Hip dysplasia in dogs, signs of which are not always noticed by novice dog breeders, is one of the most severe and, unfortunately, common ailments of the locomotor system of our four-legged pets. As the disease progresses, the hip joints of the animal undergo degenerative changes. This causes severe pain and movement problems.
If the disease is not treated, it will cause irreversible changes and the dog will lose mobility of the hind limbs. Extreme pain causes the suffering of animals. Often, people who previously had no pets are interested in: "How long do dogs live with hip dysplasia?" With early diagnosis, timely and competent treatment and the implementation of all the appointments and recommendations of the veterinarian, most animals with this disease lead an active and fulfilling life for many years.
What is dysplasia?
This is the deformation of the so-called acetabulum. A rather large gap is formed between the articular cavity and the head of the bone, which, when moving, incorrectly abuts the joint and rubs against it. Bone tissues are stratified, their structure changes, they become brittle. The disease leads to partial, and often complete destruction of the cartilage tissue and joints, loss of motor functions.
Veterinarians distinguish between different degrees of hip dysplasia in dogs, according to the FCI classification:
- 1 (A) - norm: symptoms and disease as such are absent,
- 2 (B) - borderline state,
- 3 (C)) - a mild form of the disease, when the animal has dislocations,
- 4 (D) is a moderate form,
- 5 (E) - severe: serious, sometimes irreversible disruption of the joints.
Having found symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs, treatment should begin immediately. With timely treatment of the disease in the early stages, it is possible to alleviate the suffering of your friend, to slow down the degenerative processes.
Veterinarians have noted that in recent years the number of affected dogs has increased significantly. Most often animals of giant and large breeds are subject to it. In small animals, this disease is extremely rare.
Causes of disease
Unfortunately, today it is very difficult to name the exact reasons for the development of this disease. However, veterinarians are increasingly inclined to believe that dysplasia of the hip joints in dogs (the photo we have posted in this article) refers to genetic diseases. But its course can be affected by such factors as nutrition, mode, exercise, habitat of the animal. Particular attention should be paid to their pets breeders of large breeds:
- St. Bernards.
- Chow Chow.
The peculiarity of the disease lies in the fact that the symptoms of hip dysplasia in a dog usually appear a year and a half after the puppy is born.
It is rarely possible to diagnose it in six month old babies. Today, the main reasons that can cause the development of DTBS, veterinarians include:
- Heredity: often in breeding dogs are used that are not tested for the presence of this disease, which leads to the manifestation of the disease in the offspring.
- The rapid growth of articular and bone tissue in the first six months of puppy life.
- Overfeeding and unbalanced diet, which is manifested by a deficiency of phosphorus and calcium excess protein. As a result, overweight will aggravate the course of the disease.
- Excessive exercise. We must not forget that puppies under the age of eighteen months (during the period of growth) are contraindicated large physical exertion. First of all it refers to dogs of large breeds.
- Lack of movement: young dogs and puppies must move a lot for proper development of bone and muscle tissue.
- Injuries: Often sprains or injuries of the joint can cause the development of the disease.
Symptoms of the disease
Treatment of hip dysplasia in dogs should be started immediately, after identifying at least one of the symptoms listed below. In the dog's body, hip joints are among the most vulnerable. While running and jumping, they are subjected to heavy load and shock absorption.
A healthy animal does not experience discomfort even during grueling and long training sessions and serious physical exertion. An animal with an initial stage of dysplasia, the symptoms of which the inattentive host may not immediately notice, suffers from every movement that causes pressure on the affected joint and acute pain.
How to determine hip dysplasia in dogs? It should be noted that to determine this ailment on the eyes in the initial stages of the layman is almost impossible. But veterinarians recommend that owners pay attention to a number of characteristic symptoms:
- the animal's gait changes: the dog shakes his torso, limps, his paws bend,
- the pet does not withstand the usual physical activities:
- the animal rests for a long time after running, jumping,
- “Rabbit” run: while running, the animal is repelled by two hind legs,
- movements are obstructed: the dog hardly gets up, lies down, climbs the stairs,
- while resting or sleeping on your stomach, your pet may take unnatural postures: it turns its paws strongly in different directions - frog pose,
- in puppies, if they manage to diagnose the disease, one can observe body asymmetry: powerful front paws, developed chest and weak hind paws,
- pressing the joint area causes pain in the dog, it shows anxiety, it may whine.
These are the main symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs. A treatment started in a timely manner will prevent its serious consequences.
Diagnostics and Testing
An attentive owner will surely notice a change in the behavior of his pet, but only a veterinarian will be able to determine what is happening to the dog, and can assign treatment. An experienced specialist will first examine the animal, will try to identify the problem areas by touch. Bending and straightening the joints, listen to whether there is creaking, clicks and sounds of friction. Already on these grounds, he will be able to identify pathology.
The next stage of the examination will be an x-ray, which confirms the diagnosis and reveals the degree of deformation of the articular and bone tissues. In this procedure, complete immobility is necessary, but it is almost impossible to force the dog to lie down in a certain position, without moving at all. Therefore, sleeping pills are administered to the animal.
Experts believe that arthroscopy is the most informative diagnostic method. A puncture is made in the abdominal cavity, into which a microcamera is inserted, penetrating into the center of the problem zone. It shows, up to a millimeter, the structure and condition of the cartilage tissue. Such a procedure can accurately determine the degree of joint damage, the stage of dysplasia. The operation is performed in modern clinics with the latest equipment and only under general anesthesia.
How to treat hip dysplasia in a dog?
Veterinarians claim that the advanced, the last stages of dysplasia are extremely difficult to cure. However, this does not mean that your pet is doomed and the disease should be allowed to drift. Without treatment, it develops into an even more formidable disease, osteoarthritis. It is characterized by the breakdown of cartilage tissue and joint degeneration. The dog completely loses mobility.
To prevent this, veterinarians use treatment that focuses on inhibiting the disease, stopping and slowing down pathological processes.
How is the treatment carried out?
Having identified the symptoms of dysplasia, the treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian based on the results of various types of studies. The choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease, the general health of the animal, its age.
To restore the cartilage tissue, veterinarians prescribe drugs that stop the pathological changes in the joints - chondroprotectors ("Stride", "Bonharen"). The latter drug helps to strengthen the articular cartilage and reduce pain. It is important that these tools have virtually no side effects. However, the effect of such a drug gives a very short-term positive effect and only in the initial stages of the disease.
They are injected intramuscularly or directly into the joint. Drug treatment of hip dysplasia in dogs may include intravenous use of chondroprotectors. Injections into the joint are most effective, but only a specialist can do them.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are used only those that are intended for the treatment of animals. Of the painkillers, Deramax, Rimadil, and Ketoprofen have proven themselves well. Treatment of hip joints dysplasia in dogs is impossible without the use of food additives "Glucosamine", "Chondroitin". They can be given to the dog constantly, to prevent the destruction of tissues. When treating hip joints dysplasia in dogs, only a doctor prescribes medication, since the dosage and their combination depend on the extent of the disease, the general condition of the dog, and the presence of chronic diseases, which the specialist takes into account.
Use in the treatment of homeopathic medicines is rather supporting, prophylactic procedures. These drugs can not stop the pathological lesion of bones and joints. And despite this, trust the veterinarian selection of these funds, of course, if he deems their use appropriate. Independent use of even herbal preparations can lead to disastrous results.
In veterinary medicine, the drug “Discus Compositum” is often used for dogs under the age of nine months. It is given to puppies from the first weeks of life twice a week. Good reviews receive homeopathic medicine "Hondratron", which is made on the basis of comfrey, rhododendron, bee venom, Sabelnik and other natural ingredients.
Often, treatment of dysplasia is supplemented with antibiotics - “Cefalosporin”, “Lincomycin” or “Chloramphenicol”.
Conservative therapy must necessarily be supplemented by physiotherapy.
Often, in veterinary clinics, dogs are prescribed laser therapy and electromagnetic radiation. The action of these procedures is aimed at warming the joints. However, this treatment does not always bring the desired result. The fact is that there are a number of contraindications when the effects of a magnet and a laser can be harmful.
Treatment should be carried out only under the supervision of a veterinarian, who will write out the schedule of sessions, as well as appoint their duration.
These methods can not cure the last stage of hip dysplasia in dogs. The operation in this case is vital. Such treatment is not cheap, but most effective. In most cases, it is thanks to the intervention of the surgeons that the dog begins to walk normally. Today, veterinarians can offer three types of operations: arthroplasty, triple osteotomy and endoprosthetics. Let us explain what their essence is.
In this case, the head and neck of the thigh are removed (fully or partially). Such an operation is recommended at the 4th or 5th stage of the disease, when the processes become irreversible, the pathology of the joints enters the next phase - osteoarthritis.
During this operation, replace the prosthetic joint. We will not conceal that this is a complicated procedure both in the technique of execution and in the rehabilitation of the animal’s organism. There is a risk of rejection of the prosthesis. But in the overwhelming number of cases, arthroplasty shows excellent results. Animals return to active life, jump, run, do not experience pain during physical exertion.
Basics of good nutrition
- Boil broths for your pet. Liquid food quickly saturates, stimulates secretion, is easily digested.
- From the first days of life, you should add feeds with “Chondroitin” and “Glucosamine” to the development of a puppy to prevent the development of dysplasia.
- Choose balanced foods, enriched with essential minerals, vitamins, probiotics.
- Pick up ready-made mixtures by weight and age of the dog.
Prevention of hip dysplasia in dogs
The disease can develop at the gene level, and due to improper lifestyle and nutrition. Below we will present you the main preventive measures that will avoid the development of this serious disease:
- Carefully observe the puppy's behavior, especially in the first six months of his life, when his skeleton forms, his joints and bones grow. In large dogs, these processes often occur very intensively.
- In order to prevent, regularly visit the veterinary clinic, examine the pet's organism, monitor its development.
- Do not abuse the protein in the diet of the animal. Components must be balanced. Fats and proteins, fiber and carbohydrates, vitamins and probiotics, minerals, phosphorus and calcium should be included in your pet's daily diet.
- Obesity is one of the main provoking factors. Excess weight greatly increases the pressure on the joints. Up to one and a half years, do not allow excessive physical exertion and grueling workouts. Full evening and morning walks strengthen muscles and saturate the body with oxygen.
Let's sum up
So, how to overcome this formidable and insidious disease? It is necessary to know about its existence and to be morally ready for its appearance. According to veterinarians, dysplasia often occurs in perfectly healthy animals, which did not manifest any developmental pathologies during the first six months of life. The sooner the dog is diagnosed, the higher the likelihood of healing.
Features and causes of the disease
Hip dysplasia was first bred in dogs and described in the United States 60 years ago, although this disease was diagnosed and treated in humans for a long time. Subsequently, the Swedish veterinarians have shown that the disease is caused by hereditary factors and is most often found in large dogs. Although the size of the animal is not a determining factor in the development of the disease, since even small breeds, for example, Chow Chow, also suffer from hip dysplasia (DTS).
Observations of veterinarians have shown that puppies are born with normally developed joints, which then undergo the disease under the influence of hereditary predisposition. At the same time, in large breeds, the disease progresses at high speed, since they are rapidly gaining body weight, which is a load for weak joints. The disease is especially dangerous for short-legged breeds.
Most common hip dysplasia (DTS) affects German Shepherd Dogs, Newfoundlands, St. Bernards, Rottweilers, dogs, boxers and English Bulldogs. Greyhounds are free from disease. In 89% of cases, dysplasia affects two hip joints at once, 3.3% occur in unilateral lesion of the left joint, 7.7% of the right joint.
Hip dysplasia (HID) is a defect in the development of a joint in the region of the articular cavity. At first, the disease was called the subluxation of the articular head, since with it the gap between the head of the bone and the articular cavity increases. The bone is loose against the joint, as a result of which friction and wear of the head occur. The joint begins to deform, flatten.
At present, all deviations from the normal formation of the hip joint in dogs are brought under the concept of dysplasia.
Shepherd's hip dysplasia
Severe symptoms of the disease appear in 1-1.5 years, after the end of the intensive growth of the dog. But genetic predisposition cannot become a 100% impetus for the development of the disease. Doctors found that the development of the disease is influenced by a combination of hereditary predisposition and the influence of environmental factors.
Important. It is desirable to exclude the presence of a predisposition to dysplasia already at the stage of acquiring a puppy. Before buying you need to examine the documents of the parents. However, it should be remembered that even two puppies from the same litter, which have a predisposition to the disease, having fallen into different living conditions, may have a different development of the disease.
There are causes that trigger the disease and contribute to its development:
- Unbalanced nutrition. Excessive amount of meat in the absence of vegetables, cereals and fruits in the diet rather quickly leads to pain in the joints.
- The excess in the body of phosphorus and calcium. Their excess in food adversely affects the development of bone tissue.
- Obesity. Excess weight leads to increased stress on the joints and their deformation increases.
- Heavy physical exertion.
- Injuries to the limbs.
Features of the disease
Дисплазия – неизлечимое заболевание, которое может привести к частичному или полному разрушению суставов у собаки. The problem is a significant increase in the gap between the head and the cavity of the articular articulation, as a result of which the density of the bones is reduced. Constant friction and excessive pressure leads to the destruction of bone tissue, delamination or flattening of the joints.
Since the hip joints are subjected to the greatest load when dogs move, most often dysplasia affects them. Much less common damage to the elbow joints, and in rare cases - the knee.
There are 5 degrees of development of dysplasia in dogs:
- A - is the norm
- B and C - there are some disorders in which sprains can occur,
- D and E - severe joint damage occurs.
The appearance of the disease is possible if the puppy has a genetic predisposition. In Russia, the risk group includes representatives of all large breeds, since dogs with dysplasia began to be derived from breeding relatively recently. The most unpleasant thing is that if there is a predisposition, dysplasia can develop, even if the puppy is properly fed and subjected to normal loads.
Onset of the disease in the presence of a genetic propensity can trigger many different factors, the most common of which are:
- Malnutrition: an unbalanced diet (the predominance of meat or its complete absence, poor-quality dry food), the introduction of large amounts of calcium and phosphorus supplements, constant overeating and the resulting obesity.
- Disorders of motor activity: excessive exercise, inactivity, injuries, bruises, and other injuries of the extremities.
The risk of dysplasia is highest in dogs with a large body weight, which is much higher than the norm, which at the same time undergo enhanced training.
Signs of dysplasia in dogs
Recognize the pathological processes in the joints by X-ray can be already in semi-puppies. But to notice any external violations during this period is almost impossible. Only with close attention are the primary symptoms of dysplasia in dogs visible:
- slight lameness that appears at the beginning of a run or after exercise,
- stiffness on waking, the desire to "warm up" or "diverge" after a long lying,
- failure to take the stairs in either or one of the directions
- recurring desire to rest while walking.
It is extremely important to notice the disease and start treatment as soon as possible. If there is at least one of the symptoms, you should immediately contact a veterinarian, since with age, pathology will be much more difficult to cure. Moreover, the visible symptoms of dysplasia in dogs usually appear only by 1–1.5 years, when the musculoskeletal system is fully formed. In this case, injuries to different joints have several distinctive features.
Negative processes in the hip joint cause a violation of the physiological position of the femoral head relative to the articular cavity. Characteristic features of the dog's behavior in such injuries are constant support on the forelimbs, unwillingness to go up the stairs, lowered croup, wagging backwards when walking.
The appearance of signs of the disease is determined by the severity of such violations:
- with a slight discrepancy, the symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs usually do not appear at all or only appear in old age,
- with a significant discrepancy between these parts of the joint, the signs of the disease will quickly become visible even if the correct conditions of the puppy are provided.
Dysplasia of the elbow joint
If the disease affects the elbow joints, other symptoms are observed:
- limping on the front limbs,
- failure to give a paw on command,
- appearance of thickening or additional fragments on the elbow joints,
- pulling out of the paw at the feeling of a tumor,
- unwillingness to go down the stairs.
Some signs of this type of dysplasia depend on the particular pathology, since the bones of the joint may flatten, creating increased friction, or, conversely, decrease, forming an excessive gap.
Changes in the knee joint in dogs are infrequent and are usually caused by injury or excess load on the hind limbs. In such cases, the position of the articular bones by type of subluxation changes. This can be determined by the following features:
- the appearance of a visible deformity of the knee joints,
- painful sensations when feeling these places,
- noticeable limp on hind legs.
To prevent this from happening, a large breed puppy must be provided with the right conditions of detention, excluding the possibility of injury.
During the initial inspection of the dog for the presence of dysplasia, the veterinarian conducts several manipulations:
- evaluates the correctness of general movements,
- palpating the joint to detect deformity
- performs flexion-extension of the extremities to determine how the joint moves, as well as to see the reaction of the animal.
Then an x-ray examination is appointed. When doing this, the dog must be under general anesthesia, which allows determining the location of the articular bones without muscle support. If the x-ray does not give a complete picture of the damage, arthroscopy is performed - the introduction of a microscopic chamber through the puncture of tissues. Such an examination is as informative as possible, but expensive and is not performed in all clinics.
Treatment of dysplasia in dogs
Dysplasia in dogs is treated with drugs or surgically. The choice of treatment depends on the characteristics of the course of the disease, the individual characteristics of the organism and the state of health of the animal. In most cases, the treatment of elbow dysplasia in dogs can be performed using both conservative methods and surgical intervention. Pathology of the hip joints are usually removed only surgically.
In dogs with dysplasia, treatment with medication includes prescribing drugs for several groups with different effects:
- chondroprotective - for joint regeneration,
- antispasmodic - to reduce pain,
- anti-inflammatory - to relieve inflammation of surrounding tissues.
Dietary supplements with glucosamine and chondroitin are also used to speed up the regenerative processes in the joints. Along with taking medicines and dietary supplements, an animal is prescribed a special diet for weight loss with the simultaneous use of vitamin-mineral complexes.
Good effect gives additional carrying out physiotherapeutic procedures. The most popular are:
- paraffin or ozocerite,
- magnetic and laser therapy,
- massage of the damaged joint.
During the treatment period for the dog, physical activity is not excluded, but it should be moderate - swimming, light jogging, walking.
It should be borne in mind that conservative treatment of hip dysplasia in dogs gives only a temporary improvement - pain syndrome is eliminated and lameness is eliminated, but the destroyed articular joints are not restored. Therefore, experts recommend immediately carry out operational correction.
Surgical treatment of dysplasia in dogs is aimed at changing the shape of the femoral head so that it fits the parameters of the articular cavity. The complexity of the operation depends on the degree of the disease. For minor violations, the procedure can only consist in removing a small piece of cartilage. In more severe cases, the following operations are performed:
- Endoprosthetics - complete replacement of the hip joint with a titanium prosthesis. After the rehabilitation period, the dog will move normally without any discomfort.
- Osteotomy - changing the location of the articular recess and giving the joint the correct physiological shape. The operation can be carried out only in the absence of burdening dysplasia with arthritis.
- Removal of the neck and femoral head - the technique does not provide for the implantation of any implants, but is associated with a very long recovery period. But after recovery, the dog will have no signs of illness, it will be able to run and jump without restrictions.
The decision on the method of surgical treatment is made by the doctor on the basis of the diagnosis and the condition of the animal. Any operation for dysplasia is a very delicate work that only a surgeon with extensive experience and deep knowledge of anatomy can perform qualitatively. Therefore, it is extremely important to find just such a specialist.
The essence of preventive measures to prevent dysplasia in dogs depends on at what stage they are required. It is necessary to think about the absence of the disease in a puppy even before its acquisition. Choosing a large breed dog, you need to make sure that his parents were tested for dysplasia and showed negative results (grade A). A certificate of this is provided by the breeder along with the other documents. Although even this will not give a full guarantee that in the future the disease will not manifest.
It is simply impossible to determine dysplasia in a puppy under the age of 6 months (and sometimes even older). But if the dog has a predisposition, the disease will certainly declare itself later. Therefore, further prevention is to minimize the risk of its occurrence or the development of consequences. Preventive measures include a balanced diet and adequate exercise. With this approach it is quite possible to stop the development of the disease, even if the pathological process has begun in the puppy's joints.
If a large breed dog begins to be fed from childhood, which leads to a rapid weight gain, and at the same time is subjected to excessive training, then all this significantly increases the load on sore joints and can cause irreparable harm to the animal. Any dog requires attention and care, especially if it is a representative of a large breed that is at risk for joint diseases. However, you need to know that dysplasia is not a sentence. You can save your pet if you notice the problem in time and provide him with the right treatment.
You can also ask a question to the staff veterinarian of our site, who will answer them as soon as possible in the comments field below.
Symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs
Attentive owner will immediately determine that something is wrong with his pet. A change in the gait and a disturbance in the appearance of the dog indicates the development of pathology.
The following signs may indicate defects:
- Limping, wiggling while walking.
- Incorrect positioning of the paws while running (pushing off the surface with both legs at once).
- Stiffness of movement.
- Incorrect posture while lying - hind legs turned in different directions.
- Body asymmetry The dog carries the bulk of the body to the front of the body, while the pelvis becomes narrow, as the muscles of the hind legs atrophy.
- Swelling of the joints.
- Pain when touching paws.
Any of these signs should be a reason to go to the vet. Timely help to the dog will help slow or completely stop the progression of the disease. Dysplasia, discovered at an early age, when the bones are still developing, heals much faster.
Distinct clinical manifestations of DTS occur at different ages of dogs and depend on the individual characteristics of the dog. In mild cases, the disease manifests itself only in a certain weakness of the hind limbs of the animal, which does not affect its working condition. Limping begins to progress with increasing physical exertion. The dog refuses to perform some commands, quickly tired.
Diagnosis of the disease
Dysplasia is diagnosed by a veterinarian after a thorough examination of the dog and an X-ray examination. The doctor probes the dog's joints, assesses their mobility, listens for squeaks or friction when bending and unbending the paws. In most cases, an experienced specialist can make the initial diagnosis based on these signs.
The dog is assigned to X-ray examination. The picture can be taken only after the introduction of anesthesia, since it is impossible to ensure the immobility of the animal without it. X-ray will allow the doctor to examine the location of the articular cavity and femoral neck, to determine the presence of deformities.
To obtain high-quality images you need to follow the following rules:
- Small dogs are examined only after 1 year, large dogs after 1.5 years.
- Each animal is removed twice.
- The picture is taken in the supine position, with legs stretched parallel.
Arthroscopy - a survey aimed at an objective assessment of the condition of the joint and recognition of dysplasia. The procedure is endoscopic. With the introduction to the joint area through a small puncture of the miniature chamber, the doctor can examine the structure of the cartilage. This examination is expensive and is not conducted in all clinics.
After the examination, the doctor determines the category of dysplasia:
- A - joint without severe pathology.
- B - predisposition to the disease.
- C - the initial stage of the disease.
- D - mean dysplasia.
- E is a severe form of dysplasia.
Pathology of the hip joint is amenable to drug treatment in the early stages of development. This technique is aimed at restoring cartilage tissue, removing edema and pain.
Treatment of hip dysplasia in dogs, in the early stages amenable to drug treatment.
Conservative treatment is based on the use of:
- Hondoprotectors - drugs aimed at restoring cartilage and articular tissues (Adekvan, Glucosamine, Artra, Teraflex, Hyonat, Hondrolon, Mucosat, Pentosan). The drugs are prescribed in the form of intravenous droppers, intramuscular injections, and injections into the joint. Medicines are prescribed in combination or separately.
- Antispasmodics removing painful cider - No-shpa, Baralgin, Analgin.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - Nimesulide, Rimadyl.
- Mineral complexes based on chondroitin and glucosamine - Omega-3, Omega-6 complexes.
- Along with drugs, physiotherapy is prescribed to the dog.
The most effective are:
- Paraffin therapy.
- Magnetic therapy.
- Laser therapy.
Conservative treatment can not always give the desired result in the treatment of hip dysplasia (DTS). When the disease has reached its final stages, surgical intervention is necessary. The duration and complexity of the operation depends on the condition of the joint. Sometimes it is enough to remove a small cartilaginous growth inside the joint.
Pictured hip arthroplasty in dogs
If the joint is severely deformed, the following types of operations are applied:
- Excision of the neck and femoral head. The operation is quite traumatic, and the recovery period after it can be long. After excision, the joint is fully restored and the animal can move freely without the use of any prostheses.
- Osteotomy - bone dissection and adjustment of the location of the articular fossa. The joint is in the correct position. The operation is possible with no burdened form of the disease.
- Myoectomy - excision of the comb muscle during growth of the puppy. Practice shows that this technique does not provide complete recovery, but it can significantly reduce lameness and restore the motor function of the joint. The indication for this type of surgery is the ineffectiveness of conservative drug treatment. The greatest effect of myectomy is given at the age of a dog from 6 to 12 months.
- Resection arthroplasty - resection of the joint to reduce pain. This operation reduces the contact of the head of the joint with the articular cavity. After the operation, the movement of the head friction against the cavity stops, the dog ceases to experience pain. This type of surgery is used for small breeds of dogs weighing up to 20 kilograms. A resection arthroplasty is performed at any age of the animal.
- Endoprosthetics It is used in the last stage of dysplasia. The dog's joint is replaced with an artificial one made of titanium alloy. Prosthetics are used if other surgical procedures have failed or have no meaning. After completing the rehabilitation course, the dog continues to move without pain and lead a normal life. Contraindication for endoprosthetics is muscle atrophy, therefore, if there are indications for the installation of the prosthesis, it should be performed as soon as possible. From an economic and functional point of view, the installation of the prosthesis is recommended for dogs weighing more than 30 kilograms.
Description of the disease
Dysplasia - a disease that causes deformation and destruction of the articular, and then the bone tissue of the musculoskeletal system. Неправильно сформированный сустав или же поврежденный в результате травмы, когда зазор между головкой и вертлужной впадиной оказывается слишком велик, при постоянном трении буквально «съедает» хрящевую ткань, взывая сильнейшие боли.Then the process affects the bone, ultimately depriving the dog of the opportunity to fully move, to lead an active lifestyle.
It is interesting! Most often, this disease affects the hip joints. It is on them that the biggest load is placed when running, jumping, when the pet is forced to push its weight to the maximum to complete the movement.
Some or all of the elbow joints are affected less often, which causes lameness on the front paws. The dog refuses to carry out some commands, for example, “Give me a paw”, “Down” - while running upstairs, it does not allow touching the affected place. You can notice the disease and inflammation in the place of the fold, the appearance of thickening.
The “knees” are least likely to suffer, but this does not make the problem less significant. Dysplasia on the hind legs often appears after a fall, a blow, any knee injury, due to which the paw could turn up and dislocate. Self-joint to avoid the consequences, the amateur will not work, you need the help of specialists. But this does not guarantee complete recovery. Pain and lameness may reappear at any time.
Worn away cartilage tissue should prevent bone contact and damage. Exfoliating, the bone collapses, the joints change, not only disfiguring the paws, but also holding down movement.
If the disease starts an attack on the not yet formed, growing puppy body, the pathologies will be noticeable quickly, they will affect not only the joints, but also the entire musculoskeletal system. But usually violations are detected by the age of 1.5, when the dog gains muscle mass, it becomes harder, and, accordingly, the load on the paws increases.
Important! The earlier the disease is detected, the easier it is to save the animal, to adjust the treatment and prevention schemes for exacerbations. If there are patients with dysplasia "relatives" in the "anamnesis", it is best to enlist information about the safe passing of the test for the disease by the puppy's parents.
If you suspect a genetic disorder, it is worth making an x-ray examination of the joints, in which it is easy to detect dysplasia even at the initial stage.
Which dogs are at risk
Large, massive dogs that can protect the owner, spend a lot of time in the fresh air, accompanying a person on jogging, walking, hiking, guarding the territory, are always in demand. But fashion does not pass on dogs, whose duties include being just a companion, a socially oriented person, an ordinary friend for people of any age.
Unfortunately, dysplasia is characteristic of just such dogs: retrievers, labradors, St. Bernards, Great Danes, Rottweilers, Malamutes, Central Asian Shepherd Dogs and similar breeds usually suffer from destruction of the joints.
It is explained by the increasing mass of the body, enhanced growth and mass gain at the moment when the bones are not strong enough, when there is a great risk of injury and stretching when playing too active.
Symptoms of dysplasia in dogs
At first, the puppy is not very willing to take part in the fun, without which yesterday he could not imagine life, he got tired and went to bed, showing that he wanted to go home, while walking, he was afraid to go down the stairs or climb them. From time to time he appears limp, which may pass after a rest. Dog breeders with experience begin to sound the alarm already at this stage, hurrying to the veterinarians.
If a pet has an almost constant limp, he begins to waddle, as if swaying, while running, putting his paws is unusual, trying to push off from the ground with both hind legs, for example, specialists should hurry immediately. Even the one who first made a four-legged friend notice these symptoms.
The dog hurts to move, run, she often go to bed, pulling and twisting paws. At this time, the seals in the area of the joints are already clearly visible, the pet does not allow them to be touched to inspect. In children with early development of the disease becomes very noticeable asymmetry, an unusual breed. With the defeat of the hip or knee joints, the puppy transfers the load to the front paws, so that they iron more massive, better developed.
Important! Having noticed some of these manifestations of insidious disease, you need to show the animal to the veterinarian, to be examined with it. This will help determine which steel has dysplasia, how and how you can help your dog lead a normal life.
In this case, the muscles of the back of the body atrophy. Not only inspecting, but even stroking the dog, you can find seals in the joints. Soreness causes the dog to shy away from trying to pet him, and may cause aggression.
Not only a good specialist in the treatment of animals, but also an experienced dog breeder, a breeder of large breeds of dogs will have no difficulty in diagnosing dysplasia during the examination. Even the fact that the pet does not like being squeezed a paw on the crotch a little should be alerted. In addition, the affected area is easily felt, inflamed or compacted, with an already accrued tissue.
When the paw is bent, a characteristic sound is heard: a click, a crunch, sometimes you can feel the friction of the head of the joint on the bone. These are the very first signs that may not mean a disease, but speak of its early onset, susceptibility to dysplasia.
The veterinarian will need to take an x-ray of the sore spot to see how far the disease has gone. To do this, the dogs are almost always given an injection, which will anesthetize and prevent them from moving (anesthesia, anesthesia). After all, it is impossible to force a puppy or a teenager dog to lie still, when there are so many strangers, objects around, and the situation looks threatening.
The owner needs to be prepared for this procedure to reassure a friend, to show that he is safe, and the one he trusts is not going to leave him alone. A leash, a muzzle are mandatory conditions for visiting the clinic, some animals react very aggressively to white coats of medics after the very first vaccinations, so you should not forget about elementary safety measures among all the unrest.
A rather painful, requiring anesthesia procedure is subjected to a dog in order to see how affected the tissue is from the inside. It is called arthroscopy: a miniature camera, an endoscope, is inserted into the joint through a puncture. So you can get a very objective picture of the lesion with dysplasia. Equipment for such a procedure is only in large clinics, so they do it far from everywhere.
The letter "A" in the diagnosis will mean complete well-being, that is, the tissue is not affected.
"B" in the verdict means a predisposition to pathological changes, and this means increased attention to the pet, constant inspections, adherence to the prescribed lifestyle and diet to stop the process.
Important! The cost of the service is high, but the results will not cause the slightest doubt.
If the veterinarian writes the letter "C" - dysplasia has already taken up the cause, the joints are affected, but the process can be taken under control.
“D” - the disease progresses, you need to treat the dog to alleviate its condition, to return the ability to move normally, and then constantly engage in prevention so that there is no relapse.
The letter "E" means severe damage to the articular tissue, it can only be a supporting treatment.
The severe condition of the dog is most often caused either by poor health or by the unwillingness of the owners to keep an eye on the pet for which they must take care. Unnoticed disease, refusal from veterinarians' help, incorrect diet, lack of proper care and conditions for normal growth and development contribute to a very fast, aggressive course of a genetically determined disease.
Treatment of joint dysplasia in dogs
Many dog owners are frightened that it is impossible to cure dysplasia. They refuse a puppy who has a disease, sometimes just throwing it out into the street and condemning to vagrancy and quick death.
But even the pathology seen at an early age can and should be treated. If you ignore the lameness, soreness of the paws, frequent change of mood in a puppy and his not too active behavior, by 6 months he may just be semi-paralyzed, any movement will cause him pain. And with increased weight gain (the animal remains large, grows actively, eats with appetite and cannot spend calories) it is threatened with death from obesity and related problems.
Both young and adult dogs are usually treated conservatively.. Therapy is carried out only by veterinarians, picking up medications, physiotherapy, developing the necessary nutrition and training complexes. Often, a course of injections with drugs that relieve inflammation and pain (chondroprotectors) is required.
With any degree of dysplasia, good effect is shown by physiotherapy and gentle training with a well-regulated load. You can’t let a dog stop moving altogether, it will be even more detrimental to health. Jogging next to the owner, small jogs on flat terrain, ball games, swimming and swimming will help in the normal development of muscles, stop osteoarthritis.
Important! Veterinarians will definitely tell about what and in what quantity the supplements should be included in the diet. There are a lot of vitamins that can have a positive effect on the condition of the bone tissue.
In addition to conservative treatment, surgical treatment is also offered, but the artificial joint is very expensive, not every dog owner can afford such an expensive operation. In addition, this method is applicable only in cases where the animal is already fully formed, this method will not work for young dogs.
Dysplasia is a chronic disease, no medicine, no operation can completely heal a pet. Therefore, you should do everything possible so that the disease does not start to develop. If it is revealed, it is worthwhile to follow all the recommendations of physicians, seeking long-term and stable remission.
Causes of hip dysplasia, elbow joints
Dysplasia of the joints in animals is an inherited disease of the musculoskeletal system, which is manifested as a violation of the correspondence between the articular surfaces, resulting in a dislocation or arthrosis in the joint. In the veterinary practice, the hip joint is most often observed, since it is the main load that falls on it. Less common in animals is elbow dysplasia.
Among the reasons provoking the development of the pathology of the musculoskeletal system in dogs, experienced dog breeders and veterinarians point out the following:
- Hereditary predisposition In 85% of cases of joint dysplasia in the producer dog, the vicious gene is transmitted to the offspring.
- Illiterately compiled load mode for young pets. Many inexperienced breeders overwhelm an immature organism at the age of one and a half years with excessive physical exertion. Going on the occasion of puppy hyperactivity, owners can not always competently dose their motor activity.
This leads to the fact that skeletal tissue does not keep pace with the development of the muscular system, which leads to a violation of the congruence of the articular surface. Most often, such a problem is faced by the owners of large breeds - bullmastiffs, dogs, St. Bernards.
- However, according to veterinary specialists, not only unbalanced physical exertion can lead to hip joint dysplasia in four-legged friends, but also hypodynamia. A sedentary lifestyle, the constant maintenance of a dog in an aviary leads to the fact that the structure of the connective tissue undergoes changes, which negatively affects the health of the joints.
Overweight pet gives additional load on the support apparatus, which provokes dysplasia.
- Nutritional error - One of the main reasons for the development of pathology in dogs of all breeds. As a rule, an imbalance is caused by an imbalance of nutrients at puppy age, when a growing body consumes protein components, vitamins and minerals in an enhanced mode.
A deficiency in the diet of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, essential amino acids leads to a violation of mineral metabolism in the bones and connective tissue, which provokes joint damage. The pathology of the musculoskeletal system often leads to excessive content in the diet of phosphorus.
- Injuries. Often it is the mechanical damage to the hip, elbow joint that is the trigger mechanism for the violation of the physiological correspondence between the articular surfaces. Stretching while running, unsuccessful jumps, walking on the ice and slippery floor in the room, injuries upon hitting the vehicle can lead to the development of dysplasia.
Most often, the disease affects the official breeds of dogs. Veterinary experts note that German and East European shepherd dogs, retrievers, labradors, and bulldogs are largely subject to the disease. The Molossian lines of breeds - bullmastiffs, St. Bernards, Great Dane, are also susceptible to a genetically inherited disease.
And here more about the signs and treatment of dislocation of the dog.
Symptoms of pathology in dogs
The owner can notice the first changes in the work of the pet's locomotor apparatus not earlier than 4 months old. In a puppy, pathology on the hip or elbow can only be detected by X-ray examination.
The severity of symptoms of hip dysplasia in a dog and the choice of treatment method depends on the stage of the pathological process. According to the accepted classification, violations in the hip joint can be 5 degrees, and the ulnar - 4 degrees.
Symptoms can be detected by the owner already in the mild disease phase (according to the classification stage C). In phase D and E, the pathology within the acceptable limits and with a significant degree of joint destruction becomes obvious.
Veterinary specialists recommend paying attention to the following manifestations of an insidious disease:
- Limping limb. Violation of the supporting ability of the joint develops gradually, so the owner may not immediately notice a symptom or not give it importance, deciding that the dog landed badly after the jump.
- Decreased physical activity. The dog avoids games, exercises, jumps, reluctantly runs. During a long walk, the animal often stops, refuses to go on.
- The sick dog often lies on its side. To see a dog lying on his stomach with this pathology is almost impossible.
- When the patient is walking, there is a wiggle of the back part. Gait unsure.
- After sleeping and resting the dog is difficult to get up.
- When forced to run, the owner can observe the removal of the hind limbs, which resembles a rabbit run.
- In case of development of serious changes in the structure of the joint, the animal stops jumping, hardly climbs the stairs.
- The whole body of a sick dog begins to look inharmonious due to progressive atrophic events in the hip area, the sternum becomes more powerful.
- Upon careful inspection, the owner can detect pronounced atrophy of the muscle tissue of the thigh.
The lack of necessary treatment over time leads to a complete loss of motor activity of a four-legged family member.
See this video on the causes and symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs:
External examination of the configuration of the patient's joint, assessment of gait, and identification of the characteristics of the setting of the extremities help to suspect the veterinary specialist with a dysplasia phenomenon. On palpation, which is carried out, as a rule, under anesthesia of an animal, muscular dystrophy is detected. During abduction of limbs, a veterinary specialist will identify a hip dislocation, deformity and displacement of the acetabulum.
The main method for diagnosing disorders of the musculoskeletal system in veterinary medicine is X-ray examination. In addition to confirming the dislocation, the specialist will also find dysplastic changes of the acetabulum, displacement of the femoral head. The method allows to identify the level of asymmetry of the joint, to identify its effect on the function of the spinal cord of the animal.
Severe hip dysplasia in dogs
X-ray is required in 2 projections. Initially, the animal is placed on the spine, and the hind limbs are pulled parallel to each other. Then carry out an examination in the supine position. The limbs at the same time bend at the knee joints and lead to the body. Pre animal anesthetize and immobilize.
The reliability of the results and the choice of methods for treating joint dysplasia in dogs depends on how immobile the dog will be during the manipulation. According to the analysis of X-ray images, the specialist makes a conclusion about the stage of the pathological process.
See in this video about the diagnosis and treatment of joint dysplasia in dogs:
Symptoms of joint dislocation in dogs: refusal to step on a sore limb, when the front paw is damaged, the animal presses it under itself. Serp-item__passage . позвоночника, дисплазии тазобедренного сустава, артрозах. . патологиях позвонков, при растяжении связок, вывихе суставов, переломах костей. . О том, как проводить массаж у собак при проблемах с позвоночником, смотрите в этом видео: Массаж ради спасения – непрямой сердца. If the dog is afraid to walk, then just overcome this fear will not work. First you need to establish the cause. For example, if she was suddenly frightened by the harsh sounds of other dogs, or she is afraid to walk outside in the evening, then there will be approaches.
. позвоночника, дисплазии тазобедренного сустава, артрозах. . патологиях позвонков, при растяжении связок, вывихе суставов, переломах костей. . О том, как проводить массаж у собак при проблемах с позвоночником, смотрите в этом видео: Массаж ради спасения – непрямой сердца.
If the dog is afraid to walk, then just overcome this fear will not work. First you need to establish the cause. For example, if she was suddenly frightened by the harsh sounds of other dogs, or she is afraid to walk outside in the evening, then there will be approaches.