the birth process is required in such cases:
- If the head is not on the legs, but wrapped on its back or under the limbs,
- From the amniotic bubble, only the head appeared, and the legs were pressed under the breast,
- The goatling comes forward with his legs bent.
Assistance during childbirth is reduced to the fact that the fetus must be given a normal position. To do this, in the vagina injected previously disinfected and oiled with petroleum jelly and straighten the legs or head of a kid. If the fruit goes forward backwards, you need to tie his legs with a rope and periodically tighten the kid during the attempts.
Figure 8. Natural lining in goats
The placenta should go out on its own within three hours after delivery. It is absolutely impossible to pull or trim. If the afterbirth has not departed six hours after delivery, you should seek help from a veterinarian. In some cases, complications can also occur after childbirth:
- If the kid was born in an unbroken amniotic sac, the shell must be pierced as soon as possible so that the animal does not suffocate.
- Difficult labor sometimes leads to the birth of weak goatlings without signs of life. In this case, it is necessary to remove mucus from the mouth and nose of the animal as quickly as possible, then open the kid’s mouth and quickly blow air into it.
- In severe cases, artificial respiration may be required. To do this, the kid is placed on its back, stretching its front limbs and begin to bend them, pressing it to the chest.
The umbilical cord of a newborn goat often breaks off on its own. If this does not happen, it should be cut about 10 centimeters from the body of the animal, treated with iodine and bandaged with a disinfected thread, 2-3 cm from the abdomen.
Immediately after the birth, the goat should lick the newborn goats to improve blood circulation. In addition, the mucus that the uterus licks speeds up the afterbirth. After the birth of a kid, it is necessary to dry it quickly so that it does not catch a cold. For this purpose, special lamps or heaters are installed in the working room. But you can simply wipe the kid dry with straw or a towel.
30-40 minutes after the birth of the kid, the mother should suck, so the hair around the thighs and on the udder should be cut off, and the udder should be thoroughly washed and wiped dry.
The first streams of colostrum need to be decanted into a separate dish and not be given to the kid, since microorganisms may be contained in the liquid. The following colostrum can be safely given to a newborn goat, since it is this diet that plays a key role in the further development of the goat. Colostrum has the following properties:
- It has a laxative effect on the digestive tract,
- Accelerates the release of original feces,
- Improve the immune system and make kids more resistant to the effects of pathogens.
If the kid cannot find the udder himself, he needs help, and the first three days after birth must be monitored so that the newborn feeds every two to three hours.
Quite often, kids have difficulty sucking. And since it is impossible to deprive them of colostrum, you need to manually feed the kids. For this purpose, a probe is used, as which you can use any rubber tube (length 35-40 cm, diameter - 7.5 centimeters). You can purchase a probe in a pharmacy. To pour colostrum into the probe, use syringes or ordinary plastic bottles. The probe is slowly introduced into the esophagus of a goat about 20 cm long tube. An example of a diet and methods of artificial feeding of kids is shown in Figure 10.
When caring for kids that suck udders themselves, you need to make sure that the milk is clean and well protruded. It happens that goats do not want to take a kid and do not admit it to a crowded udder. Especially often do young goats. To feed the goat and release the uterine uterus from the milk, the goat is fixed in the stall, the goat is fed, and the goat is released only after the udder is completely released. After that, the goat should calm down, and if she began to lick the kid, it means she took it.
Note: В первые недели после рождения новорожденные козлята питаются исключительно молоком. Поэтому и матка должна получать полноценный корм, богатый витаминами и микроэлементами. В рацион кормящей козы нужно обязательно включать поваренную соль, толченый мел и костную муку. This is a source of essential minerals, in the absence of which the kids transferred to the pastures begin to gnaw earth or lumps of wool, which is often fatal.
Two to three weeks after the goat, the amount of milk decreases, while the needs of the goat grow. During this period, you can begin to feed the animal concentrates, hay and succulent feed. The best feed for kids is oatmeal, or its mixture with cake. As a succulent feed give silage or chopped root vegetables. As the kid grows, the share of feed and concentrates increases.
Feeding kids is as follows:
- For animals build special pens - "dining rooms" that enclose and make manholes below. There kids can eat concentrates or succulent feeds separately from their mothers.
- Widely received and kosharsno-base method. The queen is kept separate from the kids, into the base or pasture, and brought several times a day for feeding.
- With the Koshar base method, lactation can be maintained longer, since the uterus can safely eat, and the kids are not disturbed. In addition, this method allows you to quickly teach kids to dry food, becoming more enduring and healthy.
Methods of artificial feeding of kids:
- For kids, orphans or kids from multiple litters, it is common to feed them with whole milk or its substitutes (WMS). The milk replacer is also used to increase the volume of goat milk for sale.
- ZTsM diluted with warm water in a ratio of 1: 4 or 1: 5. After that, the mixture is filtered and watered the animal.
- When a goat reaches the age of 45-60 days, the feeding of the milk replacer can be stopped, since the animal is already able to eat dry food.
For artificial feeding of kids, you can use a regular bottle with a nipple, as well as buckets, pots or troughs for piglets, which have nipples along the perimeter. To prevent spontaneous outflow of the mixture, the nipples should be at an angle of 45 degrees, and the distance from the nipples to the bottom of the drinker should be at least 35 centimeters. It is important to consider that meat goat kids drink more milk. The author of the video will tell how to feed the kids with milk from a bottle.
For the prevention of digestive disorders, formalin is added to the milk mixture (1 ml per liter of milk).
An important step in the care of kids is de-fertilization and castration. Degeneration is carried out immediately after the appearance of horn tubercles. To do this, use special chemicals or electrical appliances.
The goats are castrated at the age of two or three weeks after the first selection. The latest allowable castration period is 10 weeks because older animals have a difficult time undergoing surgery. It is important that during the castration should not be too hot, so that the wound does not begin to rot.