How many years have dogs lived: life expectancy by breed


The question of how many dogs live cannot be answered unequivocally, because it depends on many factors. Among them, of course, the living conditions of the dog, its pedigree data and genetics, that is, a predisposition to certain diseases.

Let us dwell on each of these points in more detail.

What is the lifespan of dogs?

Unfortunately, the age of the four-legged friend is not comparable with the age of his master. Nature has not rewarded the faithful companions of man with the longevity of parrots and turtles (it’s known that some species of parrots live up to 70, and turtles live up to 200 years).

The absolute, officially registered record of longevity among dogs was recorded. It belongs to Maggie, a representative of the Australian shepherd’s Kelpie breed. She lived happily on a farm in Victoria for 30 years. Another, now still alive, "old woman", also an Australian named Blue, is already more than 29 years old. In terms of human age, this is about 200 years old, no less!

But such numbers are rare. On average, the age of dogs that have reached their advanced years is 12-14 years.

Age comparison

For some reason, it is assumed that 1 year of life of a dog is 7 human. In fact, this is not true - after all, an one year old bitch, unlike a seven-year-old child, can already bring offspring.

How many dogs live on average compared to humans? Dog childhood quickly passes, and adolescence ends when the animal passes the first year and a half. This conclusion was made by an American scientist in the field of cynology B. Foster. According to his research, the gradation of the age of the dog changes over time with the passage of time: thus, the two-year-old dog is 24 years old according to "human" standards, the four-year-old dog is 36 years old, the six-year-old dog is 42, the 7-year-old dog is 49 years old, etc. Ten-year-old dog comparable to an older man of 65 years, and a 13-year-old - with an eighty-year old man. Accordingly, if your four-legged pet has lived for 14-15 years, then it can be safely considered a long-liver.

This is one of the most important factors of how many dogs live at home. A complete diet should cover the needs of your friend's organism, not only in the intake of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but also minerals and vitamins.

At the same time, many dog ​​breeders know that it is harmful to overfeed a dog living at home - this leads to obesity and various diseases associated with this state.

Most diseases can be avoided if properly feed the animal. For example, there is a special line of food for sterilized and castrated dogs - after all, they are less active and more prone to quiet pastime (by the way, there is a well-founded opinion that dogs subjected to sterilization live longer and suffer less). If the owner, for example, constantly feeds her bitch, as she just brought offspring, then, most likely, she faces obesity.

Some breeds are particularly prone to overeating, while many of them are inherently inactive and prefer to sleep over games. Therefore, how many years the domestic dog lives, say, a pug, depends largely on its owner.

With a disease or a predisposition in a pet, a competent dog breeder today in most cases can reduce the risk of its development to a minimum. Special dry food, canned food or organic food, prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the veterinarian, proper care - all this should contribute to the proper development of the body and preserve the well-being of the four-legged friend.

If the dog lives on the street

Lifestyle - and this moment is also important to consider when answering the question: how many dogs live. Some people think that the dog living outside the house is not such a sissy as the apartment: its immunity is stronger, it is less susceptible to diseases and is more adapted to survival. In fact, this is not the case.

Feral dogs, unlike indoor dogs, are deprived of good nutrition, their body is weak, there is often a lack of weight and digestive problems due to poor-quality food - because they are forced to get their own food, rummaging through garbage cans and walking through landfills.

In addition, in the absence of shelter, street dogs are often cold, constantly exposed to danger from outside, and often in contact with sick animals. Finally, aimed only at surviving, they experience constant stress.

How many years have mongrels live?

It is wrong to assume that purebred dogs live longer. All of them are very different on the exterior. Depending on the blood, which predominate in different individuals, they can be both small and large.

There are even statistics, according to which "noblemen" serve longer than their masters. But this only confirms the fact that it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet an absolutely healthy animal among the representatives of noble blood.

As for the fate of living on the street, feral dogs, it rarely develops safely. It is difficult to say for sure how many mongrel dogs live in such conditions - most of them, having picked up some canine disease, do not live to a respectable age.

If your pet is kept at home

For an animal, especially young, living in the house or apartment, physical activities are important. And if you have a house with a plot where the dog can run freely, then this problem is solved. And for those who have a dog living in the apartment, it remains only to regularly walk it, trying to make these walks sufficient for the duration.

Of course, there are several breeds of dogs, walking can be reduced to a minimum. Enough and half an hour a day. They easily adapt to life in a city apartment and from puppyhood they are taught to relieve themselves in diapers or in a tray. Space even in small rooms is enough for them. In addition, it is believed that communication with the owner and games with him properly develop them intellectually and compensate for information hunger.

This is the most decorative miniature rocks. They were bred as domestic companions and for the most part traveled in the hands of their masters. Among them, for example, the so-called "pocket" - Chihuahua, Shih Tzu, Japanese hin, Pomeranian Spitz, Japanese Crested. Apparently, this is why today the popularity of these breeds among city dwellers is so great.

True, the above does not apply to very small, but by nature active dogs - dachshunds and terriers. We must not forget that these are still dogs that were bred for hunting, and in order to develop, they need to move more.

Long walking and more free space for it requires animals, once created for security, hunting, herding or riding work. The need for movement in such dogs was originally laid. For walks, for example, Alaskan Malamute, Collie or German Shepherd, is not enough close to the public garden in the yard.

It is necessary to walk with such a dog for at least two hours, dividing them at least into a couple of exits (with an interval of at least 12 hours between them). Training and training on a special platform will also not be useless.

Finally, it is advisable to learn the history and "program" of the nursery in which the puppy was purchased. Some of them, originally not decorative, are bred precisely for this purpose, as well as companions. Labradors, collie, shepherd. The functions originally embodied in them sometimes did not evolve, and therefore they would be more tolerant of the impossibilities of long walks.

Thus, how many years the dogs live at home depends largely on the conditions of their detention. But there are other factors.

Size matters

Any dog ​​handler will confirm that representatives of large breeds have a shorter lifespan than small ones. Such dogs as shepherd dogs and Labradors will live for 10-13 years. And "kids" such as Yorkshire terriers, dachshunds, French Bichon Frize or Chihuahua can reach up to 20. Among the latter, especially many long-livers.

Boxers, like most representatives of Molossian breeds, do not live very long - 8-10 years. And then, provided that the owner pays attention to the physical form of his pet and regularly walks it. In general, strong and strong in their youth, the Molossians (English bulldog, Great Dane, Irish Wolfhound) live, as a rule, no more than 10 years.

However, there are exceptions to this rule. Dogs of this breed, such as Huskies, often have decent physical characteristics and in 12 years. Surprisingly, some representatives of this breed group can live up to 20-22 years.

Genetics. Large breeds

Most of the purebred dogs as a result of breeding had its own "weak points" - a predisposition to certain diseases and "problem" organs, for which additional monitoring is necessary. Hence the answer to the question: how many years do dogs of the breed live? - Complicated by many "ifs".

Representatives of massive breeds (such as German and Bordeaux dogs, Sennenhund, Rottweiler, Newfoundland, etc.) are prone to malformations of the heart muscle, dysplasia of the hip joints and arthritis, intestinal twists, dermatitis and bloating. In the first place in frequency - problems with the joints. To determine the tendency of the dog to this kind of lesions, it is desirable to take X-rays of large joints before the animals reach the age of one and a half years.

Breeds of medium size

The same goes for medium height dogs, energetic and mobile. We are talking about Labradors and retrievers, Cana Corso, German Shepherd Dogs. They are also characterized by problems with the organs of sight (retinal atrophy and cataracts), obesity. With age, thyroid function disorders are not uncommon.

In Spitz, Poodles, Pinschers, and occasionally even in Shepherd dogs, the nephroses of the duct are found to disintegrate. The disease is determined in a puppy by the presence of noise in the heart. It is treated only by surgery. Unfortunately, without surgery, the forecast becomes unfavorable.

Basset hounds, dachshunds, pugs, French bulldogs and some other dog breeds sometimes suffer from intervertebral disc pathologies. A short-sided - boxers, bulldogs, the same pugs - may experience breathing problems. Many people know that dogs with such structural features of the muzzle are characterized by snoring during sleep or sniffing during active movement, which in itself cannot be a manifestation of the disease. But if breathing is accompanied by a gurgling throat - the owner of the animal has a reason to be wary.

Dwarf rocks

Very small dogs (Chihuahua, Toy Terrier, Pekingese, Italian Greyhound and others) often have problems with changing their milk teeth at an early age, which by the age of 7 months leads to the formation of an abnormal bite and the development of narrow jaws. As a result, digestive problems are possible.

The desire of breeders to bring as small as possible puppies, picking up producers that did not develop properly, leads to the development of bone development anomalies in the offspring - a thin and fragile skeleton will make any jumps exceeding the height of the dog traumatic.

Hydrocephalus can also be attributed to complex neurological problems - an increase in the volume of the head compared to the rest of the body.

A chihuahua often has such a painful condition as an unhealed spring. This defect can make even a minor head injury fatal.

Finally, there is atrophy of the internal organs, leading to renal failure and cardiovascular failure. It happens that babies suffer from underdevelopment of the muscular system, especially in the area of ​​the peritoneum - and this is fraught with the appearance of umbilical hernias.


Do not think, of course, that any puppy will necessarily be a carrier of susceptibility to any disease. Not necessarily. Competent breeders value their reputation and understand that the task of identifying any genetic abnormalities lies on their shoulders. Veterinary tests, a survey of manufacturers and a ban on closely related relationships are required, not to mention the mandatory use of trustworthy feeds and proper maintenance. Only in this case failures will be minimized.

But the owners themselves should not forget that it depends on them how many years their dogs live at home. Competent care, preventive examinations at the vet and vaccinations according to the plan, high-quality food, sufficient walking and stressless atmosphere in the house (yes, this is also important) - and your pet will delight you with a dedicated friendship and excellent well-being for many years.

Above, we talked about how many years dogs have lived.

Dog lifespan

Statistics - the science of dry, inexorable, generalizing exceptions and reducing the indicators to the general arithmetic. The definition of how many years on average dogs live will be the total number of summarized information, reduced to a common denominator. However, The main internal and external factors affecting the duration of a dog's life, are genetics and conditions of pets.

Before us is a table in which faceless numbers represent the average length of life of each individual breed.

Table 1. The lifetime of rocks

But, like all living things, this question is purely individual. The life of the Maltese bichon - the universally recognized long-liver among all the breeds existing in the world, can break off much earlier than the Irish wolfhound, and the Tibetan mastiff can outlast the German Shepherd Dog.

There are many factors responsible for the life expectancy of a particular breed, where the “first violin” is played by heredity, and the immunity and defenses of a dog's body echo it.

Who lives longer: purebred dogs or mongrels

It is possible to talk a lot about the life span of breed representatives of canids, to appeal with scientific and pseudoscientific arguments, to cite a lot of examples, but it is impossible to deceive nature. The most common mistake of many breeders, to say the least, is considered to be an individual, not withdrawn from breeding, with a disease behind it. But hiding the true state of health, albeit a very beautiful dog, can be regarded as a crime. Even otitis that has passed into the chronicle is transmitted to descendants, so what about more serious diseases?

Perhaps there is some truth in the statement that the life expectancy of a simple mongrel is longer than that of a purebred dog. There is no definitive answer to the question of how many mongrel dogs live. On average, the length of canine life is 15 years. Outbred yard terriers born under extreme conditions, no doubt, have stronger immunity compared with the representatives of the breeds, especially the old lines - bulldogs, Saint Bernards, Newfoundlands or Irish Wolfhounds.

Yes, all the breeds listed are dog giants. But even among the mongrels there are a lot of large individuals living, nevertheless, much longer than pedigreed dogs. Lack of care, timely vaccinations do their job - there is a natural selection, where the strongest survive.

Recalculation on human age

Aksakals of the dog world are representatives of small breeds of dogs.. Having rapidly reached sexual maturity by the age of one, small dogs develop extremely slowly in the future.

Table 2. The ratio of the age of small breeds of dogs relative to the age of a person

Medium breeds have a slightly different chronology relative to the human age.

Table 3. The ratio of the age of the average dog breeds relative to the person's age

What can we say about the giants? Grow rapidly and grow slowly.

Table 3. The ratio of the age of large and giant breeds of dogs relative to human age

But studies of the question of how many years mongrel dogs have lived, unfortunately, have not been conducted in our country.

What affects the lifespan of a dog?

A genetically healthy pedigree or outbred individual may exist somewhat longer than its allotted time spent in this world.. It is necessary to distinguish between concepts - a stray dog ​​and a dog living in an open-air cage on the street, but with the owner. So for how many years do dogs at home live longer than their fellows, leading a semi-wild way of life? How seriously should be taken to the education of the dog, so as not to lose it ahead of time? How to feed a mongrel creature? On our resource you can find answers to many questions that seriously concern dog owners.

Seven major factors that seriously affect the life expectancy of a pet:

  1. Breed size Large dogs live almost two times less than representatives of small breeds.
  2. The conditions in which the dog lives. Deprived of elementary care, stray dogs practically do not live to old age. Taken into the house, the courtyard terriers are able to outlast their homeless relatives significantly, even with minimal care and regular meals.
  3. Излишняя «любовь» владельца, заключающаяся в перекармливании питомца. Ожирение, как правило, приводит к необратимым изменениям внутренних органов и значительно укорачивает жизнь собаки.
  4. И вновь о питании собаки. Нарушение пищевого баланса, отсутствие или дефицит витаминов, минеральных добавок и питательных веществ также приводит к физиологическим нарушениям, сокращающим продолжительность жизни питомца.
  5. Stress and psychological tension. Like children, dogs are simply contraindicated for dysfunctional families. Constantly being in a stressful situation leads to nervous disorders and heart disease, and the dogs leave at a fairly young age.
  6. Lack of attention as detrimental to the pet, as well as lack of care. Even probably stronger.
  7. Every owner knows about the shortcomings of education. Disobedience on the part of the animal on the road eventually leads to tragic consequences. The absence or lack of socialization - to fights with their own kind, and often fatal, if the enemy was bigger or stronger.

Cynologists have shown that for breeds that prefer soft sofas and warmth of radiators, lying on pillows next to the owner, consuming “human” food from the table, the eyelids will be much shorter than those who fulfill their purpose: live on captive content, moving so much as much as he needs, and spends the accumulated energy on his “dog's work”. Such dogs even measure body temperature solely as a preventive measure.

Video overview of the lifespan of rocks

Informational video about the life expectancy of dogs of different breeds. Recently, the question of how long small dogs live, and how many - giants, is highly relevant. Basically, it is on these data that the choice of pet breed depends, and not on the attachment to certain breed criteria for dogs. But I wanted it to be the opposite ...

How many dogs live on average at home?

If you look at the average numbers, the dogs live at home for 12 years. It is at this age, most pets leave our world. But often there are those who live to be 15 years old.

Individuals who have lived for more than 20 years are considered long-lived. A world record for life expectancy set by one Australian dog, who lived 29 years.

Moreover, in the wild, this period is much lower. Rarely what a stray dog ​​can reach up to 10 years. After all, every day she has to fight for food and territory.

Although, seriously prolong life in the conditions of the house your pet is not possible. But here it is quite possible to win a couple of years. The main thing is good care and balanced nutrition of your barking friend.

Why do dogs live so little?

Compared to humans, dogs have an extremely high metabolic rate. All processes in their body occur faster. As a result, one dog day is 7 days of our life. Just imagine, puppies of most breeds by the age of 6 months are able to independently feed themselves and mate!

There is a table that shows the ratio of human and canine age. And here are some data from it:

  • 1.5 years (dog) - 20 years (people),
  • 2 years (dog) - 24 years old person (people),
  • 5 years - 36 years,
  • 10 years - 56 years,
  • 12 years old - 65 years old
  • 15 years - 76 years.

Thus, living a dog for 20 years is the same as living a person for 100 years. In this case, the dog "pension" comes in 10 years. From now on, the pet's health must be given great attention. Indeed, from this age, many dangerous diseases begin to haunt him.

How many years have mongrels and purebred dogs live?

This table shows how approximately the most common domestic dog breeds live:

Many people believe that poochs live more than purebred dogs. And this is partly true. Indeed, in the natural environment, yard dogs receive powerful immunity. Also, they are unpretentious in food and care.

But purebred and purebred dogs are also able to live long. All dogs that are the right size and average weight may well live to be 15 years old.

But various exotic mixtures of rocks do not live too much. In particular, dogs with a long spine, an irregular snout or an excessively large weight have a short lifespan. Man seriously intervened in their evolution, which was the reason for such a factor.

Extend the dog's life

With the right approach, you can slightly extend and improve the life of a pet. A dog will live longer if:

  1. Use as food dog food,
  2. Conditions of maintenance are normal, a good shed or a house,
  3. The dog is annually shown to the vet,
  4. You treat your pet like a family member.

In addition, it is necessary to educate a dog so that it is not stupid and irresponsible. Otherwise, she could get under the car or somewhere else.

Like people, heredity and fate influence the four-legged ones. There is no exact age for dogs. Do not delve into this question. Just live a normal life, and your pet will be happy with you.

How many dogs live and what does it depend on

The life expectancy of dogs is affected by: conditions that contain a four-legged friend, genetics, a breed. We will tell you in detail how many years the dogs live at home and on the street, what is the life expectancy of the mutts. Also, see if the owner can affect the life of his little friend.

Most often, 1 year of a dog's life corresponds with seven human years. This is a mistake. At different periods of life, this indicator has its own coefficient. 2 months of a dog's life correspond to 14 human months. But 6 months is already 5 years. 8 months - 9 years, etc. One year old dog corresponds to the human age of 14 years. So proposes to calculate the age of the dog American scientist B. Foster. According to his calculations, a 5-year-old animal corresponds to a 40-year-old person.

This is taken into account when caring for a four-legged friend, training. It is better to raise a pet until the moment when it turns 3-5 years old. From this age he enters into maturity. He has a character, habits, relationships with the owner. At this age comes the peak of vigor and intellectual abilities. It is better to develop a pet for the first two years. Remember that in the year he begins the transition period.

Old age will come when the pet is 8-9 years old. This is important to consider. Pet is already difficult to be too active, because the daily routine and time of walks need to be adjusted in advance. For a dog in advanced age, it is better to lie on a warm mat for longer. It is already difficult for her to execute commands, to play.

Well, those who celebrated 14-15 years old can be safely considered long-livers. They require respect, care and extremely careful care.

Lifetime is directly affected by:

  • The size. Large breeds of dogs live on average 10-12 years. Representatives of small breeds can please the owners of 14-15 years. Why representatives of large breeds are given a shorter life expectancy? This is directly related to their size. A large body mass leads to the fact that organs and systems are overloaded. This provokes the fact that the organs wear out quickly.
  • Genetic predisposition to diseases. Pedigree dogs are inferior in endurance mongrel kin. Each breed has a weak spot. The task of nurseries is to breed healthy pedigree puppies. This provides a competent selection. But problems still remain. For example, in the Pekingese, the respiratory organs and the cardiovascular system suffer, in the dachshund, the spine and joints, the dystrophy is diagnosed with heart defects, dysplasia of the joints, arthritis. If you intend to acquire a thoroughbred pet, be sure to consider the shortcomings of the breed and the propensity for disease. Knowing this, you can adjust your pet care in such a way as to minimize the risk of developing these diseases.
  • Nutrition. Do not rely on animal feed manufacturers. Remember that nutrition must be balanced. That's what you can not save. Dry foods are easy to use, but they do not saturate the body with essential vitamins and trace elements. If you even choose dry food, then let it be a premium class. But it is better to prepare food for your pet yourself. We hurry to warn that scraps from the table are not suitable here. Cooking needs to be tailored to the age and needs of the animal. Be sure to keep an eye on what portion of the volume you offer. Do not allow obesity pet! It can provoke diabetes, diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver, hypertension.
  • Lifestyle. Provide the animal with the necessary activity. It is a pity for dogs of large breeds that are kept in apartment conditions. They lack active walks in the fresh air. Most often, they derive just to relieve the need. But with such animals you need to purposefully engage, train. Help your pet realize the potential of the breed. They need to provide daily training of the body and mind, classes in the air. If this is not possible, it is better to stop the choice on the representative of the decorative breed. It is curious that those dogs that experience serious physical exertion every day live longer than their fellows of the same breed. Long-livers are shepherd dogs or service dogs. The secret of longevity is not only in good training. Every day, in addition to the physical, they are experiencing intellectual stress. A trained mind is the path to longevity.

  • Proper treatment and prevention. A good host in advance to take care of the health of your pet. Do not wait for the sad moment when the disease is gaining momentum. If you have a purebred dog, consider the weak points of the breed, influence them. If he is ill, proceed to treatment immediately, so that the disease does not become chronic.
  • Stress. This is an important factor that affects longevity. Stressful situation provokes a surge of adrenaline. This hormone seriously disrupts the body. Extremely adverse effect on the body a constant release. Noticed that dogs do not tolerate loneliness. Constantly talk to your pet, do not leave him alone for a long time. Let him feel needed and loved. Try to constantly protect him from stress, create reasons for positive emotions. Five minutes of the game with your favorite will raise his spirits for the day.
  • Pregnancy. If a dog gives birth too often, its body quickly wears out. Remember that after pregnancy for a full recovery of the body will take at least six months. Frequent adjustment of the hormonal system weakens the health of the animal. It is not surprising that after a long rearing the female even falls out of the coat.
  • Breed popularity This is a negative factor. Puppies of popular breeds are bred too often. The quality of livestock suffers from this, it becomes weak. Therefore, frequent mating should be avoided.

Does lifespan depend on breed

A breed can affect how much a dog lives on average. Canine know that there are average life expectancy of dogs of different breeds. It is noticed that representatives of large breeds live a little less than dogs of small sizes. Immediately clarify that all numbers are relative. This is an average figure.

Pedigree dogs and mongrels: who has more chances of longevity

In the people it is believed that mongrels are more adapted and therefore live longer. They supposedly do not have weak points, as in purebred dogs. It is believed that their immunity is more stable. Among the street animals survives the strongest.

However, veterinarians do not notice much difference. They argue that the mutts on average live as much as pedigree. In addition, the mongrels suffer from extremely unfavorable living conditions. They do not have a balanced diet, they often freeze and experience chronic stress. They do not receive veterinary care. There is no house, they are constantly in danger.

And what about those mongrels who were lucky enough to find a master and live in a house? How long do mongrel dogs live? On average, they live as much as pedigree. Mongrel, in fact, is a mixture of different breeds, half-breed. From each of the breeds, their bodies took something. These are not necessarily advantages. Mongols in the same way may suffer from the shortcomings of a certain breed. The only difference is that they have mixed several rocks at once, that is, several weak points at once.

The life span of mongrels also depends on their size. On average = it's 14 years old. Large individuals live less.

Parade of long-livers

We offer you a brief overview of those breeds whose representatives live as long as possible.

These are funny and charming pets. Despite problems with the spine, they live 13-14 years. They are truly attached to their master. Do not forget that these friends are very fond of hunting.

Yorkshire Terrier

Now they are at the peak of popularity. These crumbs can live to 15-16 years. It is curious that their ancestors were used to hunt rats.

If you want to get a resilient cheerful friend, buy just. They live 13-14 years. The main thing - do not overfeed.

Boston terrier

This cute creature with big eyes lives on average about 14 years. Differs fervent playful character. The weak point is the eyes. They are often trash, solid particles. They can be damaged by the blinding sun or gusting wind.

These cute crumbs with huge eyes have become very popular. The lifespan of pugs is 14-15 years. The minus of the breed is poor tolerance to heat and a tendency to overweight.

This is the tiniest breed. She is very ancient. Such crumbs pleased the Incans, Aztecs, and Mayans with their cheerful disposition. Amazingly, they can live up to 18 years.

Very popular dogs. Belong to quite large. Can live up to 12 years. The weak point is the hip joints. With age their work is disturbed.

This dog was originally used by farmers to look after sheep. The sheltie is small, hardy, eats little. She can live for about 13-14 years. A weak spot is renal failure, which develops due to bad teeth. Therefore it is necessary to ensure the proper care of teeth. It is enough to regularly give the dog to gnaw something hard.

Miniature schnauzer

Schnauzers are distinguished by endurance and stamina. They live 12-14 years. This is a great companion and lover of children. This breed has a weak spot - a tendency to pancreatitis.

These crumbs live 12-14 years. Their homeland is Ancient China. These pets even lived in the ruling dynasty. But in the west they became known only in the 20th century. In order not to develop skin diseases, you need to carefully care for their hair.

This breed is very ancient. Mention of it can be found in Greek, Roman and Egyptian cultures. Bichon Maltese will delight the host 13-14 years.

As you can see, the owner can affect how much the dog lives at home. Decisive will be food, care, daily routine, lack of stress, medical care. It is important to consider the weaknesses of the breed. It is necessary to treat your pet carefully, but at the same time it is not necessary to limit its activity.

Consider these recommendations, and your pet will be near you for many years.