Maran - breed of chickens, bred in France in 1895, in the city of the same name. These are quite large and at the same time quite graceful birds. Their plumage may have a different color. In any case, most farmers find this breed very beautiful. The original exterior is one of the main reasons for its extraordinary popularity.
In farms, the bird can be bred coloring "silver cuckoo", "black and copper maran", "golden cuckoo", wheat, white. The body of the hens of this breed is high and horizontal. Since the plumage of the Maranov is very tight to the skin, excess fluff is not formed. A rather simple-shaped comb with 5-7 teeth in the hens may hang to the side.
Rooster maran gains weight up to 4 kg, chicken - up to three. The plumage has a density, and therefore the birds endure the winter very well. The eyes of the hens have an interesting red-orange color. The presence of a feather on the thigh and on the outer claw is also considered a sign of the breed. The legs of the Maran in most cases white. Sometimes they are covered with gray or dark spots.
As you can see, the bird is very beautiful. But not only this differs Maran. Hens, the description of the breed which was given above, among other things, also carry a lot of eggs. They are also unusual for marans. Their shell has a rich chocolate color. That is why in France the bird of this breed is called "the hen that lays Easter eggs." The reasons for this phenomenon are quite simple. Passing through the oviduct of the hen, the egg is covered with a layer of brown pigment. If you rub the shell with a cloth, it will become a little paler.
As for the size, the eggs of maranov are rather large. Their weight can reach 100 g. The French believe that the eggs of chickens of this breed never become infected with salmonella. It is all about their very thick shell. If we talk about taste, then they are simply excellent with marana eggs. This is another reason for the popularity of the breed.
The eggshell can be not only dark brown, but also have lighter shades. In general, the rams are very interesting and unusual chickens. The photo on this page confirms this fact more than convincingly.
Chicken eggs give quite a lot - up to 200 pieces per year. Of course, only with the right content and feeding. In winter, in order to increase egg production, the bird should be provided with a 10-11 hour light regime. The air temperature in the barn should not fall below 15 degrees Celsius. For hatching in spring, experts recommend selecting only eggs that are chocolate in color. It is believed that they can be obtained individuals with pronounced signs of the breed. Some farmers leave eggs under layers, others use an incubator. Fundamental value method of breeding does not matter. Although the second method is considered more convenient, but only because the use of an incubator allows you to leave the "free" chicken and, accordingly, get a little more eggs. However, with a hen, chickens will develop better, of course.
The shell of the eggs of maranov, as mentioned above, is very thick and durable. Therefore, it is very difficult to punch her chicks. To help them, in the last days before hatching in the incubator, you need to increase the humidity (up to 75%). In this case, problems with the exit of the kids out will not arise.
Feeding Hatching Chicks
As already mentioned, the maran is a breed of hens that is not too whimsical. To feed healthy strong chickens will be easy. At first they are given only boiled yolk and curds. From 3-4 days they begin to teach and to coarse food - finely chopped corn grits or millet. For the first week, babies are fed 5-6 times a day, trying to give as much food as they can eat. Sliced eggs and curds pour every two hours. Up to 3 days chickens should be fed at night. On the sixth day, crushed shells and grated shells or ashes are introduced into the diet. After ten days, the frequency of feeding is reduced to 6 times, and a little later - to four.
How to feed older chicks
It is already possible to add finely chopped nettles, carrots, alfalfa and clover to the diet of a half-day brood. Before feeding grass should be scalded with boiling water. With beets, it is desirable to wait until one month of age, as it weakens the digestive system. You can also give boiled potatoes, boiled meat and fish waste and chopped cake.
Manganese must be added to drinking water 2-3 times a week (quite a bit, before getting a very pale pink color). Be sure to put in the barn box with sand and small gravel. Their marani chickens peck rather willingly, since hard particles contribute to a better grinding of food. Starting from the fourth month, the brood can be transferred to an adult diet.
Care for Marana Chicks
So, breed maran. Chickens (as described at the beginning of the article), as a rule, chicks are usually of a dark color. Caring for the chicks of this breed - the procedure is also not too complicated. In the case of breeding in an incubator, immediately after hatching, chicks are kept in a box with a waffle towel laid down. Legs in 2-3 day old babies are very weak. Textiles on the bottom will prevent them from slipping. From above, the box should be covered with a metal grille, with an incandescent bulb inserted between its bars. Its power can be changed depending on the air temperature in the room. The main thing is to keep the kids warm, and they would not fall into heaps. The air temperature in the box in the first days should be kept at 30 o C. Then it is reduced by 2 degrees per day.
At the age of a week or a little later, small marans can already be started to accustom to the street. To do this, they - right in the box - are carried out to fresh air for several hours a day. A week later, you can transfer the chickens to the barn, taking home only for the night. It is advisable from time to time to let them run around the yard. At the age of one month, chicks can be transferred to the barn completely. To let them go "for a walk" is continued, but necessarily under supervision. Some farmers simply plant older chickens to a hen that has its own brood. Free-range poultry can be transferred at two to three months of age.
What should be a barn for maranov
Of course, maran is a breed of chickens, for breeding it requires a special room. It is best to build a shed from a timber or make a frame-shield. In such a chicken coop, the bird will be warmer in winter. Its height should not exceed 1.8 m. It also allows you to save more heat in the cold season. A mandatory element of any chicken coop is a window leaf or a small window. For the good development of the bird requires a flow of fresh air.
Of course, absolutely any chickens like to take a walk on the street (photos of marans who survey the land in search of worms can be seen above). Therefore, you should equip a walking yard near the chicken coop. You can simply put on the perimeter of the pillars and wrapped with a rabbit in a width of 1.5 meters. In the wall of the chicken coop, adjacent to the courtyard, make a hole. In the summer, they keep him open; in the winter they close him with insulated shields. And in the hen house, and in the courtyard you need to fill the roost.
The floor in the shed is best made wooden or earthen. It is allowed to fill it with concrete. From above, the floors of the coop are spread out with crushed straw and hay or sawdust. If the litter is very thick (up to 0.5 m), in winter you can not even heat the barn. In this case, microorganisms of various kinds develop in hay or sawdust. As a result of their vital activity, the temperature inside the litter can rise to 30-35 degrees Celsius.
How to arrange nests
Breeding laying hens as a business, and also only to meet the needs of only your family, is a procedure that requires nests, perches and feeders of a convenient design in a barn. How to properly assemble them and where to place? Nests hang over roosts in secluded places. Their bottom must be laid with hay. There should be one nest for five to six hens. To make it easier for the chickens, the entrance should be no less than 25x25 cm in size. The nest itself should have a height of 35 cm, and the width and depth should be 30 cm. Before entering, you need to build a shelf for take-off. The roof of the nest is usually made inclined (at a 45 degree angle). In this case, the hens do not sit in it constantly and do not stain litter with litter.
What should be the roost
The number and length of perches is calculated based on the fact that about 20 cm of space is required for each hen. Poles with a diameter of about 6 cm are used for their manufacture. The perches should be located on the opposite side of the window, at a height of about 1.2 m. This is necessary in order to provide the bird with a convenient take-off and protect it from drafts.
Feeding adult maranov
Laying hens, the content of which is the procedure is in any case not too complicated, you should get enough feed for better egg production. For good development, rams should be given concentrated feed and mash. For the preparation of the latter should be equipped with two tables at once. One of them, a summer one, is installed outside the shed next to the wall. The second - winter - inside it. Above the tables you can drive a nail for graters.
Like all chickens, rams are omnivorous birds with a short digestive tract. Two-thirds of their diet should be concentrated feed (grain, shredded). In addition to them, chickens are given a lot of greenery, food waste, meat and fish meal, as well as all sorts of additives containing minerals. Of course, the breed Maran, like any other, will develop well and be carried only if the diet is quite diverse.
They feed these chickens usually three times a day. In the morning they give the grain mixed with mixed fodder. In the afternoon - at 3 o'clock - put the masters in the feeders. Their composition may be different. The kneading is done in a large pelvis. You can pour a little water on its bottom and soak bits of white bread in it. Then add bran, grated carrots, apples, potatoes, beets, zucchini, cabbage and nettles, etc. In the evening, add grain to the trough. You need to give so much so that the rams eat everything completely.
Meat or fish meal should be added to the mash or grain. This will contribute to a better egg production. Fishmeal can be replaced with boiled fish. Cost of such an additive is usually cheaper.
Laying hens, the maintenance of which in personal farms presupposes, first of all, proper feeding, should receive food from containers of a convenient design. Do feeders usually from wood or tin. The second option is preferable, since in this case the containers will be easier to clean and disinfect. Below, be sure to fill the legs. Thus it is necessary to choose their length correctly. It should be such that the feeder itself is at the height of the back of the bird. In this case, the spread of feed will be minimal.
Marana chickens (there is a photo and description on this page), like birds of any other breed, love to climb into the feeders with feet. Therefore, on top of the container for grain and mash set a turntable. Such a device will not allow them to do this. Make a turntable from a thick pole, fixing it on two vertical bars so that it spins around its axis.
A cast iron, a saucepan, a small bucket can serve as a drinker. In winter, the container is dropped into the litter. This will prevent water from freezing.
How to cook feed for maranov
Breeding laying hens as a business, of course, requires having regular feed suppliers. In this case, the feed is purchased ready. However, when breeding maranov, it is easier and cheaper to cook it yourself just for yourself. Often, the purchase option is not too good quality and when purchased at retail is quite expensive. Therefore, many farmers prefer to do it themselves: for four buckets of barley they take a bucket of oats and wheat. You can add to the mixture a little pea.
Ash baths for chickens
Farmers engaged in breeding maranov, advised to be sure to put them in the coop box with ash or sand. These chickens love to "swim" in them. Such “baths” will not only bring pleasure to the bird, but will also be useful in terms of the destruction of various kinds of parasites in the feather.
As you can see, the breed Maran really deserves the attention of our summer residents and farmers. These chickens have very good egg production. Yes, and they grow fast enough. At the same time, the taste qualities of both eggs and meat are simply wonderful.
Maran: breed description
Birds of this breed are distinguished by a unique appearance and high performance characteristics. Maran appeared as a result of selection work of French poultry houses at the end of the XIX century. The name of the breed comes from the name of the French city of Maran. This region of France has always been notable for its harsh conditions, which made it possible for chickens to develop resistance to adverse environmental influences. The breed was praised at the 1914 exhibition in La Rochelle, after which it quickly spread throughout Europe.
Maran is a medium-sized bird: cocks reach a weight of 4 kg, layers are up to 3 kg. All representatives of this breed are distinguished by the eyes of an orange-red hue. The shape of the body is slightly elongated, the head is small, the short tail drops down at an angle of about 45 degrees. Feathers fit snugly to the body, the plumage of males is more solid. Dense feathers on the neck of the bird form a noticeable "collar." On the legs - four well-marked fingers in dark gray or white. The bill is powerful, slightly curved, yellow.
Known dwarf subspecies of maran. They are distinguished from ordinary chickens by more modest sizes: the weight of a rooster rarely exceeds a kilogram. Maran breed chickens are distinguished by their calm temper and poise. However, in conditions of wide range walking, this bird can behave very smartly and actively.
This breed belongs to the meat and egg group. A hen for a year is able to carry up to one and a half hundred chocolate-colored eggs. Eggs have a relatively strong shells and are distinguished by excellent taste. It is the large eggs of such chickens that represent the main value.
The color range of plumage of Maran hens is distinguished by a large variety. Very often there are individuals with black, black and copper or silver feathers. The peculiarity of the color is the presence of an iridescent "golden necklace" on the neck. For this reason, such chickens are often referred to as "golden cuckoos". Males are also characterized by bright golden spots on the chest and the predominance of feathers of a red shade on the back. Subspecies with white plumage are less popular, although the coloring does not affect the productivity of the bird.
The peaceful nature of the representatives of the breed Maran allows you to keep them not only indoors, but also in the open range. The most acceptable option: to equip enough free and spacious, and an aviary with the presence of grass. Being outdoors, this bird increases its productivity and begins to rush much better. It is better to choose a place under an open-air cage: maran does not tolerate high humidity, although it is very resistant to most “chicken” diseases.
Arranging the room for keeping chickens of this breed, it is necessary to provide the bird with a good light mode. LED lamps are quite suitable for this. Lighting is absolutely essential for normal growth and development for rams. In winter, the coop should be lit for at least 10 hours. The floor is preferably wooden. There is enough trouble with him, but on such a coating maran feels more comfortable. Per square meter of chicken coop should be no more than five individuals.
Feeding Maran breeds
Efficiency will depend entirely on the proper nutrition of the birds. Competently made ration is a guarantee that Maran will be healthy. The basis of the nutrition of chickens of this breed is grain, preference should be given to wheat grains. A good addition to the diet will be chopped herbs with vitamin supplements. In general, rams do not differ in their demands for food, you can feed them in the same way as other chickens.
Experienced poultry farmers from time to time recommend that calcium, limestone, meat and bone meal and boiled fish be mixed into the hens' food (salmon is especially good). One layer per year can eat up to 40 kg of concentrated feed and 15 kg of greenery. Corn will be a good source of carbohydrates for the marina. A lot of fiber, which improves the condition of feathering, contains oats. Up to a third of the grain can be introduced into the diet of the bird in germinated form.
Do not limit maranov in water. Per day one bird consumes up to 250 ml of this liquid. Take care to keep shell and chalk in the hen house. These substances increase egg production, improve the appearance of the bird, support the bright coloring of feathers.
Chickens maran mix unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Единственным нюансом является контроль уровня влажности в помещении. Из-за плохой переносимости высоких показателей, сарай оборудуют системой нагрева. С ее помощью поддерживают оптимальную температуру воздуха и содержат помещение в сухости. Курятник должен регулярно проветриваться.
Conducting electricity allows you to maintain wakefulness (11 hours), organizing additional lighting. A shed for keeping these birds needs equipping with perches, feeders, drinkers and a tank for bathing chickens in ash and sand (this is how they clean the feathers from parasites).
Chickens breed Maran begin to rush at the age of 5-6 months. For the first time the egg is light. By 12 months, brown testicles appear. Annual output - 140 pieces. Weight 1 unit - 65-85 grams.
Birds are grown to produce meat of exquisite taste. An adult male carcass reaches 4 kg, females up to 3. Chicks of this species show a high survival rate, which makes breeding easy.
Despite good immunity, rams sometimes get sick. Possible conditions of birds requiring immediate treatment:
- Dropsy belly characterized by lethargy and compaction in the abdomen of the hen. Such a condition arises due to a violation of the water-salt metabolism, as a result of which the cardiovascular system, the kidneys and the liver are affected. It is treated with diuretic herbs.
- Ascariasis - worm infestation, arising from non-compliance with sanitary standards in the hen house. It is treated with the help of antihelminthic drugs added to the feed.
- Scabies - a contagious disease that manifests itself in the form of itching. There is a baldness of the bird. Helping treatment with soapy water (after - creolin).
- Fluffy eats - parasites that feed on the feathers of birds. For the prevention of their settlement it is necessary to equip a henhouse with a capacity of ash and sand.
- Curvature of the keel - a condition provoked by a lack of vitamin D. Corrected by vitamin supplements taken orally.
Advantages and disadvantages
Maran birds have a large number of positive qualities:
- Excellent taste of meat.
- Production of delicious eggs.
- The original appearance of the eggshell.
- Chickens are protected from disease-causing parasites.
- Persistent immunity.
- Quick and easy adaptation to new environmental conditions.
- Large eggs with high value.
- Friendly temperament, lack of aggression towards their relatives and people.
Despite the positive qualities, there are some minor drawbacks:
- It is difficult for babies to get out of a thick layer of shells.
- Instability to moisture requires constant monitoring of its rate in the bird house.
The color of the feathers of these chickens varies from white to different shades of black. At the same time, hens with black and white plumage are considered quite popular due to their unusual color. But if we talk about the most frequent representatives of the breed, these include chickens with a black-copper or black-brown color with an admixture of red. At the same time, the chickens differ in these outward signs from roosters: female individuals are usually completely black with golden "beads" on the neck, while roosters on the chest may have golden spots, and brown-red feathers adorn their backs. Plus, males of this breed also have a black tail with a slight blue tint.
Considerably popular among amateur farmers are chickens with a plumage of cuckoo color with an admixture of silver or golden hue. They will surely become an adornment of any poultry house, therefore they are considered to be quite a profitable acquisition for people engaged in growing really interesting and unusual breeds of chickens. Among other remarkable characteristics of this species, it is worth highlighting the following points:
- medium size and body weight - mature hens reach 3 kg in weight, and roosters up to 4 kg,
- orange-red eyes,
- not too long tail
- plumage is dense - feathers are thoroughly adjacent to the body,
- chicken legs with four fingers, as a rule, have a light shade, between them there is a small gap,
- on the outer part of the thigh there is an insignificant plumage density,
- the body is somewhat oblong, with the head rather small,
- large size earrings.
To buy Maran breed chickens is to add some unusual poultry to your collection.
How can you breed a breed like Maran chickens at home? The best way is incubation. To do this, select the largest eggs of a dark color. So, the likelihood that you save the most characteristic features of a species increases. In addition, it is recommended to choose for incubation the eggs of those layers, whose external features most of all meet the key species characteristics.
Perhaps the most serious difficulty in the process of incubating eggs is precisely the fact that their shells are fairly hard. That is, sometimes weakened chickens simply can not perforate it in order to finally get out. In this case, you will need your intervention, otherwise the chickens may die. But on this important points for the care of chicken eggs during incubation does not end there. There are several key requirements:
- At the second stage of incubation, the airing of eggs should be regularly organized. This is necessary because, otherwise, the chickens will suffocate in too thick a shell,
- it is also desirable to occasionally turn the eggs. By virtue of, again, an excessively dense shell, the embryos can dry to the membrane;
- when the process of incubation comes to an end, it is worth daily to spray the eggs from the spray. Humidity should be at least 75%,
- after the first two weeks of incubation, the experts recommend that farmers gradually reduce the temperature (about 0.2 degrees). Such measures will help you prevent future chicks from overheating,
- when the time comes for chickens to emerge, eggs are placed horizontally in the incubator. As soon as you notice that a curse has appeared on one of its parts, it is worth turning the egg so that this zone is on the outside. An alternative option is to break the shell independently in a circle around the place of the bite to help the chick get out.
In any description of the breed indicated that the process of incubation lasts about 3 weeks. But if there is a conscientious layer in your hen house, you will not have to bother with such a painstaking process. When the chicks hatch (if it happened in the incubator), they can be placed in a cardboard box. Be sure to provide good lighting in this "house", because the chickens in any case should not be frozen. Perform thoroughly key recommendations of experts - and you will be proud of your result.
Maran breed of chickens from France
Cross was bred within the walls of the French city of Marans and registered in 1895 as a separate species. The city is located next to dry and wet swamps, which is the reason for the excellent health of the chickens and their ability to survive in adverse conditions.
The presentation of the selection is dated 1914 at the agricultural exhibition La Rochelle, where the bird managed to win the highest awards. In 1921, the name "Maran" was defined for this species, the same name as the city of origin. In 1931, the standard of cross-country was approved and entered into the register of the catalog of SCAF.
If the owner of the farm is thinking about expanding, then, of course, it is determined for himself what kind of living creatures to start additionally. “Maran” is just one of the best meat and egg crosses, which, apart from beauty, is also distinguished by selected fecundity.
Features of appearance
Appearance maranchikov extremely attractive.
- Powerful breast, developed belly,
- The beak is yellow, powerful, slightly curved,
- The body is long, the shoulders are wide and high,
- Wings short tightly pressed to the body,
- Red face, orange-red eyes,
- The comb is simple, spiky with a coarse texture,
- Medium sized head, elongated and slightly flattened,
- The lobes are reds, tender, earrings of the same tone, long,
- Hops and fingers covered with light plumage, tail well developed.
- The strong and long neck is covered with long plumage, forming a "collar",
- Paws are medium sized, pinkish or mostly white, but dark individuals may have gray / dark gray paws.
Maran breed chickens have a good physique and dense, bright plumage, which retains its glamor throughout the season. All this can create an impression. Although the description presents them as quite powerful animals, in reality they are far from overweight and not clumsy.
Options for color plumage:
- The black,
- Black and copper
- Blacktail Buff,
- Golden cuckoo,
- Silver cuckoo,
- Silver-black (birch), etc.
The males of black and copper color look royally spectacular, this is especially visible under the rays of bright sunlight. Blue-black tail feathers cast in green. The carcass is distinguished by a presentable presentation due to its yellowish skin and compact constitution.
The activity and mobility of these proud French birds is combined with their balanced character, which has a positive effect on the adjacent keeping of the farm animals with other animals.
Crosses at the age of about six months begin to rush and reach a peak of effectiveness, according to Eurasian farmers, within 130-150 pieces per year. In egg selections, a mass of 60–65 g is considered a large norm, ornithologists say that “golden chicken eggs” can reach a mass of 85 g, and in the list of achievements of this Frenchwoman, values up to 100 g are recorded!
The first eggs are relatively small, and in fact are in the rules of 55-60 g, differing not intense color. The peculiarity of eggs is that they often have almost standard oval shape. By the way, it will be clarified - the conditions of care and diets have a significant effect on the feathered madam.
Description of curious features
Maran breed of chickens is one of the most attractive feathered pets, the key feature of which are large eggs of remarkable red-brown color. Because of their unique color in common people they were called “Easter”, because the color is very similar to the result of decoction in onion peel.
In France, contests are popular where this product gets an estimate: for the color of the shell, brightness and shape. The intensity of pigmentation is considered an indicator of quality, which is usually measured by a special gradation, where 4-5 points are considered acceptable values.
For incubation and preservation of genetic traits, experts recommend a marker of at least 6-7 points, and the leading representatives of the breed can boast up to 9 points - i.e. The color is very dark, almost black.
This unique product has another unique property - extremely durable shells. The characteristic color is obtained by passing the oviduct and, due to the pigment “shirt”, the shell grows extra thick.
Due to this, the embryo is almost not exposed to Salmonella infection. Everything else, the thickness of the natural cover contributes to the safe transportation and storage of valuable products.
Care for a young livestock
The content of the brood, like other breeds, is cross to the best of endurance and unpretentious. The first days it is required to ensure the temperature of their place of stay at the level of 30º С, not allowing accuracy due to the cold.
The first quarter of their birth for the kids need care, while they are on a walk. Weekly chickens are taken out for a couple of hours on the street, and from two weeks of age they are allowed to be kept in an open-air cage the whole day, bringing home at night. From the month you can chicks are transferred to the barn for good.
The first three days of the baby feeder consists of:
- boiled yolk,
- cottage cheese (around the clock - every two hours).
On the fourth day they begin to feed five to six times a day, feeding:
- crushed millet,
- corn grits.
From the sixth day are introduced:
- grated cockleshell
- finely crushed shell.
From the tenth day you can feed four times a day by adding to the menu:
- grated carrot,
- finely chopped clover.
At first, these ingredients are subjected to heat treatment with boiling water.
- Twice a week to water the youngsters with a sanitary solution of potassium permanganate,
- Add sand or fine gravel - to aid in the digestion of food,
- Giving grated beets. Premature lure in most cases causes digestive problems.
From the age of three months, there is a transition to an adult ration that is uncritically different from the standard one.
Feeding adult livestock
The main menu items are cereal and chopped greens. Like most congeners from adjacent classes, these need calcium and coquette. Birds are not averse to meat-and-bone meal and boiled fish.
Some farmers claim that certain feed ingredients affect the legendary coloring, these ingredients can be vegetables with dark pigmentation:
- Broth onion peel.
At the same time, breeders note that a genetic approach leads to the appearance of an exclusive color of the shell: crossing a marana-rooster with females of related families. But the main value of this set of benefits is good taste.
Advantages over relatives:
- Sustainable immunity
- The quality of eggs and meat is one of the most significant,
- Unpretentiousness to the conditions of life and endurance to adverse weather.
As already noted, the first sock is productive with a relatively small size and color of eggs, but subsequently the color gains brightness, and the size increases. The peak intensity of their color is observed in one-year-old layers, and in general, its duration is about a year, in older mummies it becomes lighter.
Each subsequent year is characterized by a gradual decrease in the productive abilities of the hens, up to the complete cessation of egg-laying, therefore it is advisable to make a scheduled replacement of the herd in a timely manner.
Special nuances in matters of immunity, which would distinguish this cross from others - not found. Clean house, temperature control, a rich diet, enriched with vitamins and minerals - these are the standards of feeding and maintenance that are important to follow.
Reviews about Maranov everywhere extremely positive. The admirers of this bird are still in an unsolvable confrontation before the dilemma: “what came first - the chicken or the egg”.
In their interpretation, this is expressed in the following way: someone considers the color of the shell to be the key sign of a saved gene pool, while others consider the appearance of the parents. But more importantly, everyone recognizes that both factors are of paramount importance.
We want to believe that our article helped bring clarity and brought the reader a little closer to answering an ancient question posed.
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