Many in the household have chickens, ducks, goats, piglets. But few know how to keep these animals. In this article, you will learn how feeding of laying hens affects their productivity and what to feed them to improve results.
Home-made eggs always cost more, as they are distinguished by their excellent taste, size and shape. Therefore, experienced poultry farmers prefer those breeds that are distinguished by high egg-laying, and pay special attention to their nutrition, selecting the right ingredients.
How to feed laying hens
With proper nutrition, the bird should receive all the necessary vitamins it needs, especially those that affect the formation, growth and egg formation. For example, with a lack of calcium in the body, the shell will be soft, prone to deformation and damage.
The basic diet of chickens at the poultry farm includes feed. This is a unique blend consisting of various cereals with a fairly high content of all the necessary vitamins and trace elements that are useful not only for poultry, but also for other animals. Quite often, premixes or vitamin complexes are added to increase egg production.
Amino acids are necessary in order to avoid cannibalism (when birds destroy their own kind). To avoid such problems will help add to the diet of chickens feed of animal origin: fish, meat or meat and bone meal, soybean meal.
Mineral substances, calcium - these substances affect the egg production of poultry. With each egg, the chicken's body loses 2 grams of calcium, so its deficiency must be replenished. Calcium deficiency - a thin shell, and an overabundance - loss of appetite in layers, weight loss and a decrease in the number of eggs. Mineral-rich supplements: bone meal, chalk, salt, limestone, shell.
Feeding laying hens at home is different from production. Most often, the grain they are given in its natural form: wheat, barley, oats, corn, rye, peas, millet.
Proper feeding of laying hens also involves adding gravel. He is not digested in the stomach, and is in it for more than two months. Stones contribute to the grinding of food, which facilitates the absorption of vitamins. It should be emphasized that the sand can not replace it, because, getting into the intestine, it irritates the mucous membrane and without delay is removed from the body.
Water is also included in the feeding of laying hens. Next to the feeder should be located drinking bowl with clean and fresh water. Sometimes it is appropriate to add a weak solution of potassium permanganate (manganese) to the water.
It is important to ensure that chickens are not hungry, but do not overeat. Obesity is contraindicated because they stop carrying eggs.
Roughness, pale yolk or just small eggs - all this is worth paying attention to, since this may be due to a lack of some nutritional elements.
Proper feeding of laying hens guarantees obtaining high-quality eggs every day, which can bring considerable income to the poultry farmers.
Causes of lack of nutrients
Avitaminosis in chickens caused by many reasons. It:
- premix for low-quality chickens or expiring, where the proportion of vitamins is sharply reduced,
- ignoring the needs of the birds, because they are different in broilers and laying hens,
- lack of nutrition correction depending on conditions - high or low air temperature, infections, etc.,
- substances in the feed that block or prevent the action of vitamins - for example, fish meat contains thiaminase, which destroys vitamin B1,
- diseases of the digestive system,
- infections (salmonellosis, pullorosis) and others.
Symptoms of avitaminosis
About the development of a threatening state can be found on the general grounds. Birds are in a depressed state, refuse food, there is a lack of weight.
Often the condition is accompanied by digestive disorders, loose stools. Pallor appears on the ridge and earrings. Eggs in adult layers do not have a shell, or it is thin, soft.
One of the bright signs of beriberi is the loss of plumage, or alopecia. It develops, in particular, from a lack of vitamins A and B1.
In addition, the deficiency of a nutrient is manifested by other signs.
Retinol is involved in all metabolic processes, ensures the growth and development of broilers, egg production, fertility, hatchability of the young herd.
Signs of retinol deficiency are as follows:
- eye inflammation, conjunctivitis (especially in chickens),
- digestive disorders - loss of appetite,
- ruffled and fragile feathers, peeling beak,
- staggering gait (in adults), violation of the reproductive cycle,
- inflammation of the cloaca and oviduct,
- stop egg production or reduce its volume, while the yolk pales, along with what increases the amount of blood,
- decrease in fertility and hatchability of chickens at least 3 times,
- cessation of spermatogenesis, increase in testes in roosters.
In milder forms of avitaminosis, it is enough to normalize the diet. Instead of water it is useful to give carrot juice. The diet is enriched with fresh herbs, egg yolk, corn, pumpkin, silage, milk, beef liver. From artificial drugs shown veteron, aquitan, trivitamin.
A deficiency in the body of this element is called polyneuritis. The disease develops if the bird is fed a lot of fish, legumes. The processing of grain at temperatures above 80 ° C is also harmful.
- disorders of the nervous system,
- muscle atrophy
- loss of appetite and death in two weeks,
- drooping of the head, convulsive seizures, which are frequent and lead to death, paralysis of limbs,
Part of the element is formed in the intestines of chickens. The cause of beriberi can be long-term use of certain drugs, in particular, antibiotics, gastrointestinal diseases, temperature fluctuations or cold in the chicken coop. It is noteworthy that vitamin B1 deficiency can also cause this condition.
Chicks who have reached the age of 14 weeks and older are most affected. They have:
- development and growth slow down
- unsure gait, movement on the metatarsus, twisted fingers,
- depressed state
- pallor of the skin and the germination of blood vessels in the cornea,
- dermatological problems - peeling, wounds do not heal for a long time.
The treatment is carried out with synthetic riboflavin. In nature, it is rich in nettle, alfalfa, fodder yeast, dairy waste.
The normal content of pantothenic acid depends largely on how fully the other B vitamins, ascorbic acid, are ingested. With avitaminosis B3, the plumage becomes coarse, the skin becomes inflamed, especially around the beak and around the eyes, on the legs, the lesions do not heal for a long time.
Signs of deficiency in chickens:
- rejection of food and exhaustion
- discharge of feathers on the neck and head,
- inflammatory processes in the eyes and on adjacent tissues,
- inflammation of the epidermis around the anus.
Avitaminosis of pantothenic acid in adults is manifested by a decrease in egg production and the death of embryos on days 17-18.
Make up for the lack of calcium pantothenate or pantothenic acid. Supplements are shown - fodder yeast and antibiotics, biovit and others.
The cause of beriberi is usually a lack of protein, other B vitamins, methionine, manganese. The main risk group is chickens. Signs of deficiency:
- growth retardation
- redness and swelling of the berm-metatarsal joint,
- shortened limbs, turning them out,
- difficulty moving.
- reduced fertility,
- fatty liver,
- repetitive yolk peritonitis,
- sliding joint.
Therapy is carried out with an aqueous solution of choline chloride or crystalline choline.
Hypovitaminosis of nicotinic acid causes pellagra. The element is partially produced by the body from tryptophan, and also comes from plant foods. The disease often affects chicken crosses. The main manifestations of the skin - the formation of scales around the eyes, beak, on the legs, inflammation of the eyelids. The young stock grows poorly with feathers. Liquid bowel movements alternate with constipation.
- egg production decreases, embryos die on day 8–12,
- weight drops
- the skin turns pale.
Sick birds are given nicotinamide. Rice and wheat bran, yeast, meat products, grass, rice are useful.
With a lack of pyridoxine, the nervous system of chickens suffers. They weaken, especially in the lower extremities, convulsions, involuntary movements, paralysis occur. Appetite is also lost, weight loss occurs, anemia develops, symptoms of a sliding joint appear.
Hypovitaminosis with pyridoxine synthetic preparations is eliminated by feeding yeast, germinated grains, and animal products.
Avitaminosis Sun develops frequently, especially as a result of the use of high-energy feed, which contain a significant proportion of animal products. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, insufficient intake of retinol, ascorbic acid, biotin, as well as long-term treatment with sulfonamides, coccidiostatics are the cause.
The most expressive signs of a lack of folic acid in chickens. It:
- growth retardation
- paralysis of the extensor muscles, which leads to irregular bending of the neck,
- the deterioration of the quality of the pen, with a dark color - color change,
- weakness of limbs, twitching,
- loose stools, white feces.
In adult birds, the signs are not pronounced, and may show deterioration in egg production and embryo death on days 16-17.
Is to eliminate the lack of vitamins A, C, B12, biotin, as well as the appointment of preparations of vitamin Bs. In the diet, increase the amount of grass meal, alfalfa, clover, rye winter varieties. The missing element contains fodder yeast, meal.
In order to prevent the decline in the quality of the herd, a varied diet should be provided. The diet should be made taking into account:
- bird species (broiler, layer),
- age - young animals require more fortified food,
- Seasons - in winter they increase the amount of high-calorie feed with a large amount of fat, especially for birds, which are contained in open enclosures,
- physiological state - in the female during the laying period, the needs are higher.
In addition, chickens should spend enough time in the fresh air and move more, feed should always be fresh. Under these conditions, the risk of beriberi is significantly reduced.
How to feed laying hens at home?
Domestic chickens are considered to be among the most picky birds. They willingly eat everything that will be offered: grain, waste from the human table, weed greens from the beds and the remnants of feed obtained by pigs, sheep and goats. But it is unlikely that with such a “random” diet one can achieve high productivity. Not receiving all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals, the chickens will not be able to fly at full strength, and the formation of eggs will go at the expense of the bird's body and its health.
How to organize the feeding of laying hens at home and finding them a balanced diet?
In their natural habitat, the wild ancestors of the chicken and its closest relatives feed very diversely. The menu includes birds such as grain, berries and fruits, seeds and herbs, larvae and adult insects. Birds from the order of chickens do not shun non-venomous reptiles, for example, frogs and lizards. They get earthworms, eat leaves from low-growing branches. Feeding laying hens at home can not be so diverse, but giving pets everything they need to grow, develop and give good eggs is extremely important.
The composition of the feed for laying hens at home
In addition to various types of grain, which is about 60% of the menu, the hens are given vegetable and animal feed, supplying the bird with protein, fats and carbohydrates. If necessary, introduce vitamin supplements, be sure to offer minerals.
What grains to choose for making the most useful mixtures? Since the grain should prevail in the composition of the feed, it is necessary to clarify which types of cereals are best suited to laying hens, and how best to give them.
Almost all cereals are perfectly digested by the bird, supplying the body with carbohydrates, fiber and vitamins. When deciding how to feed the hens to better feed, the poultry farmer should think about introducing poultry into the diet:
- carbohydrate-rich corn, and its grain is pre-crushed to feed digested better and better,
- wheat, which stands out from the rest of the cereals with an abundance of vitamins of group B and E, vegetable proteins, especially those in demand by layers,
- wheat bran, even superior to whole grains in nutritional value for layers,
- barley, useful for chickens meat and meat-breeding breeds,
- oats rich in fiber, which, for better digestion, must be crushed and steamed, otherwise its raw grain irritates the gut of the gut,
- oat bran, which perfectly replaces the grain and can make up to 20% of the volume of cereals in the menu,
- faces and millet,
- buckwheat, which should be no more than 10% of the feeding rate of laying hens at home.
But even in the most well-balanced cereal mixtures, there is not enough protein, calcium, especially for layers, phosphorus and some important vitamins, therefore other ingredients are required in the menu.
A useful additive in the diet of laying hens will be:
- flax and sunflower seeds,
- rich in protein and fiber, cakes and meal.
The menu should include mineral supplements that are unacceptable for the human diet, but birds simply cannot do without them. These are chalk, crushed shell, small gravel, ash, table salt. These feed components are not included in the composition of feed for laying hens, but are given separately.
What kind of grass can be given to laying hens?
Green food is indispensable for keeping hens. This is a great source of minerals, fiber, moisture, vitamins. When self-walking, chickens eat plenty of greens on grazing. When feeding with concentrates about 20% of the normal feeding rate for laying hens at home should be green.
Caged living creatures give meadow grass in fresh and dried form. Chickens respond well to feed with clover, alfalfa and other legumes.
What kind of grass can be given to laying hens from garden beds? Of the cultivated plants grown in the gardens of the middle band, chickens can be offered dill, young green peas, lettuce leaves and many other plants that do not have an irritant effect on the poultry digestive tract.
Out of weed vegetation, dioecious nettle is the leader in terms of benefits. This is a sure source of ascorbic acid, vitamins A, B, K, as well as fiber, trace elements and moisture. In winter, when there is no fresh grass, grass hay is offered to the bird.
What to feed the hens of hens, so that it is better carried in the cold season? Here you should not forget about needles, pine and spruce needles in the middle of winter accumulate the maximum amount of vitamin C and carotene.
Garden owners can replenish the diet of their hens with root vegetables. This component in the complex bird menu is convenient because many types of tubers and root crops are beautifully stored and available both in summer and in winter.
Before you feed the hens of pullets and adult livestock, red beets, carrots, turnips, summer radish varieties are ground on a grater. Of garden root vegetables, carrots are particularly beneficial, containing carotene and beneficially affecting egg quality and laying egg production. This vegetable can be given raw and dried, adjusting the rate of consumption.
Squashes, pumpkins, squash and other melons are cut so that it is convenient for the bird to peck up the flesh. Chickens willingly eat potatoes. His bird should be given in boiled form, mixing with other components.
The composition of feed for laying hens
Due to the ease of preparation and availability of products, many poultry owners themselves mix the feed. Grain mixes are solid foods, and soft or wet foods include mash bags based on steamed cereals, vegetables and herbs, bran and flour additives.
Knowing what foods to consume the bird to increase egg production and maintain the body in good condition, it is important to understand how to feed the laying hens at home, and observe the optimal proportions. Ready-made and home-made mixes for chickens include all of the listed feed categories, but they should also include animal protein sources. These include:
- milk products,
- meat and bone meal and fish meal, as well as meat and fish waste,
Перед тем как приготовить мешанку для кур несушек, птицевод должен определиться с ее составом и количеством. Отдельные продукты перед подачей следует подготовить:
- картофельные клубни и сырую кожуру отваривают, студят и разминают,
- овощи и корнеплоды измельчают с помощью терки,
- мясо и рыбу подвергают термической обработке и остужают,
- фасолевые бобы отваривают, а остальные бобовые предварительно замачивают.
Before feeding the pullet for laying hens, the grain is ground or ground. In winter, it is useful to germinate cereals, which significantly increases their nutritional and vitamin value. The same effect is achieved by adding 5–10 grams of yeast per kilogram of the mixture.
Feeding rates for laying hens at home
Chickens are almost omnivorous and can search for food almost all the time, but excess food does not have the best effect on the health of the bird, and on the number of eggs brought. Therefore, it is important to observe the feeding regime and give the hens a strictly defined amount of feed.
How many times a day to feed laying hens, and what are the accepted norms of consumption? To maintain the productivity of the egg population, birds are asked to feed 2-3 times a day. The poultry farmer himself can vary this number, focusing on the breed characteristics, nuances of maintenance and the state of health of chickens.
Per 100 grams of grain mixture for feeding laying hens at home add half a gram of salt and mineral feed. Additionally, greens or hay, vegetables and roots, components of animal origin are introduced.
There are many recipes for how to prepare feed for laying hens with your own hands. In the conditions of a personal farmstead, different products are at hand. A significant impact on the composition of the product have seasonal restrictions. Therefore, in the summer, the main emphasis is on greens, but in winter, when there is none, hay, a greater amount of stored vegetables and root crops, are introduced into the diet.
Experienced poultry farmers know which types of feed are interchangeable. This helps, without losing the nutritional and energy properties, of making combined feeds from what is currently on the farm.
What can not feed laying hens?
Omnivorous chickens sometimes leads to unpleasant consequences. The bird pays no attention to the quality of the food, pecking up both rotten and moldy pieces. The result of avian greed and negligence of the hosts is manifested in the form of intestinal infections, blockage of goiter, helminthic invasions and other diseases.
What foods are harmful to poultry? What can not feed laying hens? In the menu of chickens of any breed should not be fermented, sour food or products with signs of obvious damage and mold. In order to avoid problems with digestion, it is impossible to give the bird whole root vegetables, raw potatoes and peeling. All waste from the table, before getting to the chickens, checked and sorted. They should not be remnants of packaging film, foil, twine and other inedible items.
If the bird receives fresh grass and hay, it is important to make sure that there are no poisonous plants in their composition, for example, horsetail, celandine, and wormwood. It is these species that most often become the cause of the poisoning of the hens in chicken coops and on the walking areas.
Novice poultry farmers ask whether it is possible to feed laying hens with bread. If these are rich products, then with all their nutritional value, they will only bring harm to the livestock. But ordinary wheat bread or grain bread can be given. Such an additive is especially useful in winter, when chickens need food that quickly replenishes energy reserves. In the diet is better to introduce high-quality dried pieces, which are added to the mash or give in a soaked form.
What kind of feed is required for layers?
To increase egg production, livestock are fed with a combined feed. Its composition is already balanced for all beneficial substances. It is necessary to pay attention to its composition. It is important that all the ingredients in it were not synthetic, but of natural origin. Chickens are given a starting version.
An appropriate titer is put on the mixed feed for laying hens. The most popular combined feed PK1 and KK1. Be sure to feed in the premix. These are dietary supplements, which include grass meal, animal-derived fillers. It is better to choose the combined feed prepared according to GOST.
Often the palace chooses prefer to prepare the feed table for chickens on their own. In this case, the birds need to enter protein, juicy food, fiber. Be sure to install in the chicken coop chalk stone or shell rock. Composers always discuss how to feed laying hens on the forums.
- The basis of the diet consists of combined cereal mixtures of wheat, barley and oats. In cereals there is a sufficient amount of protein, vitamins of the "B" and "E" groups. Grain mixture to replenish the body with energy, contributes to increased egg production. Birds are not very fond of barley, so it is always given in crushed form. Oats are easily absorbed by the body of the bird, so it is given in whole, cleaned grain. For cooking oats and barley can be steamed.
- The main source of vitamin A and carbohydrates is corn. Small grains give whole. They are combined with another grain. Large grains are crushed. Corn contains a lot of oil, which is rich in vitamin “E” and mineral salts. Often the cob is hung in the henhouse as a “toy”.
- Rye is not only a storehouse of protein. The grain contains a whole complex of mineral substances: in addition to calcium, sodium and fluorine, which are so necessary for maintaining egg production, it contains magnesium, cobalt, copper, and iodine. Rye chickens give a little, despite the fact that they love her very much. Grain can trigger obesity. It is very high in calories. Rye is needed especially in the spring and winter, to remove the risk of vitamin deficiency, which often leads to slackening.
- In the summer, livestock are walking in a meadow or in aviaries, which are installed on sites with average vegetation. The nettle is especially useful for hens. In it, as well as in corn and carrots contain a large amount of carotene, which directly affects the reproductive properties and egg production. In the grass a lot of iron, phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
- Clover, dandelions and alfalfa must be added to the ration.
- It is necessary to introduce boiled potatoes from vegetables to layers, ripe, not green, carrots, some beets. Cabbage is hung in a chicken coop as a toy. It will replenish the body with the necessary amount of fiber and carbohydrates.
Cereals, grass and vegetables choose fresh, not moldy, not rotten. It is better to wash them before serving. To prepare the mash, the feed is ground. As a fluid add reverse or skim milk. Very useful for layers of serum.
As a mineral supplement and an additional source of protein and minerals in the diet of birds must necessarily include bone, meat and bone or fish meal. In the summer the herd is walking. Under the ultraviolet in the body begins to produce vitamin "D". In winter, fish oil must be introduced into the diet.
Birds are gradually taught to corn, barley and oats. Cereals begin to give from 3 weeks after birth. From 3 months old eggs can be eaten whole grain. Be sure to add gravel to the mash. Gravel will help to grind food in the stomach better. For chickens, these are teeth, as experts often say.
How to make a diet?
To maintain good immunity, for all systems of vital functions of the body to work, in order to maintain high productivity, laying hens need 125-130 g of feed per day. The average weight of a chicken is 800 g. If its weight increases, more feed is required. Increase the portion and depending on the number of eggs laid.
- If the weight of the chicken does not exceed 1 kg, it needs 125 g of food per day.
- A layer with a body weight of 2 kg requires 130 g. Usually such a weight is observed in chickens of meat-breeding breeds.
- Each increase in the weight of a hen on 250 g requires an additional 10 g of feed.
- With an increase in egg production for every 20 eggs, the chicken must increase the portion of the daily ration by 100 g.
The types of feed in the diet are distributed as follows: 70% is a mixture of cereal, 20% - sunflower or soybean meal, 10% food additives and premix. Feeding laying hens is carried out 2 times a day. With increased productivity 3 times. Food is distributed at the same time.
Morning feeding is carried out 2 hours after waking up: after the lights have been turned on in the hen house. Give mash. It is prepared for 1 time, do not leave the next feeding, even in the refrigerator. Product spoils quickly. Trough after 30 min. after feeding, the mash is washed out with an antiseptic.
Blender may consist of the following ingredients:
- 65 g of cereal mixture
- 100 g of potatoes: it is boiled and kneaded together with the peel,
- 10 g of bran,
- 7 g of oilcake,
- 6 g of soybeans, green beans,
- 1 tsp. fish oil,
- 3 g of chalk,
- 2 g of bone meal,
- 0.5 g of salt,
- mash pour 100 g of yogurt.
The mixture is recommended for winter feeding. Blender is designed for laying heights of 800 g, with high productivity, up to 300 eggs per year. In the evening, 1-2 hours before the power cut, before sleep, chickens are given a dry cereal mixture. Drinking water should be freely available. Drinkers must be washed out.
For the summer, laying hens are offered a different recipe mix. It is compiled in view of the fact that the livestock spends the whole day on the meadow, eats green grass, insects, and earthworms. What to feed the birds except vegetable feed, so they brought a lot of eggs? They need high-calorie food in order for them to be better carried.
The ingredients of the feed mixture may be as follows:
Content of laying hens
Keeping and breeding laying hens at home has long been a small but profitable business for the public. The scale of the house depended on the wishes and abilities of the owners, but the result was the same in any case - they had tasty and healthy homemade eggs and fresh meat.
Keeping chickens attracts modern homeowners for the same reasons - it is unpretentious poultry with a good yield. On average, one hen gives 2 eggs in three days, and after the end of the egg-laying period, it is allowed for meat, and eggs, meat and feather are always in demand.
But in order for the business of keeping chickens to really become profitable, it is necessary to think over a number of questions: where to keep the bird, what to feed it, how to provide light and sanitary regimes, what breed is better to choose for this or that direction. Consider these questions in more detail with the description and video.
What should be the home coop?
Of course, it should be quite spacious, which means that it should be built taking into account the number of poultry. The standard for home keeping is 1 square meter per 1 chicken. These standards must be observed for laying hens and for broilers.
In the video, some tricks for the coop.
Perches are arranged at a height of 0.6-1.4 meters from the perches. In the winter, gathering on perches in tight and dense groups, the chickens warm each other up with their own warmth.
Nests for laying hens are made of crates or large wicker baskets filled with hay or straw, at the rate of 1 nest for 5-6 hens. They are placed on a small hill, preferably in a dark, secluded corner of the room. Nests need to be set even for chickens - they will get used to them from an early age and will not look for another place to lay eggs. If an adult hen avoids any nest, it is better to rearrange it to another, more popular place.
You need to decide in advance which type of laying hens you intend to use - floor or cage. The outdoor method is more familiar to us, but the content in the cells saves space. However, in the cage the bird moves less and gains excess fat, which negatively affects its productivity. At the same time, small-sized hens of the egg direction are perfectly adapted to the cellular conditions of detention. Keeping in cages is also suitable for chickens in the meat direction of productivity - broilers.
In case of floor keeping, the bird moves on the floor, rushes into boxes or baskets specially installed for this purpose, and sleeps on poles. The floor in the chicken coop should be covered with straw, shavings or sawdust when the floor is kept. To reduce the humidity in the room, and for the purpose of disinfection, lime is added to the litter.
Of course, bedding is mainly needed only during the cold season. In the upper layer of the litter, a mass of microorganisms harmless to chickens appears, which emit a lot of heat and warm the air in the chicken coop in winter. Therefore, in winter, litter can not be changed, leaving this procedure until spring.
Keeping in cages is used if there is not much room for laying hens in the room. In this case, there are 4-5 layers per cell per 1 square meter. Cells must be constantly cleaned and ventilated. Here it is difficult to establish timely collection of eggs - therefore, the method of cell housing at home is used very rarely, and it is mainly used for growing broilers.
Watch the video and build a chicken coop with your own hands.
Sometimes the chickens are kept in the same barn with livestock - a cow, sheep and goats. This is beneficial in that large animals in winter emit a lot of heat, which is enough for chickens, so the owners can not worry about heating the chicken coop. But in this case it is impossible to contain a large number of hens. As a rule, chickens in a common barn occupy a small, separate compartment, or are placed in cages.
Corral, or place for walking should be spacious enough, with a mandatory shed from rain and sun. Under a canopy, you can build a low perch 60 cm high. As a rule, walking is built next to the chicken coop and fenced with a net-rabbit or picket fence. Many domestic breeds of chickens almost never fly, so the walls of the pen do not have to be made too high, and yet they must be at least 1.7 meters. If birds have a tendency to take off, they need to trim their wing wings on at least one wing.
Disinfection of a domestic chicken coop can be carried out 1-2 times a year. Basically, it comes down to whitewashing the walls with lime, and replacing the litter. At the same time, the floors and perches in the room are treated with a special disinfectant or solution using a spray bottle.
Drinkers and feeders for domestic laying hens can be made independently, or purchased in specialized stores. The main thing is that they are clean, and there is always fresh water in the troughs. For the prevention of infectious diseases, water in drinking bowls can be slightly tinted with potassium permanganate, making a slightly pink solution - this will save the bird from many diseases, especially in the warm season.
Chickens can be called omnivorous birds, and yet, even at home, they should be fed with some specific food. In households, they are fed with waste from their table, grass, vegetables, dairy products, grain, but it is better to use special feed that you can buy in ready-made form, or do it yourself.
Poultry farmers say that the death of chickens most often occurs due to improper feeding. Often, porridges and homemade mixes are not fully absorbed by the body of chickens, they turn sour in the stomach, which causes illness and death.
Chickens should not be poured too much food at a time - the food remaining in the feeder will also sour and become harmful to the health of the bird. This happens especially in summer when microorganisms that cause fermentation processes multiply rapidly.
Of course, for feeding poultry at home, it is better to use feed that meets Russian standards, they already have enough minerals and vitamins for chickens that will contribute to good growth and egg production. But you can buy them only if you are confident in the integrity of the manufacturer.
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There are various compound feeds intended for poultry of a certain direction of productivity - layers, broilers, feed for chickens. Choosing feed, you should consider for which bird they are made.
So, in the feed and mixtures for broilers is more protein, they are more nutritious, and allow you to quickly gain the necessary muscle mass.
In mixtures intended for laying hens there is more calcium and other trace elements that contribute to the formation of eggs with a solid, hard shell. At the same time, they should have a low energy intensity so that chickens do not gain excess weight, because obesity damages egg production.
Chicks need more vitamins and minerals to boost immunity and grow rapidly.
Feed can be made at home, in this ratio:
In summer, food for laying hens is fortified with green grass, and in winter - with fish oil. В среднем за один прием одна курица должна получить не менее 120 грамм кормов.
Видео советы – чем лучше кормить кур.
Содержание несушек зимой
Куры хорошо переносят морозы, некоторые породы даже не снижают яйценоскости и в этот период. И все-таки, зимой им следует уделять больше внимания. В первую очередь следует обратить внимание на рацион несушек, в нем должны присутствовать сочные, богатые витаминами корма. Вам следует сделать запас кабачков, дынь, кормовой свеклы, моркови, тыквы. To be fed to chickens, they are ground with a knife or grated. In addition, in winter, chickens can be given boiled potatoes or potato peelings. Hay can be harvested for chickens - in the winter it is hung in bunches at a height of 40 centimeters from the floor.
In winter, laying hens are fed three times a day - the first early in the morning, with the lights on, the second in the middle of the afternoon, and the last - in the evening, and also, with the additional lighting on. Walking chickens can be in the winter - at a temperature not lower than 12-15 degrees of frost, they can be on the walking for 1-2 hours.
To prevent egg production in chickens, even in winter, they need to provide additional lighting, daylight hours should last at least 12-14 hours a day. And the temperature of the air in the house should not be below +12 degrees Celsius.
Chickens in the winter - watch the video.
Some poultry farmers grow chickens specifically for the sale of young stock. As a rule, they carry out the whole process themselves - in order to get fertilized eggs, they contain high-performance chickens with at least one rooster for 10-12 chickens. Then, eggs are selected that are suitable for incubation, and in due time sent to the incubator, or eggs are laid in home appliances for the production of chickens.
When chickens are born, the first few days they are kept in special cages - most often they are made of metal mesh with small cells, in which dung does not accumulate. It rolls into the pan, and the chicks remain on a clean and dry surface.
Chickens are heated with special infrared lamps - this is especially important in early spring, when it is still rather cool outside.
They feed chickens with millet, millet, with the addition of chopped greens. And also dairy products - whey and low-fat cottage cheese - go to feed the youngsters. In the spring there is a lot of greenery that is surely used for feeding chickens - this is both green onions, dandelions, nettles, and ordinary grass.
Growing broilers at home
For growing broilers, the same conditions are needed as for raising hens of the egg direction - a comfortable chicken coop, high-quality feed, and compliance with all technological aspects.
It should be borne in mind that broilers are chicken meat, they are grown to produce meat, which means that they must be high-calorie, vitaminized, and rich in protein.
For meat, you can buy already grown chickens at the age of 1.5-2 months, especially if you don’t have much experience in this business. Podroshchenny young stock is more expensive, but the owners will have less risk of losing livestock due to illness.
Broilers can be grown in cages - so they will spend less energy on the movement, and quickly gain commercial weight.
How to feed laying hens to get high productivity?
Feeding laying hens, as well as maintenance young stock, it is made according to the established standards. Observing these norms, more than 90% of the productivity of chickens can be obtained, but it should be taken into account that proper feeding affect productivity and other factors such as:
• Water - no less important factor that affects the egg production of chickens. Any reduction or under-consumption of water leads to a reduction in feed intake.
• Watering system - should provide sufficient water during intensive feed consumption: at normal temperature, chickens consume up to 1.5-2 times more water than feed, at elevated temperatures 5 times more, the lack of water for over 12 hours rapidly affects egg production chickens
• Chickens without plumage (even with partial plumage, they lose a lot of energy for body thermoregulation).
• Microclimate - the composition of the feed needs to be changed constantly (namely, the ratio of nutrition and protein), it depends on the temperature in the room and on the age of the birds.
Corn can be replaced in proportions of 20-30% of purified rice or feed wheat. Protein feeds are mutually replaceable, depends on the resources, in relation to the total amount of crude protein, energy components and other nutrients necessary to maintain a high level of vital activity. chickens.
Be sure to know feed components because the amount of too high or low content of some micro or macro elements can have a negative effect on hens productivity. Thus, a low calcium content (or lack of it) can lead to a decrease in egg production birds or thinning of the eggshell can even lead to the absence of it.
The same with phosphorus, the norm is 0.6%, if it drops below 0.4% or exceeds 0.8%, this will significantly affect the productivity of chickens.
Protein is important in the diet layersbut also to cto meatflies applies, without him to get the highest rate of productivity is not possible.
The nutritional value of the feed supports the vital functions of the body and ensures the processing and conversion of protein from feed into meat and egg white.
The main indicator of health chickens This amount of water consumed. It is considered normal that one hen consumes water 1.5 times more than food. If the temperature exceeds the norm, and the humidity is lowered, the amount of water consumed will increase by two or even three times. Food with a lack of salt will lead to less water consumption, as salty food will increase it.
Humidity is a lot of important factor when maintenance and cultivation of laying hens and meat breeds.
Simultaneous phenomena like high temperature habitat and high humidity are dangerous for chickens in cages battery powered. If vapors are removed as they appear by the corresponding equipment, then the humidity will drop to the permissible rate.
Usually indoor humidity does not exceed 75%
The air flow rate at the floor content of chickens, as well as when the content in the cells of the batteries does not change.
The speed of air flow depends on the temperature of the habitat. If in case of unforeseen circumstances room temperature ranges from:
10 degrees Celsius and below - the flow rate should not exceed 0.2 m / s
10-20 degrees Celsius maximum speed can be 0.4 m / s.
20-25 degrees Celsius - 0.8 m / s
At temperatures exceeding 30 degrees Celsius, the speed of air flow can be above the norm of 1m / s, which creates a sense of comfort for the birds.
Lighting - It is carried out according to a predetermined plan, turning it on and off gradually using a time relay and a rheostat simulating dusk and dawn. A 40 watt bulb is used at a distance of 2.5–3 m providing a stream of lighting of 10 lux.
Observing a strict regime of lighting and feeding, as well as the best conditions for keeping, can reach a peak in egg production, maintaining these high rates for at least 6 weeks, after which a period of gradual decline in the productivity of chickens begins. This period usually begins at 35-40 weeks of age. The rate of decline in the productivity of chickens is 0.5 per week, if there are no deviations or unforeseen circumstances.
Egg collection ideally carried out right in the packages avoiding unnecessary manipulation of the eggs. Thus, reducing the number of broken eggs.
If the distance between battery cell will allow collect eggs from two sides at the same time (and right in the patches), such an arrangement of cells will save you time and effort.
Mechanically - egg collection It is carried out with the help of textile or plastic tapes 10 cm wide stretched along batteries instead of egg collections. The surface of the tape must be tough enough to reduce the percentage of broken eggs. The bottom of the cage should be tilted so that the eggs roll smoothly into the egg collection or tape, preventing losses of 40-50%.
Cells must meet the following requirements:
• cells must be made entirely of welded galvanized mesh with a small diameter of the cell (which reduces the percentage of broken eggs).
• cell bottom must be tilted so that the eggs will coil smoothly into the egg collection.
• BUT egg compilation had a horizontal position, slowing down the speed of the eggs, so that when hitting the net they were not damaged.
In the fight against embrittlement of eggs need to use in the diet of chickens substances that contribute to restoring the balance and functionality of the body: increasing metabolism, namely phosphorus and calcium.
Substances that activate the metabolism:
• Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) 50 -100 mg / kg feed or in drinking water
• Sodium bicarbonate 1.5 - 2 g / kg feed reduces the alkaline balance of the acid, making the eggshells stronger.
• Potassium chloride eliminates accumulation in the kidneys and plays the role of provitamin D.
• Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) 50 mg / kg feed acts as a factor against stress.
• Antibiotics in water (within 3-5 days) changes the intestinal environment.
In conclusion, it can be said that strictly adhering to hygiene - sanitary standards, as well as proper feeding, results in high quality products and a maximum income.
Feeding laying hens at home with different types of food
And now, passing by any rural monastery, the voices of cockerels and hens that are familiar from childhood can be heard. In modern living conditions, the issue of breeding poultry is becoming increasingly relevant. Each family wants to have fresh chicken eggs and tasty nourishing meat on its table.
The most picky birds by right considered domestic chickens. They are happy to eat grain, weed greens from the beds, the remnants of feed obtained by goats and pigs, and even waste from the table man. But, with such a poorly balanced diet, it is very difficult to achieve high productivity of the household.
Wild ancestors of the chicken and its closest relatives in the natural environment feed very diversely. Berries and fruits, herbs and seeds, larvae and adult insects, earthworms are far from a complete menu of such birds. Of course, feeding chickens at home is difficult to make so diverse, but it is still extremely important to give your pets all the substances for development, growth and good productivity.
The composition of feed for chickens at home
Different types of crops make up about 60% of the total menu for chickens. Also, poultry should be fully given animal and vegetable feed, which supply all the vital organs of chickens with fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Be sure to add to the diet minerals and various vitamin supplements.
When feeding chickens at home need to consider the ratio in the products of various substances. The composition of the feed should include:
Cereals perfectly digested in the body of chickens. It is they who are a rich source of fiber, carbohydrates and vitamins. Each poultry farmer should include in the diet of poultry:
All the same, even in the most balanced mixtures, made by hand at home from cereals, sometimes there are not enough nutrients to the layers. Therefore, it will be very useful add to the laying hens ration:
In private farms, first of all, they feed the garden, garden and kitchen to feed the hens of layers.. Main products:
DIY food preparation
In order for the body of the hen to assimilate as many nutrients as possible and feed the birds to eat most willingly, the poultry farmer has to prepare food for laying hens with his own hands. Such training includes:
- Root vegetables and potatoes need to fray in a paste or mash on a grater with their own hands, then they are mixed with flour mixtures or added to other food.
- Greened potatoes and its sprouts in their composition have toxic substance solanine. When cooking this substance goes into the water. Therefore, after cooking, the water is drained, and flour is added to the mashed potatoes, and this mixture is given to layers.
- The products of vital activity of mold fungi can lead to the poisoning of a bird; therefore, when preparing food with your own hands, moldy bread cannot be allowed to enter the food.
- Before adding to the composition of the wet mash all protein feed must be well crushed.
- Grain mixtures should also be served in a flattened or crushed form (1–2 mm grit size).
- With the help of canning in whey, meat and fish waste is stored for the future. Serum filled with serum can be stored for up to two weeks at a temperature not exceeding 20 °.
- To improve the absorption of proteins, cereal legumes need to soak, and then steamed in a small amount of water.
- If necessary, the nettles need to be scalded, and Padans fruits can be boiled. They also grind their own waste from the garden and garden before use.
- Germinated grain, rich in vitamins, is very useful to give the bird in winter.
Feed in the diet
Compound feed is categorized dry chicken feed. It is made and sold in a finely chopped state, which helps to prevent overeating and obesity in chickens. Compound feeds are prepared at agricultural enterprises strictly according to GOST.
Compound feed in composition can be varied and prepared for a certain type of chicken. Industrial enterprises prepare specially balanced feed for chickens, laying hens, and boiler chickens.
Compound feed for layers consists of the following components:
Daily allowance for one layer in the compound feed characterized by the composition:
This is the basic composition of the necessary components present in the feed mixtures.
The season of feeding the hens. So, in the summer you need to feed the birds twice a day, and in the winter three times a day.
The most unpleasant kurya habit - is to rake the grain in the feeders. Therefore, the feeder should be filled with dry food only for a third of the volume, as much as the chickens eat. But the mash is applied in such quantity that the hens eat it up within an hour, before the mash components are sour.
Wet food should be given in the morning and at lunch.. And at night it is necessary to apply light feeding, which includes grain or feed. В каждое кормление обязательно нужно чистить кормушки. И не забывать, при кормлении, следить за наличием чистой воды.
Зимой пищу нужно давать утром в 08.00, в обед кормление надо производить в 13.00, а вечером кормит птицу надо в 18.00. Если есть возможность выгула кур на зелёной траве в летнее время, кормление осуществляется два раза в день — в 08.00 утром и 18.00 вечером. If it is not possible to graze chickens, then in the summer, you need to organize a bird feeding lunch.
Laying hens in summer and winter
Beginner poultry farmers should be aware that the norms of feeding in the warm and cold seasons differ in the diet of nutritional value of the feed.
In summer timeWhen it is possible to graze birds in the fresh air, the composition of the daily feeding of laying hens is as follows:
Succulent green food, in winter, replace with potatoes or wet mash, use protein feed. The diet per day looks like this:
Of course, the industrial feed developed specifically for laying hens contains almost all the elements necessary for feeding your pets, but a complete transfer to dry food in a private household is economically unprofitable and unprofitable.
The body of the chicken, to get early meat, was radically changed in the selection process. This property should be taken into account when drawing up a hole of a balanced diet for broiler breeds of chickens. Intensive feeding of poultry meat should be carried out in a period of rapid growth. After which there comes a puberty period, when the growth of chickens slows down, therefore, it is necessary to immediately respond to this point by reducing the amount of feed produced. Boiler-type chickens have a much lower metabolism than regular chickens, so they carry fewer eggs. They quickly grow fat.
Meat breeding can be organized in two different ways. In the first case, it is necessary to feed the bird in plenty with mixtures of low-calorie content, in which the presence of proteins and carbohydrates is small. In the second case, they use high-grade balanced feed, but feeding is carried out strictly at the rate of one chicken.
Feeding chickens during the molting period
With a decrease in daylight, chickens usually start a molting period, which is characterized by a decrease in the egg production rate of the bird. Some poultry farmers process the onset of molting cause artificially. To do this, reduce the period of lighting in the hen house, and the bird is forced to starve. For several days she is given only water, and after the start of the molt the feeding is restored in full. Food should be, in this period less calorie, but varied in composition. It should be added to the food more minerals and necessarily sulfur.
How to make feed for laying hens at home: studying the diet of poultry
The health of domestic chickens and the quality of eggs directly depends on proper nutrition. Their productivity depends on it. If you choose a high-quality and balanced diet for laying hens at home, they will be born all year round. This article will tell you how to do it right.
The importance of proper nutrition for laying hens
In order to have a lot of eggs from chickens, it is not enough to choose a breed with high egg production for breeding. It is important to properly organize their diet. As a rule, breeds that are characterized by a high number of eggs when worn, put forward high requirements for care and, in particular, feeding.
Chicken age also affects egg production. It starts carrying eggs from the 26th week of life, and the peak of productivity falls for a period of 26-49 weeks. Meals can slightly delay the process of reducing the productivity of birds. To do this, their diet should be enough vitamins, protein, and other nutrients. Food should be light, complete and well digested.
Wanting to increase productivity, it is important to know how to feed the chickens so that they are well born. To do this, experts recommend that you necessarily include in their diet legumes: peas, lentils, actually beans. Usually, chickens are not accustomed to such feed, therefore, it is first recommended to give them steamed grains in advance and add them to the usual feed or mixture.
How to feed laying hens at home
So, the most important thing is that chicken feed should be diverse and balanced. The bird should receive all the elements necessary for growth, development and productivity. In the diet should be a variety of feed.
Chickens need a sufficient amount of protein in the diet, because it forms muscle cells, is in the structure of the egg. In order to supplement its quantity in the ration of chickens, vegetable components are added to it: legumes, sunflower meal, soybeans, rapeseed crops, oilcake. An obligatory component is meat and bone meal for chickens, the remains of fish, mollusks, amphibians, earthworms.
Vitamins must be present in the poultry diet. Be sure to include among them vitamins D, B, A. When they are lacking, chickens develop various diseases. To provide them with enough vitamins, the diet should include silage, pine meal, fish oil, yeast, green grass, especially during the budding period.
Food for laying hens at home should include wood ash, lime, ground shells, bone meal, chalk. This will help replenish mineral reserves in the body of the bird. Minerals are needed for the formation of bone tissue and eggshell.
Carbohydrates are essential for the normal functioning of the muscles and internal organs of the chicken. They are in sufficient quantities in sugar, starch, fiber. The latter is in huge quantities in whole grains, so the grain for chickens is almost the main one in the diet. Also add potatoes, beets, carrots, pumpkin.
How to make a diet for laying hens
When composing a layer hen ration for a day, it is necessary to include all the elements described above in the required proportions. Protein, herbs and flour must be alternated, not forgetting about the water that must constantly be present in the bird.
Features of the spring diet
Now let's understand what you can feed the chicken in the spring. This is the period when it comes time to move from winter to a normal diet. But the transition should not be sharp, so in the spring they begin to introduce it gradually. At this time, the bird is already released into the street, where it can pluck fresh young grass. But at the same time, along with the feed, it is necessary to give more germinated grain, which is rich in vitamin E. You also need to increase the amount of vitamin B and C in the diet of chickens. To do this, add brewer's yeast to the feed.
How to feed laying hens in summer
The peculiarity of feeding laying hens at home in the summer is different in that the bird spends a lot of time on the walk, so she is able to find grass and other food for herself. Accordingly, the amount of grass, chalk and gravel in the feed is reduced. And the number of feedings is reduced to two times. In the morning pour out a wet mash, in the evening - grain. But if chickens are not allowed out of the pen in the summer, they should be fed three times a day.
How to feed laying hens during molting
With a decrease in daylight hours, chickens begin to moult and productivity decreases. But it was during this period that chickens needed the most complete feed, as their bodies were weakened. It is recommended to add to the diet sulfur, minerals, make sure that the food of chickens is not only diverse, but also high-calorie.
We make a diet for laying hens in the winter
The number of feedings of chickens in the winter is reduced to three times. The first is at about 8 am, then at about 1 pm, after lunch, and the last - in the evening. The last feeding must consist exclusively of grain.
In winter, chickens need to be fed with succulent feeds, such as carrots, beets, pumpkins. Some wonder if it is possible to give zucchini to chickens. In fact, even necessary, as in the winter they will help fill the deficiency in vitamins and fiber. Also, sunflower cake is added to the mash, which is an excellent source of fat and protein for poultry.
Be sure to in the feeders must be ground chalk or gravel. Along the walls of the coop must be warm drinking water. It is necessary to change it and wash the drinkers regularly.
The daily ration of chickens in winter should include:
Food should be detailed knife or grind in a meat grinder. Vegetables can be boiled and crushed for mash. Also in the winter in the coop should be hay. From it form small bunches and fasten to nails at feeders at a height of about 40 cm from the floor.
Ready-mix for feeding laying hens
As you can see, feeding chickens is not an easy process. Their diet should be varied and balanced. At first glance, it seems that the only way out is to buy mixed fodder. This is fully justified if there is a large number of birds. But if laying hens are taken to be kept at home for their own needs, they can arrange feeding in their own mixtures.
There are many recipes for their preparation, but one of the best ones is the following:
- salt - no more than 3 g,
- vitamins - 10-15 g,
- peas - 20-30 g,
- grass meal - 30-50 g,
- fodder yeast - 40-50 g,
- fish meal - 50-60 g,
- meat and bone meal - 60-80 g,
- sunflower meal - 70-100 g,
- barley - 70-100 g,
- wheat - 120-150 g,
- corn - 450-500 g.
This is quite enough to prepare a kilogram of feed, the quality and freshness of which will not be doubted. For a change, you can prepare food for this recipe:
This feed is quite enough to feed ten hens per day. It is important that all ingredients are crushed and mixed well.
To solve the problem of avitaminosis chickens help yeast feed. To do this, take about 20 g of Baker's yeast and dilute them in 0.5 liters of water. Then add a kilogram of feed and mix well. The mixture must be left in a warm place for 8 hours. Per day for one chicken it is necessary to allocate 15-25 g of such feed.
Home-made feed or purchased - which is better
As you can see, knowing the approximate norms of feeding laying hens at home, food can be made independently. But the logical question arises, what is better - self-made fodder or factory feed? This question has no definite answer. Each owner decides on his own, based on the characteristics of the breed of chickens, their number and personal preferences.
Each solution will have its own advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it is difficult to keep the perfect balance of nutrients needed by the bird in the food of its own cooking. In any case, each time it will be an approximate combination. But this is not so important when chickens are raised not on an industrial scale, but exclusively for their own needs.
The homemade blender will always be fresh. You know exactly what it is made from, how fresh the ingredients are. And this is a huge advantage over mixed feeds, which have a limited shelf life, but can stay with the seller for a long time. But the use of wet mash imposes increased demands on the content of the chicken coop. Feeders should be cleaned and cleaned regularly, so that the remnants of the feed are not moldy and sour.
Practice shows that with equal needs, chickens eat more feed than mash. Therefore, the use of the first is justified if the bird is grown for meat. For laying hens this does not matter, so you can save on expensive purchased feed. In addition, a rich and nourishing food provokes their early onset of laying eggs, and this is bad for the health of the bird. In addition, the period of socks of small eggs increases significantly.
It is possible to feed laying hens in different ways, it is only important to maintain a balance in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. It is easier to do this using compound feed, but you can prepare mash beans yourself. To do this, you need to figure out when and what products can be given to the bird. The diet of her feeding differs in different seasons. It is also influenced by the bird’s lifestyle. In general, it is fed 3-4 times a day with different feeds.
How to feed laying hens to improve the quality of eggs?
The egg production of chickens and the quality of eggs depends on several factors: the breed, the conditions of the poultry, the optimal light and temperature conditions, the feed. The latter must be balanced and contain all the necessary nutrients and vitamins.
They feed the bird, as a rule, two or three times a day, while taking into account its biological rhythm of life. Laying hens early begin to stay awake and also go to bed early. Therefore, the main delivery of feed occurs in the morning with dawn and in the evening - no later than 18 - 19 hours.
Whole grains and mash must be present in the daily ration of homemade chicken. It is better to do mixes on the basis of the combined forages containing crushed wheat, corn, barley, oats. The chicken is an omnivorous bird, therefore, it is possible to add waste from the garden and vegetable garden — padalka, over-ripe vegetables, fruits, cabbage leaves, tops.
If there is such an opportunity, it is better to dilute the feed with whey or skimming. The composition of the mixtures must necessarily include mineral supplements - chalk, bone meal, crushed eggshell, shell rock and, if possible, greens.
If the nesting site is poorly prepared, then no balanced diet will force the bird to rush to a designated corner. It is possible that the chicken will start leaving eggs in the most inappropriate places. To avoid such situations, it is necessary to select a place for the nest and prepare the young bird for the eggs in advance.
In the summer it is easier to decide than to feed the laying hens. On winter feeding birds should take care in advance. In the summer, it is possible to harvest branches of bushes, brooms, alfalfa grass, nettles, and hay. Dried plants are tied up in bunches and hung in hen houses in winter. Hay laid out on racks and boards. Birds willingly peck nutritious leaves.
In winter, you can add pumpkin, zucchini, cabbage, turnip, turnip and hay dust to the mash, as all this is well preserved until spring. Fish waste, boiled potatoes and cleaning also like animals. With good nutrition, the chicken will not break and peck up the eggs laid. It is noticed that chickens get used to a certain feed, so you need to change the diet gradually. For a smoother transition, small portions of the new feed are introduced into the familiar mixtures. With proper maintenance and feeding of pets, eggs of laying hens will be of excellent quality!
How to feed chickens
Whatever the main purpose of chickens, the health of the birds and the quality of their productive characteristics are of paramount importance.
What feed, what feed, with what frequency - the primary questions of any poultry farmer.
Properly organized feeding of chickens has a beneficial effect on their health and productivity (eggs all year round). The quality and nutritional characteristics of food depend on the balanced composition of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as on the availability of essential vitamins and minerals.
- Squirrels. The main component of the cells, as well as the main component of the egg. There are vegetable (contained in legumes, rapeseed, soybeans, cake) and animals (found in bone meal, shellfish, earthworms, amphibians, fish waste) types of fats. Both are useful.
- Fat They form a supply of energy that accumulates under the skin and is consumed when an egg is formed. To replenish the feed, corn and oats are added.
- Carbohydrates. Necessary to maintain the work of organs and muscles. A significant amount of them is present in potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, beets, whole grain shell.
- Vitamins. Vital components. Especially vitamins A, D and B. Their deficiency threatens with an increase in the incidence and a decrease in the productivity of chickens. Green grass, pine meal, baker's yeast, cod-liver oil, silage are the main suppliers of vitamins in the diet of chickens.
- Minerals. The building component of the bird's skeleton and egg shell. Watch for the constant presence of gravel, chalk, lime, crushed shells in certain feeders.
Chickens need more thorough care and a special feeding ration, rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins. In addition, the portions are reduced, and the new feed is introduced gradually. Do not forget about drinking with the content of ascorbic acid and glucose in the first days of the life of young animals.
Lack of water can cause chick death. The life and productive characteristics of adults depend largely on their care and feeding at a young age.
Chicken body is characterized by a short digestion and accelerated metabolism. Именно поэтому зерновые культуры становятся наиболее предпочтительным кормом для куриного поголовья и занимают 60% их рациона.
Цельное и дроблёное зерно одинаково хорошо поедается птицей. Количество протеина в зёрнах невелико, значит, давать его необходимо с пищей, богатой белками (костная мука, бобовые, отходы рыбы).
Летом предпочтение отдавайте:
Young generation replace millet millet.
In winter, feed:
The remaining 40% of complementary foods fall to root vegetables, green fodder (hay), animal feed, and mineral supplements.
The presence of a vegetable garden simplifies the process of making root vegetables in the feeding process.
Useful vegetables for young and adult individuals are:
An extremely important ration unit is carrots, as it is a surrogate for fish oil and contributes to an increase in the number of eggs laid.
Per day requires 20 g of raw carrots or 7 g of dried per unit of chicken farms. Vegetables are rubbed on a grater before use and given simultaneously with green mass or bran.
Green fodder (hay) provides poultry with extremely important vitamins and minerals, other useful elements for the speedy assimilation of food. Approximately 20% green should be present in the daily rate of all feed. In spring and summer, free-range chickens are looking for greens on their own.
With restrictions on freedom of movement, chickens must be given:
The chicken egg production is determined by the presence of green mass and vegetables in their diet.
They are necessarily ground for high-grade assimilation.
Unsurpassed green food in the winter period is considered to be pine needles, containing carotene and vitamin C, which have the ability to stimulate appetite and improve the functioning of the digestive tract.
Fodder of animal origin supplies the body of birds with essential amino acids that have a positive effect on the growth and egg production of chicken stock.
There are the following useful components:
The composition of mineral additives include:
Freely walking chicken itself compensates for the lack of these useful elements. In other cases, they are poured into special feeders.
Essentially important components of the food menu of layers are gravel and clear water. Without their participation, normal digestion and full development is impossible. Water change as pollution.
Required feed for laying hens
The best option for proper feeding of hens will be dry feed. It is designed specifically to increase egg production and balanced nutrition of chickens, contains all the vitamins, minerals and other vital components.
The disadvantage of it is expensive, and as a result, the cost of eggs increases. Consider the examples of feeding layers without feed.
Everyday eating hens of hens must contain whole grains, flour, green mass, supplements of vitamins and minerals, while it is important to alternate between types of grain, flour and additives. Mineral feed and fresh water must always be present.
Summer indicators of the main components of the daily feed of layers are:
In the winter indicators added wet mash and potatoes, replacing fresh greens.
Adding crushed eggshells to food leads to an increase in the number of eggs laid.
The temperature in the chicken coop affects the frequency and quality of feeding. The lower it is, the more frequent the nutrition of the hens. And, conversely, a warm room requires to monitor enough water, which should be at room temperature.
In the diet should be present:
It is important to know not only what you can eat layers, but also what is impossible.
Let's call forbidden products:
We define five basic tips on feeding the hens.
Special worms feed for laying hens
When infected with worms affects not only the bird's organism, but also the eggs it has laid, the shell of which becomes soft, and clots are found inside. At the same time, chickens eat poorly and reluctantly, feathers get an untidy, disheveled appearance, the scalp fades, diarrhea appears, breathing becomes heavy.
Detection of symptoms of worms poisoning in at least one individual requires immediate treatment and preventive measures. The most effective in the treatment are veterinary drugs that can destroy adult parasites and their eggs.
Let's name the most effective:
“Fenenvet” - powder 1% and 2.5%, poured into the feed. In no case should not violate the specified dosage,
Levamisol Plus - soluble in water and added to the drinker. Do not change the rules of the drug yourself,
Piperazin - the tablets are crushed and dissolved in water. The mixture is watered with adult chickens and young animals (1/3 tablets per 1 kg of bird weight),
Pyrantel - The course of the drug is carried out three times, between which a break of six days is observed. After completion of treatment, poultry meat cannot be eaten for 2 months, and eggs are eaten four days after the last dose of medication.
Developed by the people means of dealing with "uninvited" guests passed the test of time and in some cases successfully cope with the problem.
It has long been popularly used:
The most popular means are pumpkin seeds, which are well crushed, filled with water, insisted for 3-4 hours. For prevention, you can add raw sunflower seeds to the feed ration. We focus on the fact that folk remedies are effective in the initial stages of infection and as measures to prevent morbidity.
Watch carefully for the behavior and general condition of the bird population, observe hygienic standards, take preventive measures, and the threat of infection will be minimal.
Types of mineral supplements
Minerals are divided into macro-and micronutrients. Mineral supplements for poultry in home gardens mainly consist of macronutrients.
At home, for chickens, sodium, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus become the most important macroelements. Seedium is extremely important for the hens to restore reproductive function. Broilers need iodine and manganese more than other types of chickens.
Backyard poultry needs the following mineral supplements:
salt. Contains sodium and chlorine. The lack of salt is manifested in a decrease in the number of eggs laid, a change in the state of the shell, a slowdown in the growth of the bird, the appearance of convulsions and a general lethargy of the chicken population. Add to the mash amount of 0.2-0.4% (2 g per head per day),
- shell. Contains 38% calcium, iodine, magnesium. Layers constantly lose calcium when forming the egg shell, and broilers and chickens are used for the skeletal system. The rate per day for adults is 6–9%, for chickens 1–1.2%. Symptoms of a lack of an element are modifications of the shell (or its absence) and fragility of the bones of the skeleton. The Caspian shell is inexpensive and of high quality,
chalk feed. Contains 75-85% calcium. The number of chalk per day is 0.5-3.0%,
limestone. Contains about 32% calcium, some iron, sulfur, magnesium. Daily rate - 3-4%
eggshell. Serves as a complete source of calcium and other minerals. Before use, the shell is boiled and crushed, added to the feed at the rate of 10-15 g per unit of adult livestock. Daily allowance for chickens - 2%,
phosphates. These include phosphate defluorinated feed, mono-, di- and tricalcium phosphate, prescribed with a lack of phosphorus. This element must be balanced with calcium. The rate of calcium to phosphorus is 3: 1 (at egg laying it reaches 6: 1), in chickens it is 2: 1. Given the known amount of calcium, calculate the required rate of phosphorus. It is recommended to add easily digestible tricalcium phosphate to feed. The daily rate for adults is 1.5-2%, for chickens — 0.5–1%,
wood ash. Contains calcium 33%, phosphorus 2%, sodium 9%, potassium 7%, magnesium 7%, manganese 0.47%, iron 0.8%. 10 grams per unit of livestock is added to the feed or placed in a separate feeder indefinitely,
sapropel or lake silt. Includes protein (up to 6%), calcium (1.2%), as well as other elements. Add 20 g per adult unit, the norm for chickens is 5-15%.
The doses indicated above are designed for one head of hens or 1 kg of dry mix for young animals and broilers. When calculating, keep in mind that in bone and meat and bone meal, except for protein, there is a lot of calcium and phosphorus, and fish meal is also rich in phosphorus and can be salted (mineral additives reduce or cancel).
Green feed requires an increase in salt in the feed to 0.5-0.7%, since it is necessary to balance a large amount of potassium in greens. An excess of minerals is no less harmful, it leads to incomplete assimilation of food and a lag in the growth of bird stock.
There are ready vitamin and mineral premixes. Their use is justified with a poor diet and the apparent inadequate development of young and adult composition.
Here are some examples of vitamin and mineral premixes:
- "Country Yard". Vitamin and mineral supplement for chickens. Dosage - 1 g per head.
- "Ryabushka". Contains vitamins and trace elements - iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, iodine, selenium. Dosage - 0.5 g per head.
- "Agroservice". It contains proteins, vitamins and the mineral part - calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, iodine, selenium. Give at the rate of 10 g per head of hens.
If you have a few chickens, it is enough to give eggshells or wood ash.
Water is the main component of living organisms. Its lack leads to death. Clean, fresh water in the drinkers should always be, and access to it is not limited to time, space and freedom of movement.
Keep in mind that the water exchange of layers is an order of magnitude more intense than broilers. During the day she drinks a glass of water. Dry feeding makes you increase the rate by 20-30%.
Chickens need a special drinking regime:
The amount of water consumed depends on the age of the bird:
Wet agitators reduce water intake by a third.
Pay attention to the fact that the drinkers are located 10-15 cm above the floor, otherwise especially active individuals will apply mud and sand there. The best option would be a nipple drinker. Drinking bowls for babies are designed in such a way that chickens cannot choke, get wet.
Only severe frosts can freeze scallops and paws, reward the bird with bronchitis. That is why in the chicken coop creates a comfortable temperature without drafts and open doors.
Drinking bowls are disinfected once a month with special means, otherwise it is difficult to avoid the spread of infections.
Considered modes of feeding, treatment and prevention of certain diseases of birds will help keep your chicken population in the best possible way.