All inhabitants of the aquarium are in constant relationship and perform a certain role. Aquarium catfish act as filtering agents - water purifiers from waste products of other inhabitants of the reservoir. The species diversity of the order somobriform generally affects (more than 1.5 thousand species). Among them can be found as small representatives no larger than 2 cm, and giant individuals, reaching 5 m in length. These fish have no equal. They surprise with their unusual appearance and bizarre form.
Since aquarium catfish are mostly predators and prefer a near-bottom way of life, it is necessary to clearly understand what conditions are optimal for them, how to equip an aquarium properly and who can act as their neighbors.
The most common and popular group of catfish is the genus Ancistrus of the family of chain catfish (Loricariidae), numbering about 30 species. Among aquarists due to the unusual structure of the mouth can be found and other names of this group - catfish, suckers, adhesives, sweepers.
Aquarium catfish Antsistrusy have a lot of positive qualities:
• act as "attendants" of the aquarium,
• unpretentious in care and maintenance,
• have a mouth in the form of a sucker, which favorably distinguishes them from other somopodobnyh fish,
• stand out for unusual and uncommon behavior.
For members of the genus Ancistrus, the following environmental parameters are valid:
• temperature indicator of water - 20-28 ° C,
• pH - 6.0-7.3,
• dH - up to 10 °,
Antsistrusy live an average of 7 years. The size of individuals is relatively small, in length they reach no more than 10 cm.
Somiki-suckers aquarium - peaceful near-bottom inhabitants, compatible with many fish. However, it is undesirable to settle them with aggressive cichlids - the enemies of the ancistrus who eat the finfish.
For a pair of such catfish need an aquarium of 80 liters. Its bottom should be equipped with special shelters - grottoes, snags, caves or stumps. It is desirable to conduct aeration, filtration and replacement of water with fresh water four times a month.
Somiki-suckers aquarium - phytophages. In other words, they eat plant foods. Free the walls of the aquarium and decorative elements from algal fouling. Natural food must be supplemented with special foods that are produced in the form of large tablets falling to the bottom, as well as with vegetation (scalded leaves of spinach, cabbage, lettuce, slices of cucumber or pumpkin will do). Often snags are used to decorate the aquarium.
Breeding can take place either independently in the general reservoir, or purposefully, in a separate aquarium where the pair, the female and the male, are placed. During spawning, provide abundant feeding and frequent water changes to fresh. In the aquarium, be sure to install long tubes or stumps on which the female lays her eggs. The male takes all the care of the future offspring. Five days after laying, the larvae appear from the eggs, which after some time turn into fry. They have a need for food. You can use the same feed as for adult fish, only in the form of a small fraction.
Representatives: Ancistrus dolichopterus (Ancistrus vulgaris), Ancistrus cirrhosus (Dark Ancistrus), Ancistrus leucostistus (Star Antsistrus).
Often in the aquarium you can find catfish belonging to the genus Hoplosternum, family Callichthyidae (armored catfish). A prominent representative of the genus are Tarakatum (Hoplosternum thoracatum). Due to covering the body of bone platinum they are not afraid of predatory fish. Tarakatums are peaceful fish, normally belong to neighbors with similar habitat conditions, namely:
• temperature condition - within 22-28 ° C,
• pH - from 5.8 to 7.5,
• dH - up to 25 °.
Aquarium catfish tarakatumy - long-lived, live more than 10 years. A pair of specimens needs a closed-type aquarium with a volume of at least 100 liters. They better adapt to water bodies inhabited by aquatic vegetation, equipped with snags, caves, grottoes. The length of an adult fish is from 18 cm.
In relation to food, they are unpretentious. Eat any food, preference is given to live species. They can collect food both from the bottom of the reservoir and from the surface of the water.
Tarakatums are aquarium catfish, the reproduction of which involves the presence of a male and a female. Pairs of individuals are selected independently. They are deposited in a special spawning aquarium, equipped with artificial floating plants, under which the male builds a nest. In it, the female lays caviar (500-1200 eggs). The functions of protection and care of the offspring performs the male. He closes the nest after laying. After 7 days, larvae appear from the eggs. In search of food, they fall to the bottom. At this time, they can be fed only a small fraction of any live food. For normal growth and development of fry, it is necessary to change daily to half the volume of water in the aquarium.
Representatives: Hoplosternum littorale (beige Hoplosternum), Hoplosternum thoracatum (tarakatum), Hoplosternum magdaienae (Hoplosternum magdalena), Dianema longibarbis (long-haired dyanema), Dianema urostriata (striped horned diblis, dianema longibarbis).
Representatives of the armored catfish family, the genus Corydoras, aquarium catfish, whose species are often found in an artificial reservoir, have a beautiful coloring and calm character. The bright representative is considered the speckled corridor (Corydoras paleatus).
For these fish will need:
• optimum water temperature - 24-25 ° C,
• pH - from 6.0 to 7.0,
• dH - up to 4 °.
Somik sizes are relatively small (up to 7 cm in length). Life expectancy on average from 8 to 10 years. Some specimens live to be 15 years old.
Prefer aquariums with sandy soil. The bottom should be equipped with stones, snags and caves for the rest of the fish.
Somiki speckled aquarium live in flocks. Due to their calm, peace-loving nature, they are compatible with almost any species of fish (except Labo, modest, ancistrus). In food, somas are picky, consume any food. The main thing is to use them in the form of tablets falling to the bottom of the aquarium, since the corridors from the surface cannot capture food.
For the treatment of individuals of the genus Corydoras, saline solutions cannot be used due to their intolerance to fish.
Reproduction corridors pair. The male and female are deposited in a spawning aquarium, the temperature indicators of the water in which are reduced to 18 ° C. After laying, the female is returned back. The male is left to care for the offspring. Larvae appear after about 5-6 days. Fry feed on small plankton and chopped live food.
Representatives: Corydoras elegans (catfish elegant), Corydoras paleatus (catfish speckled), Corydoras leopardus (catfish leopard), Corydoras schultzei (catfish golden), Corydoras hastatus (dwarf catfish).
Incredibly amazing fish are fringed catfish (family Mochocidae), namely members of the genus Synodontis. Particularly impressive is the catfish shifter (Synodontis nigriventris). Scientists around the world still can not understand such a phenomenon as a kind of movement of the fish in the aquarium up the belly, as a result of which it got its name. In a normal position, catfish is only at the time of collecting food from the bottom.
The size of an adult fish is from 6 to 9.5 cm in length. Usually females are larger than males. There live aquarium fish somiki flippers on average up to 10 years. Prefer a gregarious way of life with maximum activity at night.
The aquarium should be equipped with various bottom decoration elements (grottoes, hollow tubes, snags, pots without bottom). It is desirable that it contains aquatic vegetation, including floating on the surface. Gravel or sand is suitable as a primer. The optimal water parameters for synodontis are as follows:
• temperature - 24-26 ° C,
• pH - from 6.5 to 7.5,
• dH - up to 15 °.
The neighbors of individuals of the genus Synodontis can be any fish, corresponding to them in temperament and size. Small, slowly moving species do not get along with them.
Synodonts - aquarium catfish (a photo with the names is presented below) require a fairly large space for normal life, an average of 50 liters of water per individual.
Feeding catfish can be any food (vegetable, live, combined). The main thing is not to allow overeating and not to feed once a week at all, arranging fasting days for the fish. Otherwise, it can lead to metabolic disorders and fat deposition. Such an instance cannot be used for breeding.
For the offspring will require special hormone therapy. The female spawns, which is carried by the flow of water throughout the aquarium. After 172 hours fry appear from the eggs. They negatively perceive light rays, therefore for the period of their growth it is desirable to darken capacity. For primary food use live dust.
Synodontis - catfish aquarium species: Synodontis alberti (perustous catfish), Synodontis brichardi (black catfish), Synodontis nigriventris (catfish), Synodontis angelicus (star catfish), Synodontis decorus (catfish flag).
Brocade catfish, or pterigoplicht brocade
Among mail som, the so-called brocade catfish (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps) deserves attention. It helps to maintain cleanliness in the aquarium by polishing and cleaning its walls with the mouth in the form of a sucker.
The optimal water parameters for this species are as follows:
• temperature - 22-30 ° C,
• pH - from 6.5 to 8.2,
• dH - up to 20 °.
It requires constant filtration, aeration and the substitution of half the volume of water for fresh. Because of its impressive size (up to 60 cm in length) it can live only in large aquariums (200 liters per individual). Be sure to have shelters at the bottom of the reservoir (snags of deciduous origin).
With other inhabitants of the aquarium gets on well, does not touch anyone. Maximum activity is observed at night. In the afternoon the fish hides in the shelter. They live like all soma long enough (up to 10 years).
Pterigoplicht brocade - catfish aquarium (photo), eating as a plant, there and live food (in percentage 60/40).
In nelovo, brocade catfish is bred in special commercial ponds. The female lays her eggs in a pre-dug hole in the ground. The male protects the clutch. Fry should be fed originally chopped live food.
Flathead, or fractocephalus
There are aquarium catfish, which are rarely seen in artificially created aquatic environments. These include a flathead (Phractocephalus hemioliopterus), from the genus Phractocephalus, a family of flat-headed catfish (Pimelodidae). In the natural environment, you can find individuals reaching a length of 1.2 m. In aquariums it usually grows up to 90-100 cm. It needs a large aquarium (300 l).
This catfish has a very attractive color (the belly and back are painted in dark colors, the sides are light). Compatible with large ornamental fish. Maintains bottom nightlife. Needs shelters. Food preferences omnivorous and very voracious.
A flathead resides in one of the unique underwater museums - Alushta Aquarium.
Glass catfish or ghost catfish
There are aquarium catfish, the types of which do not leave any aquarist indifferent. These include glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) - a representative of the genus Kryptopterus of the Eurasian catfish family (Siluridae).
Lead pack life, so it is better to immediately acquire 6-8 pieces. For one flock, you will need an aquarium of 100 liters, equipped as close as possible to the natural environment (a large amount of vegetation, including floating, dark areas, free space, water flow). This type of fish is very sensitive to the quality of water, so do not forget about its regular filtration, aeration and substitution.
These somiki aquarium fish (the photo is shown above) are extremely fearful, as civilians of identical size will suit them as neighbors.
Prefer live food, eat in the middle layers of the aquarium. During the day, they do not show special activity, only during feeding. In captivity do not breed.
Clarias (Clarias genus) from the family of Clariidae (Clariidae) are another fairly large group of aquarium inhabitants. These are aquarium catfish, the species of which for the most part lead a predatory lifestyle. In their neighborhood, they maintain only large fish, or prefer to live alone in a specific aquarium, corresponding to their size.
The body length of adults, depending on the species, ranges from 13 to 35 cm. When transplanting catfish, caution should be exercised due to the presence of a pinch on the pectoral fins. Fish injections are very painful, and mucus that has entered the wound can cause the development of allergies and even tumors.
The most remarkable is the Angolan Clarias (Clarias angolensis). The size of the largest of the genus Clarias (35 cm in length). To maintain the required aquarium volume of 150 liters, preferably a closed type. From aquatic vegetation, only algae with a strong root system are allowed. Water should have the following parameters:
• temperature - 23-28 ° C,
• pH - from 7.0 to 9.0,
• dH - up to 40 °.
Angola klariasy - aquarium catfish (photos with the names are presented below). They lead a predatory way of life, eat small fish. In addition, they have a bad habit - to chase other inhabitants of the reservoir. You can give a combined feed.
For reproduction, the female and male are deposited in another aquarium. At the bottom, be sure to put stones, hollow tubes, equip shelters. After laying, the male is removed from the spawning reservoir. After three days, the larvae appear, which on the sixth day turn into fry and begin to feed. Initial feed - chopped combined.
Other representatives: Clarias anguillaris (Charmouth), Clarias batrachus (Clarias eel-shaped), Clarias dumerillii (Dumberillus), Clarias platycephalus (Clarias flat-headed).
Key points to consider when keeping catfish
In order for aquarium fish-catfish to live and multiply for a long time, you need to consider the following basic rules for their maintenance.
• Using special filtration and aeration equipment to create a stream of water in the aquarium.
• Ensure proper water quality by replacing it with a ½ weekly amount with a new one.
• Install decorating elements on the bottom - snags, hollow tubes, pots without bottom, grottoes and caves equipment.
• Use food in the form of tablets, since most catfish eat at the bottom.
• Do not replant the fry in the general aquarium until they grow to a larger size.
• Do not forget to decorate an artificial reservoir with aquatic vegetation, including floating.
How to choose and buy aquarium catfish
When buying catfish in the aquarium, the following parameters should be considered:
• behavior - for a common aquarium, it is advisable to choose peace-loving species with a calm disposition, it is better to settle aggressive catfish separately,
• food preferences - predatory catfish should not be chosen for the reservoir where the small, harmless fish live,
• dimensions - one should not forget the fact that some species in the mature state reach up to 150 cm in length,
• fish health - the fish cannot be launched into the general aquarium without first being kept in quarantine,
• transportation home - special plastic containers will be suitable, since there are plugs on the fins of the catfish that can pierce oxygen bags used for other fish.
Soma - representatives of the fauna of almost every aquarium. Spending most of their lives at the bottom, they significantly enliven the bottom zone. The store does not have more varied species in terms of species than aquarium catfish. The price for them varies depending on the type, size and color and starts from 200 rubles per individual. Aquarium catfish are truly amazing, beautiful and unusual fish. Watching them is a pleasure, especially at night, when they are most active. Some species are easily breeding in captivity, others, on the contrary, breed only in the natural ecosystem. In general, whatever you say, this wonderful fish is a catfish! Excellent orderly and true decoration of the aquarium.
Aquarium fish catfish: antsitrusy, brochies, armor
Somiki are interesting, beautiful and useful inhabitants of a home aquarium. Kallichtovye species impose order: dig the ground, move buildings, helping the owner to create a unique design. Kolchuzhnye - remove young algae from the walls of the aquarium, plants, drifts and buildings. The variety of color and dissimilarity with other inhabitants made them the favorites of aquarists.
Description of the type and recommendations on the content
The most popular are catfish with suckers of two types - antsitrus ordinary and antsitrus blue. These species belong to the chain catfish, widespread in the Rio Negru river system and the streams of Brazil. The main difference is the absence of the swim bladder, the presence of the oral apparatus in the form of a sucker, and the greater number of rays of the dorsal fin (8-10 instead of 7-8 in most other species). Анцитрус обыкновенный достигает в длину до 25 см, а голубой до 15 см. Содержать оба вида лучше парами, т.е один самец и одна самка. Рекомендованный объем видового аквариума (на одну пару рыб) для:
- antsitrus ordinary - 80 l,
- blue citrus - 60 l.
If an aquarium is common for antsitrus and fish of other species, then the volume should be increased by 20 liters for each species of catfish.
Temperature range of content for:
- common ancytrus - from 24 to 29 ° C,
- blue anticyrus - from 22 to 27 ° C.
Catering for antsitrusov
The basis of feeding of catfish-suckers are small-cell algae that form on the walls of the aquarium and make up the design of an artificial reservoir. Thanks to their oral suction apparatus, the fish effectively remove green shoots from various elements in the aquarium and plants, so they are acquired as cleaners. With a lack of feeding, they begin to eat the soft leaves of the plants, leaving gnawed holes in them.
Diet for antsitrusovy catfish should be selected as for herbivores. Tableted spirulina (most commonly used) is well suited, and can also be fed with dry, live and frozen food. In the form of a delicacy, cucumber, cabbage, lettuce, apple, banana and many other vegetables and fruits are served with boiled water. When feeding with natural vegetables and fruits, the fish, which are not fully eaten away, should be removed from the aquarium after 2-6 hours to prevent water damage.
Sex differences and reproduction of ancytrus
The main difference between a male and a female is:
- the difference in size (the male is much larger, the common antsitrus can reach 10 cm),
- males on snout have bristle-like growths, in females only the beginnings of such growths.
For successful and long-term maintenance, as well as dilution of ancytrus, soft water with a pH value of 4.5-6 is required. In special shelters made of wood, clay or slate, coconut shells, the female lays up to 200 eggs. The male protects the clutch and the larvae that appear later until they begin to swim independently. You can feed the fry with nutritional pills or vegetable derivatives.
By origin, the Brochises are from South America and represent the family of the Calix. There are six species of Brochis. The most popular among aquarists have gained the following:
- britzki (the body is cast pink, the fins are red or light brown, the back is blue-green with a metallic sheen),
- nosy (catfish with a sharp nose, the main color is greenish-gray, head is yellowish, the belly is pink),
- emerald (brilliant, emerald green), has a golden-green metallic luster, the abdomen is light, beige-yellow, dorsal, adipose and caudal fins are brown.
Description of catfish
These catfish are peaceful, unpretentious and keep mainly in the bottom layers of water, looking for food at the bottom in the ground or in the bushes of plants. The most activity and playfulness is shown in twilight lighting.
The brochies have a volumetric head with three pairs of whiskers, an elongated mouth opening directed downward, which makes it possible to conveniently pick food from the bottom, a tall body, squeezed on the sides by two rows of bony plates. Adipose fin is equipped with a sharp spike. The main difference of this genus of catfish from other species of the family is a greater number of rays on the dorsal fin - in the emerald brochis 10-12, in the noses and Britzks - from 15 to 18 rays.
Conditions of detention
Somiki brochies are quite large, about 8 cm in size, and require a spacious aquarium. Species aquarium should be at least 112 liters, and the total - from 240 liters. At the aquarium you need to put a cover to avoid jumping catfish. Brochies are schooling fish, and it is better to keep from 5 to 10 pieces, if there are less than five fish, they will feel insecure and hide constantly in shelters.
Brochises spend all their time in search of food, digging at the bottom, which necessitates the presence of good filtration and the choice of fine-grained rounded soil in the aquarium.
Plants need to be chosen with a good root system and floating (they will create some shading in the aquarium).
The water temperature should be maintained at a level of 24 to 26 ° C, with low softness, and also weekly replace up to 30% of the volume of the aquarium.
Good aeration and a small flow will be useful in arranging an aquarium.
Snags, large stones, grottoes or other shelters will be excellent refuges, without which brochises in an aquarium are uncomfortable.
For feeding, it is better to use live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, etc. Brochises are very voracious and require abundant nutrition, but are not choosy in food.
Sex differences and reproduction
Brochise females are much larger and rounder than males. Depending on the state of health and age, the female can lay between 300 and 600 eggs 1 mm in diameter. Caviar is deposited throughout the aquarium. The maturation period is five days, after which the larvae appear. After four days, they begin to eat small live food.
The fry go through three distinct phases of development before they acquire their permanent emerald color. Initially, they are speckled with a reddish dorsal fin, then other color changes occur to the full formation of the color.
They become sexually mature at the age of 1.5 to 2 years. In breeding is not the most simple, and in amateur aquariums spawn extremely rarely.
Features of the form
Of the features can be identified:
- very close view of the corridors
- do not tolerate salt water,
- when using intestinal respiration, the brochises rise to the surface and take in air, sometimes emerging with the whole body,
- shy and irritable.
Armored Aquarium Catfish
Bronzer (dorade), armor or sidewalk catfish are a separate family of catfish, characterized by the presence of large bone plates that cover the entire body of the catfish, except for the abdominal area. A line of bone spikes stretches along the entire body, on each side. Some fins also have hard bone rays. Also, this family is interesting for its ability to make different sounds, so that some species are called singing.
Description of scabbish catfish
Bronyaki live in the marshland of South America in the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. This family has about 100 species, and is represented by aquarium and fishing catfish with sizes from 5 to 120 cm. Large species grow very quickly, and aquariums become unsuitable for their maintenance. The most common are the following types of aquarium armor:
- agamixis white-spotted,
- Acantodoras stellate,
- chocolate aktatadoras,
- Amblyidoras Hankok,
- Doras Eigenmann,
- Platydoras is striped.
Content of armored catfish
The armors are nocturnal and, accordingly, do not like bright light. All day time they are trying to spend in shelters. To do this, the aquarium should be equipped with a grotto, snags or piles of large stones with abundant vegetation. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that catfish are growing, and there should be no impassable tubes or hollow stumps as shelters.
The soil should be selected from the rounded stones of different fractions, preferably dark in color, and coarse river sand can be used.
Due to the fact that soma secrete a large amount of waste products, it is necessary to ensure good water filtration and weekly replace up to 25% of water (with tap water or specially filtered water).
In feeding, they are omnivores and readily eat live, frozen and dry food (worms, bloodworm, pipe strawberry, granulated and tableted food with various additives), and also successfully hunt snails. To avoid various incidents with other inhabitants of the aquarium, you need to remember that catfish eat those fish that can be swallowed with their mouthparts.
Platidoras striped: maintenance and care
Platidoras (Platidor, prickly, grumbling or singing catfish) - a peaceful fish that inhabits the upper reaches of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, is found in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. They are called grumbling or singing for the fact that they can make sounds in the water that allow them to find their own kind. Sounds are reproduced by the pectoral fins and the swim bladder.
Grumbling catfish can be in the aquarium either alone or in a group. The size of Platydoras reaches 27 cm and can live in an aquarium up to 20 years. Mostly they are nocturnal, but also interesting during the day, because they spend a lot of time in surveying the bottom. At night, they pose a danger to other fish species, especially those smaller than 5 cm.
They eagerly eat dry, live and frozen food, but prefer protein foods, that is, live food. In the first year of life, they turn the belly upside down and eat food from the surface or from the underside of the leaves of plants.
For the maintenance of platydoras prickly soft water with a temperature range from 23 to 29 ° C, with mandatory aeration and filtration, as well as a small flow, is suitable. The volume of the species aquarium should be at least 160 liters, and the total - 200 liters.
Gender differences and reproduction of Platydoras
Differences between male and female appear in body shape. The male is more graceful and slimmer, and his coloring is more pronounced. In danger, the female has a bright brown color that appears brightly, only a bright strip of bone spines remains in its color. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of one year.
In captivity, Platydoras breed very hard, usually due to the artificial administration of hormones. Spawning should be about 100 liters with a temperature of 25 to 29 ° C. The male builds a nest of plant leaves with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The female lays up to 1000 colorless eggs.
At a temperature of 25 ° C fry leave in 40-45 hours and the next two days eat the remains of the yolk sac. After 4-6 days, the youngsters successfully swim and move around in the aquarium, feeding on artemia and rotifers. Growth of fry is fast, and at the age of 2 months they reach 4 cm.
Agamixis white-washed: description and content
White-spotted agamix, speckled or star-shaped, singing and grumbling is a representative of the type of Agamixes, a family of armored ones. Lives in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru in reservoirs with a slow current. Grumbling or singing soma - agamixes - make loud sounds with their pectoral fins and swim bladder, which makes it easier for them to find females during the mating season and congeners.
Sneak behavior and nightlife are the main characteristic features of this squad. It has a dark color and white specks on the body (for catfish under the age of 1 year, these specks glitter). In aquariums it grows up to 18 cm and is a long-liver (lives up to 20 years). For a species content, a capacity of 120 liters is suitable, and for a general one, from 160 l.
Water should be soft, temperature - from 24 to 29 ° C. When the content of singing catfish requires filtration and powerful aeration, and also a small flow will not be superfluous. Agamix can be kept alone or in a group.
Feeding is picky and can eat dry, frozen or live food with a high content of proteins.
Artificial shelters, snags and dense vegetation with twilight illumination will provide this catfish the necessary comfort for living. The content of the fish is simple and picky.
Gender differences and reproduction of agamix
Puberty of this kind is reached at the age of 2-3 years. Females and males are very similar, but males are smaller and sleeker, while females have a shapeless large abdomen. Successful breeding of agamixes occurs in a 100 liter spawn, and hormone stimulation should also be used. The female lays up to 1000 eggs of light green color with a diameter of from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. After 40 hours, the larvae exit. After two days, the fry begin to move independently around the aquarium. Starter feed is Artemia, rotifers and other feed corresponding to the oral apparatus.
Video story about the contents of ancistrus:
Content in an aquarium
Glass catfish content in the aquarium will not cause much trouble to experienced aquarists. The composition and temperature of water do not play a significant role. They feel good in the hot summer, when the temperature in the aquarium can rise above 30 degrees. But still, the temperature should be maintained at 23-26 degrees, and water changes should be done every week at 20% of the total volume of the aquarium. Special attention should be paid to lighting and shelters. In the aquarium should be placed a large number of kagag with all kinds of buildings.
Light catfish prefer scattering. The vegetation in the aquarium should be abundant, forming dense thickets. In the aquarium should be placed floating plants that contribute to the formation of muted light, so necessary for these unusual fish. Another important component for the life of glass catfish in an aquarium is filtration and aeration, it must be sufficiently strong and effective. Aeration creates a small current in the aquarium, imitating the native habitat of glass catfishes.
glass catfish photo
The contents of the glass catfish.
Scientific name: Cryptopterus Minor (Kryptopterus Minor).
Popular names: Glass catfish, Catfish ghost, Glass catfish.
Level of care: moderate.
The size: up to 8cm.
Temperature: 21-260C (70-790F).
Lifespan: 7-8 years.
Feeding and favorite treats
Feeding glass catfish also does not cause much trouble. They are happy to eat dry food and pellets. Feed should be taken in small portions so that the feed gradually sinks into the water, as glass catfishes feed predominantly in the middle layers of water, they take feed from the surface poorly and reluctantly, and do not see the fallen to the bottom at an emphasis. A delicacy for them, as for most fish, is live food of daphnia, bloodworm, a favorite delicacy of fish. You can buy live food at any fishing store and sometimes indulge the inhabitants of the aquarium. But do not forget that overfeeding only hurts the fish.
Glass catfish breeding in an aquarium, which is quite problematic, in its natural habitat shows sexual activity during the rainy season. To encourage the female to spawn in an aquarium, it is worth lowering the temperature by a few degrees and lowering the water level by half. The female lays about 100-200 eggs on the plants, after which the producers should be moved back to the general aquarium. Eggs ripen within a week. Microcore, rotifers, cyclops nauplii are suitable for feeding fry.
Glass catfish, scientific name Kryptopterus vitreolus, belongs to the family Siluridae. Perhaps the most unusual representative of the catfish, has such a transparent body that through it the skeleton of a fish is visible. Such an amazing evolutionary adaptation and relative simplicity in content, along with a peace-loving disposition, determined the popularity of this species among aquarists around the world.Floor: It is impossible to determine gender by external signs.
Compatibility of glass catfish: for sharing content fit any peaceful fish.
Diseases of glass catfish: read an article about symptoms and treatment. If you bought new glass catfish, then before launching into the main aquarium, they should be quarantined, as in most cases these fish are caught in the wild, so they can be carriers of parasites.
glass catfish photo
Another scientific name is widely used in the literature - Kryptopterus bicirrhis. However, modern studies have found that it combines two similar types of catfish. True Glass catfish, was isolated in a separate form only in 2013, therefore, in numerous sources and publications the erroneous scientific name is still used.
Requirements and conditions:
- The volume of the aquarium - from 100 liters.
- Temperature - 20–26 ° C
- PH value - 4.0-7.0
- Water hardness - soft (1-10 dH)
- Substrate type - any
- Lighting - muffled
- Brackish water - no
- Water movement - weak or standing water
- Size - up to 6 cm.
- Food - any combination of dry and meat feed
It originates from the river systems of Southeast Asia, mainly on the territory of modern Thailand. Found in rivers flowing into the Gulf of Siam. Due to intraspecific confusion, the habitat needs to be clarified. It prefers to stay in stagnant or slowly moving water, as a rule, rather muddy.
Elongated tall body with an unusually long anal fin that stretches from head to tail. The main feature is a transparent body through which the spine and the ribs are easily visible. On the head near the mouth are two long antennae.
The maintenance of aquarium fish involves proper and systematic care for them. It can include feeding, maintaining the necessary water temperature, as well as other conditions necessary for the fish for their livelihoods in the aquarium. Failure to comply with certain conditions of detention may cause illness and death of your pets.
The content of the glass catfish is quite simple, however, and it can periodically cause various types of diseases. If you have different aquarium fish, glass catfish will not disturb them. But if a catfish has a disease, it should be deposited in a quarantine habitat. Таким местом может послужить небольшой ненужный аквариум или большая банка, в которой будет происходить лечение животного.
стеклянный сом фото
Заболевания стеклянного сома носят, в основном, инфузорный характер. Так, определить заболевание у Вашего стеклянного сома можно по следующим признакам: появление высыпаний и помутнений на прозрачном теле сома, изменение окраса, странное поведение, плохой аппетит, а также прочие отклонения от нормального поведения рыбки.
Diseases of the glass catfish can be cured at home, however, without consulting a specialist, it will be difficult for you to cope with the ailments of your aquarium fish. Therefore, at the first signs of the disease, you should immediately contact a veterinary clinic, where an experienced specialist will help you find ways to treat your catfish.
With the appearance of infusorial diseases, treatment occurs through the use of drugs that can be bought not only in a specialized pet store, but also in a regular pharmacy. So, it is possible to cure catfish by the following means: Metrogyl or Metronidazole (solution for intravenous administration, 5 mg / ml, is poured into the aquarium after changing water in the proportion of 100 ml per 100 l), and Lincomycin (solution for intravenous administration 300, dosage 1 ampoule per 100 liters).
All drugs should be taken only as directed by the veterinarian and in the doses prescribed by him - otherwise the treatment of your glass catfish may lead to undesirable results.
Brocade catfish: maintenance and care
The brocade glyptopericht — the brocade catfish in a different way — belongs to the aquarium family of chainmail catfish. Natural habitat - the rivers of South America, in particular, the Amazon River. There he lives up to 15 years, reaching a length of 50 cm.
In the aquarium, the brocade catfish often serves as a cleaner, removing:
- all kinds of growths on the walls of the tank, ornamental plants, and other decorative elements in the reservoir,
- waste products of inhabitants of a home reservoir.
In captivity, catfish grow to 40 cm and can live for 10 years. Aquarists love brocade glyptoperichts for their attractive appearance, calm temper and ability to get along well with other varieties of aquarium pets.
External features of the fish
The brocade catfish has a characteristic light brown body slightly flattened from above. On the skin and fins mosaic spots of saturated brown color are located. The fins are large in size, with the dorsal having the shape of a sail, which makes the fish attractive.
The mouth opening of the catfish is equipped with highly developed suction cups with which it is attached to the surface of the aquarium glass. It is impossible to forcibly tear a fish without causing damage to its health.
The mustache of the brocade glyptopericht is peculiar - thickened at the base and trimmed with a skin fold. Males are usually much larger than females, more beautiful and more dangerous - their front fins are equipped with spikes, which they use in a fight with a rival.
We equip an aquarium, taking into account the way of life of a catfish
Glyptopericht brocade has a peaceful disposition. He spends most of his time in the aquarium in the bottom area, hiding in the shade of the pond plants, behind the cots, stones, and other decorative elements, plunges into the sand, and pebbles.
The way of life of the fish dictates the creation of certain conditions for its comfortable stay in the aquarium:
- the bottom of the reservoir should be filled with small pebbles,
- here it is necessary to place several larger elements - trimming plastic pipes, snags, decorative grottoes, etc., where the catfish can hide,
- to decorate the pond with living and artificial plants.
When planting plants in a pond, it should be borne in mind that catfish like to break them in while digging in the bottom soil. Therefore, basal soil should be strengthened with larger stones.
Coming from warm rivers, catfish brocade heat-loving and feels comfortable in the water with a temperature of 27-30 ° C. For fish of delicate sizes you need a spacious aquarium - at least 100 liters. The water in it should be updated daily to one-third, filtered and aerated continuously. If you do not perform these simple activities, then the pets, because of the metabolic products accumulated in the water, thin the skin of the fins to form holes in it.
The activity in the behavior of these fish is manifested to a greater extent in the twilight and nighttime, while in the daytime they are in their shelters. A favorite option of the latter for them are the natural driftwood of deciduous trees and stones.
It is optimal to make brocade catfish with smaller fish, which they do not position as competitors. But with larger types of catfish can fight for the possession of the territory. It is also not recommended to place two male catfish in one aquarium for the same reasons.
Properly organize the brocade pet diet
When forming the menu for catfish, one should proceed from the considerations of optimizing their nutrition. This means that along with vegetable food (dandelion, lettuce, green peas, nettle and other ingredients that form the basis of the ration of fish), the menu should also include live food that is familiar to them, such as bloodworm, strawberry, shrimp in a shredded version. Moreover, the presence of animal protein in catfish nutrition stimulates their growth.
Being in a tank of natural origin of the cages does not only make the aquarium habitat more familiar and comfortable for the fish, but also contributes to the normalization of their nutrition, since the gnawing of the stems contributes to a better digestion of the pet.
When organizing food for brocade catfish, it is important to keep in mind that more agile and sly neighbors of catfish in the aquarium can absorb all the food. Uncontrolled feeding in such a case will lead to starvation of catfish, and they will damage the vegetation in the home pond and fight for food with other representatives of the underwater world.
There is an option to rectify the situation, giving in addition to catfish food at night. In a well-fed catfish, the belly is round, and the fish itself is calm and peaceful.
The brocade glyptopericht is a true decoration of the home water reservoir. He fascinates with his extraordinary beauty and grace, forcing him to watch him for a long time. His peacefulness and cleanliness, sociability and usefulness for the home pond, endurance and unpretentiousness reasonably make catfish a favorite of his owner.
Video, which describes the appearance of brocade catfish, as well as raised the question of its content:
Aquarium sticky or catfish cleaners
Soma - suckers due to its exotic appearance and simplicity of the content are quite popular among aquarists. These catfish belong to the kolchuzhny (lorikariev) family and are capable of reaching a very impressive value even if they are kept in captivity. But at the same time these bright and unusual fish for other inhabitants of the aquarium do not represent any serious danger.
It's all about the special structure of their mouth, which nature has ideally adapted to scrape algae from leaves of aquatic plants or stones, and in aquariums - glasses and a variety of decorative elements. To say that catfish are vegetarians is hardly possible. Sticks when kept in an aquarium will not give up on animal food.
Features som - suckers
These fish, despite the large number of common features in the structure of the body, can vary considerably in size. The maximum length of some species is only a few centimeters, and the size of the others can exceed half a meter.
Mouth sticking has a special structure. In essence, the mouth of the fish of this family is a sucker, equipped with a kind of "grater", which allows scraping from various surfaces of the algae. In this case, the head is quite large, and the muscles of the jaws are very well developed. Each catfish of this family has very dense scales on its body, which makes up the so-called “chainmail”. Not without reason, the second name of the family is mail somiki. As an additional defense against aggression, quite large spines developed on many kolchuzhnyh on gills.
Somiks of this group are distinguished by a flattened body, a streamlined shape with a back. Fish have a flat belly and very well developed pectoral fins. They allow Loricarids to move quickly in rivers, even with a very fast current. At the same time, aquarium catfish of most species do not need to imitate a strong flow, which greatly simplifies the task of creating a comfortable habitat for them. It can be said that catfish using powerful pectoral fins are able to plan in powerful streams of water. The tail and dorsal fins are mainly used when moving directly along the bottom of the reservoir. It should be noted that aquarium fish, in the absence of a strong current, use their sufficiently powerful tail to move in the water column.
Aquarium mail catfish, as well as representatives of other families of catfish, lead a bottom life. The presence of a sufficient number of aquatic plants, suitable soil type, snags and other varied shelters are necessary for these fish for a comfortable life and well-being. These catfish tend to lead a night or twilight lifestyle. Almost all of them prefer clean water with sufficient filtration and aeration. It is difficult to talk more specifically about the conditions of keeping these soms in captivity, because each species has its own characteristics and preferences. The most common in captivity are catfish of this family: antsistrus, ototsinklyus, glyptopericht, sturisome.
Ancistrus homeland - the central and northern parts of the South American continent. Its content is not very difficult even for beginning aquarists. At the same time, the catfish has a very unusual appearance. In addition to simple antsistrus, aquarists are interested in star and black (dark) antsistrus. There are albino and voile forms. Catfish grown in the wild, can reach 15 cm in length. Aquarium specimens are noticeably smaller. To keep it you need an aquarium from 80 liters.
Acquiring antsistrusov, it is worth remembering that these fish love clean and quite oxygen-rich water. Flow in the aquarium, too, they like it. However, its absence does not cause discomfort in fish. The optimum water temperature is 22 - 26 ° C. But they painlessly endure a short-term decrease or increase in temperature.
Ancistrus feeds on fouling from almost all surfaces of the aquarium. And so many aquarists contain them as a kind of cleaner. But of course, their diet should also include complete feed for suckling fish. It is possible to diversify their diet and some vegetables and herbs. Lettuce, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber are quite suitable. It is important not to forget to remove the remnants of such food from the water in a timely manner. Otherwise, for ecological balance in an aquarium, this may become too serious an ordeal.
Homeland of otsinklyusov South-Eastern Brazil. It is a rather small fish, not more than 5 cm long. Ototsinklyus live in flocks and fairly undemanding to the conditions of detention. There are about 20 species of these fish. Especially popular with aquarists enjoy: Arnoldi, Affinis, macrospilus, negros, which. Somiks have an elongated body, the color of the back is dark, the abdomen is light. The color of the fins is transparent. Like any other catfish, ozincluses have a mustache.
Look at the otozinclus at work.
These creatures are very peaceful. So it will easily get along with any non-aggressive neighbors. For ottsinklyus fish clean water is very important. Strongly overgrown aquarium - their element. Eating a variety of fouling, they greatly contribute to cleaning the aquarium. For many fans, aquarium ototsinklyus is the best and most safe way for other fish to fight unwanted algae.
Despite the fact that the main feed of otzinclus is water fouling, it is sometimes worth feeding and pampering with the most common vegetables. For example, zucchini and cucumber is quite suitable delicacy for this purpose.
Gliptopericht brocade in the wild is found only in the South American Amazon. This is a fairly large fish that can grow up to 60 cm. Catfish glyptopericht can live for more than 10 years in suitable conditions.
The oral sucker glyptopericht is developed so much that it is extremely difficult for fish to be torn off from a smooth surface and not damaged. Antennae small, slightly thickened at the base, located at the mouth. Males are brighter and more slender. Their pectoral fins are equipped with spikes.
For maintenance of glypto-picht, an aquarium of at least 200 liters is required. Such a decoration as a snag is obligatory - a little old wood, glyptopericht receives cellulose, which it needs so much in certain quantities. It is important not to forget that this catfish requires weekly replacement of up to 50% of the water in the aquarium, since it lives only in clean water.
Look at a couple of glyptoperichts.
The diet of glyptopericht consists of 60% of vegetable feed. The remaining 40% - feed of animal origin. Leads nocturnal, so the feed is better to make the evening. The most balanced feed - special tablets for large bottom fish.
The Panamanian Sturisom is one of the most prominent members of the Loricarije family. This unusual catfish lives in nature in the waters of Colombia and Panama. The body of the fish is low. It is noticeably compressed from top to bottom and stretched in length. The head is equipped with a small process.
This sucker has rather large fins. The fins, like the body of the starisom, have a reddish-yellow hue. Darker brownish strip goes along the whole body. In this case, the belly has a silvery-white color. The male is distinguished by a more intense coloration, and his eyes are much lower in comparison with the female.
These catfish are well adapted to life in captivity, even if individuals from the wild enter the aquarium. But this in recent decades happens infrequently. This catfish successfully spawns in aquarium conditions.
To keep a stupid Panamanian is quite simple. The fish is able to adapt to water of any hardness. Only oxygen saturation is important. Therefore, aeration is a must. Water should be warm enough. From 24 to 30 ° C. Illumination these sticky prefer rather diffused.
Keep sturisome only in a fairly spacious aquarium. It is better if its volume is more than 250 liters, because it adheres can grow up to 20 cm. Catfish actively eats various algal fouling from any surfaces. But since a sturisome needs a lot of food, it’s not worth keeping fish in one volume with it, with which it will compete for food resources. Not only special tableted foods can be included in the sturisom's diet, but also cucumber, zucchini, fresh salad. She does not disdain and animal feed. Artemia, bloodworm, minced seafood or beef will be enjoyed by fish. This catfish in captivity may well live for 8 or more years.
Platidoras striped catfish: content, compatibility, photo-video review
Som Platidoras is one of the most popular som-like fish in our aquariums. Striped catfish is very beautiful. Along the entire body are wide black and white stripes. This color is especially clearly seen in young individuals, with age, the bands become less noticeable. In nature, these catfish reach up to 20 centimeters in length, and in the aquarium up to 16 centimeters.
The behavior of platydoras catfish is curious, but it is worth noting that they prefer nightlife, if the environment becomes comfortable, then catfish can actively explore the aquarium during the day.
Catfish are peaceful and hardy. Platiodras fits perfectly into a common - multi-species aquarium. Soma belongs to the family of Bronyakovs (Doradidae). The name of the family reflects the essence of this catfish - they have strong skin, a well-developed occipital shield in the front part of the dorsal fin, and bony growths along the lateral line, forming prickly bone shields.
A very interesting fact about this catfish is that he “can sing” them and call them “singing soma”. This is due to the ability of Platydoras and other catfish of the Doradidae family to make sounds. Strumming sounds are produced due to friction of the pectoral fins on grooves in the shoulder joints, and sounds similar to crackling are produced by an elastic spring mechanism that triggers the vibration of the swim bladder. Of the Bronyakov family, the soma Acanthodoras spinosissimus and Acanthodoras cataphrectus are also singing.
Striped Placidoras tolerates harsh environmental conditions. Despite the fact that individuals of this species are predominantly nocturnal, they often swim out of their shelter in order to explore all corners of their aquarium during the day. They love to dig in the soft river bottom, so be prepared to give them a corner with good sand and gravel. Platidoras prefer gloomy lighting, so the water surface of the aquarium can be “covered” with floating plants (pistia, duckweed) or you can buy a special lamp for som-like fish. The aquarium is also equipped with a variety of shelters - voids in snags, clay pots or plastic tubes of various sizes. Plants and Platydoras are completely compatible, but the presence of plants is optional. Catfish get along well with average-sized non-predatory neighbors. You should not add too small fish to the catfish, they can become a snack for him.
The body has a cylindrical swept shape with a flat belly. Females are larger than males, especially when viewed from above. As mentioned earlier, in the wild, catfish reach 20 cm in length, and sometimes there are also 24 cm individuals. В аквариуме средняя длина взрослых рыб составляет 15,5 см. Средняя продолжительность жизни платидораса 20 лет. Окраска их тела может быть как тёмно-коричневой, так и чёрной, с хорошо заметными белыми горизонтальными полосами, создающими чередование узора. Мордочка, нижняя часть головы и передний край грудных плавников имеют белую окраску. Чем старше рыбка, тем меньше у неё чёткость узора. Голова у сомиков большая, с крупными глазами. Рот широкий, имеются две пары усиков. Они находятся по обе стороны рта, по одному на нижней и на верхней челюсти.On pectoral fins are strong spikes, which the fish is able to straighten hard to the sides, and it can use internal spikes for striking. Spikes are often confused in the net of a net, and they are easily pricked. The external similarity between the striped platydoras and the long-nosed catfish, Orinocodoras eigenmanni, often makes it difficult to identify them when selling them. To determine the type, it is enough to look at the muzzle and the adipose fin. The long-nosed catfish has a much longer muzzle and fin.
Maintenance and care of Platydoras
Water parameters for pH content: 5.8 - 7.5, water temperature: 23.9 - 30.0 ° C. dH 2 -20 °. The minimum amount of aquarium for catfish is 120 liters. Since this freshwater inhabitant is unpretentious to the conditions of detention, it is enough to change 30% of the water every month. Like most catfish of this family, Plateidora prefers medium-hard water saturated with oxygen. Be sure that the aquarium shelters and subdued lighting. Voidings in roots or snags, clay pots, parts of plastic pipes will serve as secluded corners. Platydoras love to dig in the soft river bottom, so good sand or gravel should be in the aquarium. These catfish do not gnaw aquarium plants and eat only small algae. With the arrival of night, the Platydoras get out of their shelters and start digging in search of food. As a consequence, on the plants with small leaves can grow muddy plaque. To observe the activities of the fish at night, you must install the LED backlight in red or moonlight.
Feeding Platydoras. The striped catfish is omnivorous and unpretentious to the stern. In the wild, they feed on shellfish, crustaceans and detritus. These catfish are benthophagous and feed on everything that reaches the bottom. Feed them need daily. Since Platydoras armatulus is nocturnal, the time to turn off aquarium lighting is a good time to feed. But be careful, do not overfeed catfish! There are cases when the fish died from overeating. The diet, mainly, should contain protein foods, as well as the plant component.
Somik with pleasure eat and live moths, earthworms, pipemaker. Since they eat everything that they find at the bottom, frozen food and flakes that have sunk to the bottom will fit in with food.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to the successful maintenance of any fish, be it a guppy or an astronotus. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding fish should not be monotonous, the diet should include both dry food and live food. In addition, one should take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of Tetra, the leader of the Russian market, which is actually amazing. In the "gastronomic arsenal" of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricariids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, to enhance color, fortified or for feeding fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its manufacture and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state - this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Peaceable, gets on with any kind of aquarium fish. They are great for multi-species aquariums and are very friendly to their neighbors of medium and large size. However, small fish will be perceived as food. Due to the strong armor on the body, representatives of this species are settled with large aggressive fish. South American Central American cichlids, large tetras and other haracin, carp, gourami and other anabontis, gambusian and other somas that do not have a heightened sense of territoriality are perfect as neighbors. Keep catfish can be alone or in a group. With group maintenance, individuals will manifest territorial behavior, therefore clashes between members of the group are inevitable, but they will not cause any damage to each other. In consequence, they will even begin to share their shelters with each other. In the wild, Platydoras gather in flocks for protection. See also article "Compatibility of aquarium fish".
Sexual dimorphism and reproduction of plateidoras
If you look at the fish from above, it is noticeable that mature females are thicker than males. In captivity, the striped catfish are bred very rarely. It is a spawning fish, but it is bred for sale by hormonal injections. There are only isolated cases of successful spawning in the aquarium, when the breeders found already swimming fry. In the wild, Platidora females lay their eggs for fertilization in rivers and streams. It is also known that smaller representatives of armored ones are also called nest builders. In the aquarium, they can collect various debris, or find places with leafy litter or pieces of wood and try to hide under them. Then another fish of the same species swallows the "nest", but even this will not be a fact of successful fertilization and subsequent reproduction.
Habitat and history of the striped catfish Plateidoras
Som was described by Valenciennes in 1840. The genus name “Platydoras” in translation from Greek means: platys - smooth, doras - skin. In nature, soma live in South America. They are found in the Amazon Basin in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil, as well as in some other Brazilian river basins, in the Rio Orinoco river basin in Colombia and Venezuela, Rio Essequibo in Guyana, and in the coastal drains of Suriname and French Guiana. For many years, Plateidoras was erroneously called Platydoras costatus, until in 2008 a group of researchers led by Piorsky did not classify. The species Platydoras costatus are individuals with a limited habitat, including a pair of rivers in the eastern part of South America. In turn, the striped catfish Platidoras is distributed throughout South America, inhabits the Amazon and Orinoco river basins, and has been caught for sale for decades. This fish belongs to the catfish "Raphael." There are also two very similar species with a striped color, but living in different places. This is Platydoras costatus and long-nosed plateidoras (Orinocodoras eigenmanni), which has a more elongated face. Another very common type of Raphael is the spotted catfish Agamyxis pectinifrons, which, judging by the name, has a spotty coloration. Platydoras armatulus lives in reservoirs with stagnant water or a weak current. In streams and wetlands, individuals hide among the roots of trees or aquatic vegetation. Somiki feed on shellfish, crustaceans and detritus. They are usually found in areas with soft sand, which are buried in case of danger. The rainy season causes them to migrate to flooded forests, where there is a lot of food. Although these fish are territorial, in nature they gather in flocks for greater security. There is evidence that the young eat the parasites and dead scales on the body of predatory fish. Platidoras fry are bright, striped and very similar to other species of fish-cleaners. Most likely, the striped color is a kind of signal for other fish that not the food approaches them, but the cleaner. The stripes fade with age, and perhaps that is why the desire to clean predators disappears.
Beautiful photos with platydoras
Interesting video about platydoras